Physical-Chemical Treatment of Water and Wastewater

Physical-Chemical Treatment of Water and Wastewater

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The books currently available on this subject contain some elements of physical-chemical treatment of water and wastewater but fall short of giving comprehensive and authoritative coverage. They contain some equations that are not substantiated, offering empirical data based on assumptions that are therefore difficult to comprehend. This text brings together the information previously scattered in several books and adds the knowledge from the author's lectures on wastewater engineering. Physical-Chemical Treatment of Water and Wastewater is not only descriptive but is also analytical in nature. The work covers the physical unit operations and unit processes utilized in the treatment of water and wastewater. Its organization is designed to match the major processes and its approach is mathematical. The authors stress the description and derivation of processes and process parameters in mathematical terms, which can then be generalized into diverse empirical situations. Each chapter includes design equations, definitions of symbols, a glossary of terms, and worked examples. One author is an environmental engineer and a professor for over 12 years and the other has been in the practice of environmental engineering for more than 20 years. They offer a sound analytical mathematical foundation and description of processes. Physical-Chemical Treatment of Water and Wastewater fills a niche as the only dedicated textbook in the area of physical and chemical methods, providing an analytical approach applicable to a range of empirical situationsshow more

Product details

  • Hardback | 856 pages
  • 157.5 x 245.9 x 46.2mm | 1,315.43g
  • Taylor & Francis Ltd
  • Lewis Publishers,U.S.
  • London, United Kingdom
  • English
  • 137 black & white illustrations, 87 black & white tables, 25 black & white halftones
  • 1587161249
  • 9781587161247

Table of contents

BACKGROUND PREREQUISITES Introduction Wastewater Physical-Chemical Treatment of Water and Wastewater Unit Operations and Unit Processes Coverage Clean Water Act Safe Drinking Water Act Relationship of This Book to the Acts Glossary Background Chemistry and Fluid Mechanics Units Used in Calculation General Chemistry Fluid Mechanics Glossary Problems Bibliography PART I: CHARACTERISTICS OF WATER AND WASTEWATER QUANTITY OF WATER AND WASTEWATER Probability Distribution Analysis Quantity of Water Types of Wastewater Sources and Quantities of Wastewater Population Projection Derivation of Design Flows of Wastewaters Deriving Design Flows of Wastewaters from Field Survey CONSTITUENTS OF WATER AND WASTEWATER Physical and Chemical Characteristics Normal Constituents of Domestic Wastewater Microbiological Characteristics PART II: UNIT OPERATIONS OF WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT FLOW MEASUREMENTS AND FLOW AND QUALITY EQUALIZATIONS Flow Meters Miscellaneous Flow Meters Liquid Level Indicators Flow and Quality Equalizations PUMPING Pumping Stations and Types of Pumps Pumping Station Heads Pump Characteristics and Best Operating Efficiency Pump Scaling Laws Pump Specific Speed Net Positive Suction Head and Deep-Well Pumps Pumping Station Head Analysis SCREENING, SETTLING, AND FLOTATION Screening Settling Flotation MIXING AND FLOCCULATION Rotational Mixers Criteria for Effective Mixing Pneumatic Mixers Hydraulic Mixers Flocculators CONVENTIONAL FILTRATION Types of Filters Medium Specification for Granular Filters Linear Momentum Equation Applied to Filters Head Losses in Grain Filters Backwashing Head Loss in Granular Filters Cake Filtration ADVANCED FILTRATION AND CARBON ADSORPTION Electrodialysis Membranes Pressure Membranes Carbon Adsorption AERATION, ABSORPTION, AND STRIPPING Mass Transfer Units Interface for Mass Transfer, and Gas and Liquid Boundary Layers Mathematics of Mass Transfer Dimensions of the Overall Mass Transfer Coefficients Mechanics of Aeration Absorption and Stripping PART III: UNIT PROCESSES OF WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT WATER SOFTENING Hard Waters Types of Hardness Plant Types for Hardness Removal The Equivalent CaCO(3) Concentration Softening of Calcium Hardness Softening of Magnesium Hardness Lime-Soda Process Order of Removal Role of CO(2) in Removal Excess Lime Treatment and Optimum Operational pH Summary of Chemical Requirements and Solids Produced Sludge Volume Production Chemical Species in the Treated Water Relationships of the Fractional Removals Notes on Equivalent Masses Typical Design Parameters and Criteria Split Treatment Use of Alkalinity in Water Softening Calculations WATER STABILIZATION Carbonate Equilibria Criteria for Water Stability at Normal Conditions Recarbonation of Softened Water COAGULATION Colloid Behavior Zeta Potential Colloid Destabilization Coagulation Process Chemical Reactions of Alum Chemical Reactions of the Ferrous Ion Chemical Reactions of the Ferric Ion Jar Tests for Optimum pH Determination Chemical Requirements Chemical Requirements for pH Adjustments Alkalinity and Acidity Expressed as CaCO(3) Sludge Production REMOVAL OF IRON AND MANGANESE BY CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION Natural Occurrences of Iron and Manganese Modes of Removal of Iron and Manganese Chemical Reactions of the Ferrous and the Ferric Ions Chemical Reactions of the Manganous Ion [Mn(II)] Oxidation of Iron and Manganese Unit Operations for Iron and Manganese Removal Chemical Requirements Alkalinity Expressed in OH(-) and Acidity Expressed in H(+) Chemical Requirements for pH Adjustments Sludge Production REMOVAL OF PHOSPHORUS BY CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION Natural Occurrence of Phosphorus Modes of Phosphorus Removal Chemical Reaction of the Phosphate Ion with Alum Chemical Reaction of the Phosphate Ion with Lime Chemical Reaction of the Phosphate Ion with the Ferric Salts Comments on the Optimum pH Ranges Effect of the K(sp)'s on the Precipitation of Phosphorus Unit Operations for Phosphorus Removal Chemical Requirements Sludge Production REMOVAL OF NITROGEN BY NITRIFICATION-DENITRIFICATION Natural Occurrence of Nitrogen To Remove or Not to Remove Nitrogen Microbial Thermodynamics Oxidation-Reduction Reactions of Nitrogen Foods Modes of Nitrogen Removal Chemical Reactions in Nitrogen Removal Total Effluent Nitrogen Carbon Requirements for Denitrification Alkalinity Production and Associated Carbon Requirement Reaction Kinetics ION EXCHANGE Ion Exchange Reactions Unit Operations of Ion Exchange Sodium, Hydrogen Cycle, and Regeneration Production of "Pure Water" Active or Exchange Zone Design of Ion Exchangers Head Losses in Ion Exchangers DISINFECTION Methods of Disinfection and Disinfectant Agents Used Factors Affecting Disinfection Other Disinfection Formulas Chlorine Disinfectants Dechlorination Disinfection Using Ozone Disinfection Using Ultraviolet Light APPENDICES INDEX Each chapter contains: Glossary, Symbols, Problems and Bibliographyshow more