Introduction: Pedagogics, Science and Metatheory.- Lack of Agreement on the Scientific Character of Pedagogics Critique of the Present State of Pedagogics 2; Doubts about the Possibility of a Scientific Pedagogics 3; Scientific and Practical Theories of Education 4; Pedagogics as a Mixed Normative-Descriptive Discipline 5; Pedagogics as a Philosophical Discipline 5; Gradual Transition to Ideological Pedagogics 6, Pedagogics as a Pure Empirical Science 7; Numerous Schools of Thought 8; Reasons for the Lack of Agreement 9.- The Origins of Pedagogics in Practical Theories of Education Education as an Art 11; Educational Theories as Prescriptions for the Art of Educating 12; Informing and Inspiring Educators 13; Dominance of the Normative Standpoint 14; Elements of Traditional Pedagogics 14; Dissatisfaction and Critique 15; The Modern Concept of Science as a Standard for Pedagogics 16.- The Dependency of Pedagogics on Value Judgements, Norms and Weltanschauung The Indispensability of a Philosophy of Life in Practical Theories of Education 18; The Misinterpretation of Practical Theory as Scientific Theory 19; Ideology and Pedagogics 20; Ideology and Empirical Theory 22.- Reasons for Distinguishing between Types of Pedagogical Knowledge. The Deficiencies of Mixed Pedagogics 23; Division of Labor and Specialization 24; Three Classes of Educational Theories. Educational Science, Philosophy of Education, Practical Pedagogics 24; Terminological Problems 26; Practical Importance of Agreement on Usage 26; Differentiation of Pedagogical Statement Systems rather than the Classification of Educationists 27; Truth and Social Utility of Statement Systems 28.- Concepts of Science and Methodological Rules as Stipulations Science as a System of Statements and as an Activity 28; The Ideal of Science 29; Basic Epistemological Positions 29; Knowledge as the Goal of Scientific Activity 30; The Epistemology of Analytic Philosophy 31.- The Tasks of a Metatheory of Education The Concept of Metatheory 33; Analysis, Critique and Standardization of Educational Theories 33; Relationships among Education, Educational Theories and Metatheory of Education 35.- I. Science of Education.- The Concept of Education Social Action 38; Psychic Dispositions 39; Purposes, Aims and Ideals 40; Definition of the Concept of Education 40.- The Variety of Educational Phenomena Different Aims of Education 43; Differences among Educands 45; Differences Among Educators 46; Different Situations 46; Different Forms of Education 47.- The Subject Matter of Science of Education. Education as Fact 48; Educational Situations, Educational Fields 49; Principal Topics 49; Material Object and Formal Object 49; Formulation of Questions 50; Description and Explanation of Psychic Objectivations 51; Ends-Means Relationships 53; Educational Science as a Teleological Causal-Analytic Science 53; Different Names for the Same Problems 57.- Science of Education as an Empirical Social Science Difficulties in Classifying Sciences 58; Human Sciences 59; Behavioral Sciences 60; Sciences of Actions 61; Cultural Sciences 61; Social Sciences 63; Relationships to Psychology and Sociology 63; Practical Grounds for an Autonomous Science of Education 63.- Demarcating Science of Education from the Pseudo-Science of Ideological Pedagogics. Confessional Pedagogics 65; Political Pedagogics 66; Marxist Pedagogics 66; "Critical" Social Science 67; "Critical" or "Emancipatory Pedagogics" 67; Misuse of Science for Propaganda Purposes 68; Value-Neutrality as a Distinguishing Feature 69.- Requirements for the Language of Science of Education Descriptive, Prescriptive and Emotive Use of Language 70; Clarity 72; Ambiguity and Vagueness 72; Concepts and Their Clarification 73; Normative and Emotive Connotations 75; "Socialization" as an Example 76; Theoretical Concepts 77; Hypothetical Constructs 78; Informational Content 78; Comprehensibility 79; Objective Language and Meta-Language 82.- The Meaning and Limits of the Requirement of Value-Neutrality Educating and Valuating 82; Value Experience, Valuating, Value Bearer 83; Value 83; Value Judgements 83; Norms 85; Valuative Basis of Science 86; Moral Problems in Disseminating and Applying Scientific Knowledge 88; Valuations and Norms as Subjects or Educational Science 88; Explanation of the Norm of Value-Neutrality 89.- Questions about Particulars and Questions about the Universal in the Past and the Present Individual Phenomena and Nomothetical Knowledge 93; Historiography of Education 95; Nomothetical or Theoretical Educational Science 96.- Ia. The Nomothetical Field of Study in Science of Education.- Problems and Hypotheses as Points of Departure Observation and Prior Knowledge 101; Descriptive Pedagogics 102; Critique of Naive Empiricism 102.- Scientific Theories as the Goal of Research Meanings of the Word "Theory" 103; The Concept of Justification 104; The Call for Intersubjective Testability 104; Nomological Statements 106; Nomological Statements of a Lower and Higher Order 111; Theory as a System of Nomological Statements 111.- On the Difference between Producing and Justifying Scientific Statement Systems Tolerance in the Context of Discovery 113; Rigorousness in the Context of Justification 114; Meaning and the Limits of "Sympathetic Understanding" (Verstehen) 114.- Testing, Justifying and Rejecting Hypotheses and Theories Logical and Empirical Testing Procedures 116; The Problem of Induction 117; Falsification 119; Reasonable Rejection 120; Confirmation 120; Theory and Experience 121.- Laws and Theories in the Social Sciences The Lack of Universal Nomological Statements 123; Subject-Matter-Related Differences between the Natural and Social Sciences 124; Inaccessibility of others' Consciousness and the Necessity of Interpreting 124; Complexity 125; Uniqueness and Changeability 125; Complex Totalities of Experience instead of Elements 126; Possibility and Indispensability of Nomological Knowledge 126.- The Construction and Application of Theories in Science of Education The Interest of Educators in Problems of Application 127; Primary Importance of Theory Construction 128.- The Role of the Determination of Facts in Constructing Theories of Educational Science Description 129; Exploratory Field Studies 130; Case Studies 131; Experimentation 132; "ex post facto" Studies 133; Hypothesis-Testing Field Studies 133; Multivariate Studies and their Limitations 134; Incompleteness and Openness of Educational Science Theories 135.- The Application of Theories in Explanation The Model of Scientific Explanation 137; Deductive-Nomological Explanation 138; Inductive-Statistical Explanation 138; Incompleteness of Explanations 139; Partial Explanation 140; Explanatory Outlines 140.- The Application of Theories in Prediction Similarities in the Structure of Explanation and Prediction 142; Differences 142; Uncertainty in Particular Cases 143.- The Application of Theories in Solving Technological Problems of Education On the Logic of Technology 144; Ends and Value Judgements 145; Relationships between Nomothetical Hypotheses and Technological Statements 146; Difficulties of a Theoretically Based Technology of Education 147.- Ib. Historiography of Education.- Various Terms for the Historical Subdiscipline of Educational Science Historiography of Education and Pedagogics 150.- Differing Views on the Tasks of Historiography of Education Increasing Factual Knowledge 151; Finding, Justifying and Supporting Norms 152; Technical Norms for Education 152; Ideological and Moral Norms 152; Normative Tasks of Historiography of Education in Pedagogics as a "Historico-Systematic" Discipline 153; in Hermeneutical Pedagogics 154; in Marxist-Leninist Pedagogics 156; in Neo-Marxist Pedagogics 156.- The Epistemology of Historiography Questions about Changes Taking Place in the Course of Time 159; Methodological Difficulties 159; Research Methods 160; Sympathetic Understanding (Verstehen) and Value-Neutrality 160.- Subject Matter of an Historiography of Education History of Education and History of Pedagogical Thought 162; The Special Role of the History of Educational Science 163; Multiplicity and Interdependence of Past Educational Phenomena 163; Danger of Expanding into Historical Socialization Research 164; Action-Concept of Education as a Guideline 164; Indirect Education 165; Demythifying the Historiography of Schools 165; History of Pedagogical Superstition 165.- II. Philosophy of Education.- Various Concepts of Philosophy Philosophy as a Universal Science, Weltanschauung, Wisdom and Epistemology 168; Scienticity as a Distinguishing Feature? 169; Analytic or Epistemological Philosophy 171; World-view or Metaphysical Philosophy 171; Normative Philosophy 173.- Views on the Philosophy of Education Rational-Empirical Statement System with Insignificant Normative Additions 173; Pansophic Philosophy of Education 175; Practical Pedagogics under the Guise of Philosophy 175; Historiography of Ideas 176; Interpretation of Philosophical Texts from a Pedagogical Perspective 176; Analytic-Epistemological Philosophy of Pedagogical Statement Systems 176; Ideological Philosophy of Education 177; Normative Philosophy of Education 178.- Normative Shortcomings of Traditional Normative-Descriptive Pedagogics Lack of Concrete Normative Content 183; Educational Aims Inadequately Justified and Lacking in Content 183; Inadequate Moral Norms for Educational Action 185; Inappropriate Abstention from Evaluative Acts 186.- Valuations and Norms as an Empirical, Normative and Epistemological Problem Valuation Phenomena and Norms as Psychic and Social Facts 187; Giving Meaning, Valuating and Setting Norms 189; Epistemological Critique of Value Judgements, Norms and their Justification 190.- The Tasks and Problems of a Normative Philosophy of Education Decline of Institutionalized Normative Aids to Orientation for Educators 191; Perplexity, Fear of Valuating, Dependency on Fashions 192; Setting Norms through Rationally Grounded Decisions 193; Classification According to Educational Ends and Means 194.- The Normative Philosophy of Educational Aims and its Metatheory Selecting and Setting Educational Aims 195; Norm Content and Interpretation 196; Epistemological Views Concerning Norms 196; Types of Norm Justifications 198; Logical Justification 199; Fallacious Deductions from Is to Ought 200; Illusions about Deriving Substantively Rich from Substantively Poor Educational Aims 200; Formal or "Procedural" Legitimation 201; Material-Evaluative Justification 202.- Normative Ethics for Educators and the Normative Philosophy of Teaching Content and Educational Organization Theory of Virtues for Educators 203; Theory of Duties for Educators 204; Normative Philosophy of Teaching Content 206; Normative Philosophy of Educational Organization 206.- III. Practical Pedagogics.- Practical Pedagogics and Science of Education Indispensability of Practical Pedagogics 209; Relationships to Educational Science According to WILLMANN 209; According to DURKHEIM 210; According to LOCHNER 212; Dependency of Practical Pedagogics on Weltanschauung 214.- The Demarcation and Designation of Practical Pedagogics Definition of Practical Pedagogics 215; Its Demarcation from the Normative Philosophy of Education 216; "Normative Pedagogics" 217; "Applied Pedagogics" 217; "Practical Pedagogics" 217; "Pragmatic Pedagogics" 218; "Praxiological Pedagogics" 218.- Hermeneutical Pedagogics as Practical Pedagogics DILTHEY 219; LITT 220; WILHELM FLITNER 222; Socially-Critical Pedagogics 223.- The Elements of Practical Pedagogics The Situation-Analytical Element 224; The Teleological Element 225; The Methodical Element 227; The Ethical-Motivational Element 229.- Objections to Practical Pedagogics From the Standpoint of a Different Concept of Science 231; The Inadequate Norm-Critique Argument 234; Refutation 234; Norm-Critical Consciousness as Highest Good? 235; Reminder and Justification 236; From the Standpoint of Analytic Philosophy and its Concept of Science 237; Limitations of Educational Technology 237.- Basic Requirements for Practical Pedagogics. The Ideal of a "Practical Canon" 239; Seven Minimal Requirements 239.- Conclusion: On the Variety and Unity of Pedagogical Knowledge.- Name Index.