Optimal Routing Design

Optimal Routing Design

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Techniques for optimizing large-scale IP routing operation and managing network growth Understand the goals of scalable network design, including tradeoffs between network scaling, convergence speed, and resiliency Learn basic techniques applicable to any network design, including hierarchy, addressing, summarization, and information hiding Examine the deployment and operation of EIGRP, OSPF, and IS-IS protocols on large-scale networks Understand when and how to use a BGP core in a large-scale network and how to use BGP to connect to external networks Apply high availability and fast convergence to achieve 99.999 percent, or "five 9s" network uptime Secure routing systems with the latest routing protocol security best practices Understand the various techniques used for carrying routing information through a VPNOptimal Routing Design provides the tools and techniques, learned through years of experience with network design and deployment, to build a large-scale or scalable IP-routed network. The book takes an easy-to-read approach that is accessible to novice network designers while presenting invaluable, hard-to-find insight that appeals to more advanced-level professionals as well. Written by experts in the design and deployment of routing protocols, Optimal Routing Design leverages the authors' extensive experience with thousands of customer cases and network designs. Boiling down years of experience into best practices for building scalable networks, this book presents valuable information on the most common problems network operators face when seeking to turn best effort IP networks into networks that can support Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)-type availability and reliability. Beginning with an overview of design fundamentals, the authors discuss the tradeoffs between various competing points of network design, the concepts of hierarchical network design, redistribution, and addressing and summarization. This first part provides specific techniques, usable in all routing protocols, to work around real-world problems. The next part of the book details specific information on deploying each interior gateway protocol (IGP)-including EIGRP, OSPF, and IS-IS-in real-world network environments. Part III covers advanced topics in network design, including border gateway protocol (BGP), high-availability, routing protocol security, and virtual private networks (VPN). Appendixes cover the fundamentals of each routing protocol discussed in the book; include a checklist of questions and design goals that provides network engineers with a useful tool when evaluating a network design; and compare routing protocols strengths and weaknesses to help you decide when to choose one protocol over another or when to switch between protocols. "The complexity associated with overlaying voice and video onto an IP network involves thinking through latency, jitter, availability, and recovery issues. This text offers keen insights into the fundamentals of network architecture for these converged environments."-John Cavanaugh, Distinguished Services Engineer, Cisco Systems (R) This book is part of the Networking Technology Series from Cisco Press' which offers networking professionals valuable information for constructing efficient networks, understanding new technologies, and building successful careers.show more

Product details

  • Hardback | 504 pages
  • 182.9 x 233.7 x 35.6mm | 975.23g
  • Pearson Education (US)
  • Cisco Press
  • Indianapolis, United States
  • English
  • 1587051877
  • 9781587051876
  • 1,605,426

Table of contents

ContentsForewordIntroductionPart I Network Design OverviewChapter 1 Network Design Goals and TechniquesGoals for Network DesignReliabilityPacket Delivery ReliabilityPacket Delivery TimesDelay and Jitter BudgetsThe Impact of Network Design on Delay and Jitter BudgetsReliability and ResiliencyDefining Network FailureNetwork Recovery TimeManageabilityDay-to-Day Operational MaintenanceTaking a Network BaselineNetwork DocumentationEmergency ManagementScalabilityRedundancyHow Redundancy Increases ResiliencyStatistical AnalysisHow Redundancy Can Increase Management ComplexityHow Redundancy Can Reduce ScalabilityLayeringHiding InformationHiding Topology InformationHiding Reachability InformationSeparate FunctionalitySummaryReview QuestionsChapter 2 Applying the FundamentalsHierarchical DesignAbstraction Through LayeringHorizontal Layers in a NetworkLayer FunctionsForwarding TrafficAggregation of Routing InformationDefinition and Implementation of Routing PoliciesUser AttachmentControlling Traffic Admittance into the NetworkNetwork HierarchiesTwo-Layer HierarchyThree-Layer HierarchyDetermining How Many Layers to Use in Network DesignHiding Layers Within LayersCreating LayersCreating Choke PointsSeparating Complexity from ComplexityAddressing and SummarizationAssigning Addresses in a NetworkWorking Around AddressingLeaking More SpecificsSmaller Summary BlocksChange the Logical LayoutSummary IssuesSummarization Black HolesSummary Suboptimal RoutingSummary MetricsRedistributionAlternatives to IGP to IGP RedistributionSingle Point of RedistributionMultiple Points of RedistributionFiltersTagsReview QuestionsPart II Interior Gateway ProtocolsChapter 3 EIGRP Network DesignDeploying EIGRP on a Large-Scale Three-Layer Hierarchical NetworkAnalyzing the Network Core for SummarizationSummarizing from the Core to the Distribution LayerSummarizing into the Core at Its EdgeAnalyzing the Network Distribution Layer for SummarizationSummarizing Toward the Network CoreSummarizing Toward the Remote SitesAnalyzing Routing in the Network Access LayerSingle-Homed SitesDual-Homed RemotesAnalyzing Use of the Stub Feature in Access RoutersAnalyzing Routes to External ConnectionsAnalyzing Routes to the Common Services AreaAnalyzing Routes to Dial-In ClientsHost RoutesBandwidth IssuesDeploying EIGRP on a Two-Layer Hierarchical NetworkSummarization in the CoreSummarization in the Aggregation LayerSummary of EIGRP Network DesignNew Features in EIGRPThird-Party Next HopNBMA Hub-and-Spoke NetworkRedistributed Next HopEnhanced Route Map SupportBefore Enhanced Route Map SupportRoute Map EnhancementsEnhanced EIGRP Active ProcessCase Study: Summarization MethodsIP Summary AddressesDistribute ListsCase Study: Controlling Query PropagationCase Study: A Plethora of Topology Table EntriesCase Study: Troubleshooting EIGRP Neighbor RelationshipsEIGRP Neighbor Relationships: Common Problem 1EIGRP Neighbor Relationships: Common Problem 2Case Study: Troubleshooting SIA RoutesCase Study: RedistributionUsing Distribute Lists to Prevent Redistribution Routing LoopsUsing Route Maps to Prevent Redistribution Routing LoopsUsing Prefix Lists to Prevent Redistribution Routing LoopsSetting the Administrative Distance to Troubleshoot Redistribution Routing LoopsUsing External Flags to Prevent Redistribution Routing LoopsCase Study: Retransmissions and SIAThe Hold TimerSIA TimerInteraction Between the Hold Timer and the SIA TimerCase Study: Multiple EIGRP Autonomous SystemsReview QuestionsChapter 4 OSPF Network DesignSummarization and AggregationDeploying OSPF on a Three-Layer HierarchyThe Core Routers as ABRsThe Distribution Layer Routers as ABRsMixing ABR LocationsDeploying OSPF on a Two-Layer HierarchyReducing Flooding Through Stub AreasStub AreasTotally Stubby AreasNot-So-Stubby AreasTotally NSSATotally Stubby Not Really Full AreasWhen to Use Stub AreasAggregating Routes in OSPFFiltering Routes in OSPFDeploying OSPF on Specific TopologiesRedistribution into OSPFExternal Route MetricsExternal Route Selection at ABRsRoute Selection Between ProcessesFull Mesh TopologiesHub-and-Spoke TopologiesTreating the NBMA Interface as a Broadcast InterfaceTreating the NBMA Interface as a Set of Point-to-Point InterfacesTreating an NBMA Interface as a Broadcast Point-to-Multipoint InterfaceTreating an NBMA Interface as a Nonbroadcast Point-to-Multipoint InterfaceSummary of Interface and OSPF Link-Type OptionsReducing Flooding to the SpokesLinks Parallel to Area BoundariesDial LinksPoint-to-point Broadcast LinksCase Study: OSPF Externals and the Next HopCase Study: Troubleshooting OSPF Neighbor AdjacenciesReview QuestionsChapter 5 IS-IS Network DesignDeploying IS-IS on a Three-Layer HierarchyThe Entire Network as a Single Routing DomainThe Core as the L2 DomainMerging the Core and Distribution Layers into Level 2Mixing and Overlapping the Level 1/Level 2 BorderDeploying IS-IS on a Two-Layer HierarchyWorking with IS-IS Routing AreasLeaking Routes into an L1 Routing DomainAggregating Routes in IS-ISDeploying IS-IS on Specific TopologiesRedistributionFull Mesh TopologiesHub-and-Spoke TopologiesPoint-to-Point LinksBroadcast InterfacesPoint-to-Point Broadcast LinksLinks Parallel to Area BoundariesOther Considerations in IS-IS ScalingMetricsExcessive Link-State FloodingLSP CorruptionMaximum Number of PseudonodesPrefix-Driven Routing Table InstallationHello Padding SuppressionCase Study: Troubleshooting IS-IS Neighbor RelationshipsReview QuestionsPart II Advanced Network DesignChapter 6 BGP Cores and Network ScalabilityCase Study: Troubleshooting BGP Neighbor RelationshipsNo IP ConnectivityeBGP MultihopOther BGP Neighbor ProblemsLogging Neighbor ChangesBGP in the CoreCase Study: Sample MigrationScaling Beyond the CoreDividing the Network into PiecesRegional IGPsBGP Network Growing PainsBGP Update Generation IssuesReducing the Number of Updates GeneratedCase Study: Route Reflectors as Route ServersExternal ConnectionsCase Study: Dual-Homed Connections to the InternetLoad Sharing on the Outbound SideLoad Sharing on the Inbound SideBeing a Transit ASCase Study: Conditional AdvertisementCase Study: Route DampeningReview QuestionsChapter 7 High Availability and Fast ConvergenceConsiderations in Fast ConvergenceNetwork MeltdownsSolving the MeltdownDesigning Routing Protocols Not to MeltDo Not Report Everything You SeeNon-Stop ForwardingGraceful RestartEIGRP Graceful RestartOSPF Graceful RestartIS-IS Graceful RestartBGP Graceful RestartFast Down DetectionDetecting a Link or Adjacency Failure Using PollingBidirectional Forwarding DetectionDetecting a Link or Adjacency Failure Using Event-Driven Link Failure NotificationSONETFrame RelayEthernetSlowing Down When the Network Speeds UpLink-State Exponential BackoffConfiguring OSPF Exponential Backoff for LSA GenerationConfiguring OSPF Exponential Backoff for Running SPFConfiguring IS-IS Exponential BackoffIP Event DampeningConfiguring IP Event DampeningCalculating the Route FasterEIGRP Feasible SuccessorsLink-State Partial SPFLink-State Incremental SPFDeploying GR and Fast Convergence TechnologiesGraceful Restart Versus Fast Down DetectionHow Fast Can GR Work?Balancing Between GR and Fast Down DetectionDeploying Graceful Restart with BGP and an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP)Deploying Exponential Backoff for Fast ConvergenceSetting SPF Exponential Backoff TimersReview QuestionsChapter 8 Routing Protocol SecurityFundamentals of Routing and SecurityUnderstanding What a Routing System IsThoughts on Authorization and AuthenticationDefining Authentication and AuthorizationTransiting Authentication and AuthorizationTransiting Authorization in a Routing SystemTrust and SecurityDetermining the Reasons for an Attack on the Routing SystemTypes of Attacks Against Routing SystemsDisrupting PeeringTransport-Level Attacks Against OSPF and IS-ISTransport-Level Attacks Against EIGRPTransport-Level Attacks Against Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)Protocol-Layer AttacksFalsifying Routing InformationDisrupting Routing Domain StabilityProtecting Routing Domain LegitimacyProtecting Routers from Being CompromisedUse PasswordsFilter Access to RoutersProtecting Against Illegitimate Devices Joining the Routing DomainMD5 AuthenticationIssues with MD5 Peer AuthenticationIPSecProtecting Routers from Denial-of-Service AttacksEdge FiltersThe Generalized TTL Security MechanismProtecting Routing InformationExtranet ConnectionsUse an Exterior Gateway Protocol for All Extranet ConnectionsFilter Routes Aggressively at the Extranet EdgeDampen Prefixes Aggressively at the Extranet EdgeLimiting Route Count at the Extranet EdgeConnections to the InternetRoute FilteringProtecting Against TransitRoute DampeningFuture Directions in Routing Protocol SecurityProtecting Against Illegitimate Devices Joining the Routing DomainSecure Origin BGP (soBGP)Begin at the Beginning: Who Are You?The First Goal: Are You Authorized?The Second Goal: Do You Really Have a Path?Review QuestionsReferencesChapter 9 Virtual Private NetworksMPLSMPLS BasicsOverlay Routing over MPLS VPNsPeer-to-Peer (Redistributed) Routing over MPLS VPNsBGP/MPLS VPNsEIGRPOSPFIPSecGRENHRPCase Study: NHRP in an ATM NetworkDynamic Multipoint IPSec VPNsReview QuestionsReferencesPart II AppendixesAppendix A EIGRP for IP Basics of OperationAppendix B OSPF Basics of OperationAppendix C Integrated IS-IS Basics of OperationAppendix D Border Gateway Protocol 4 Basics of OperationAppendix E IP Network Design ChecklistAppendix F Answers to Review QuestionsAppendix G Which Routing Protocol?Indexshow more

About Russ White

Russ White, CCIE (R) No. 2635, is a member of the Cisco (R) Routing Deployment and Architecture team in RTP NC. He works in all areas of routing protocol design, routed network design, and routed network deployment. Don Slice, CCIE No. 1929, is a development engineer on the Cisco Distance Vector Routing Protocol team, responsible for creating new features and resolving software defects with EIGRP and RIP. Previously, Slice worked on the Cisco Routing Deployment and Architecture and Routing Protocol Escalation teams designing, implementing, and troubleshooting networks running all of the IP routing protocols. Alvaro Retana, CCIE No. 1609, is a technical leader in the IP Routing Deployment and Architecture team at Cisco, where he works directly on advanced features in routing protocols. His current work includes topics such as BGP Security and ad-hoc networking.show more

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