Part I. Fundamental Aspects: 1. Ontology and the lexicon: a multi-disciplinary perspective Laurent Prevot, Chu-Ren Huang, Nicoletta Calzolari, Aldo Gangemi, Alessandro Lenci and Alessandro Oltramari; 2. Formal ontology as interlingua: the SUMO and WordNet linking project and GlobalWordNet Adam Pease and Christiane Fellbaum; 3. Interfacing WordNet with DOLCE: towards OntoWordNet Aldo Gangemi, Nicola Guarino, Claudio Masolo and Alessandro Oltramari; 4. Reasoning over natural language text by means of FrameNet and ontologies Jan Scheffczyk, Collin F. Baker and Srini Narayanan; 5. Synergizing ontologies and the lexicon: a roadmap Alessandro Oltramari, Aldo Gangemi, Chu-Ren Huang, Nicoletta Calzolari, Alessandro Lenci and Laurent Prevot; Part II. Discovery and Representation of Conceptual Systems: 6. Experiments of ontology construction with formal concept analysis SuJian Li, Qin Lu and Wenjie Li; 7. Ontology, lexicon, and fact repository as leveraged to interpret events of change Marjorie McShane, Sergei Nirenburg and Stephen Beale; 8. Hantology: conceptual system discovery based on orthographic convention Ya-Min Chou and Chu-Ren Huang; 9. What's in a schema? A formal metamodel for ECG and FrameNet Aldo Gangemi; Part III. Interfacing Ontologies and Lexical Resources: 10. Interfacing ontologies and lexical resources Laurent Prevot, Stefano Borgo and Alessandro Oltramari; 11. Sinica BOW (Bilingual Ontological WordNet): integration of BilingualWord-Net and SUMO Chu-Ren Huang, Ru-Yng Chang and Hsiang-bin Lee; 12. Ontology-based semantic lexicons: mapping between terms and object descriptions Paul Buitelaar; 13. Merging global and specialized linguistic ontologies Manuela Speranza and Bernardo Magnini; Part IV. Learning and Using Ontological Knowledge: 14. The life cycle of knowledge Alessandro Lenci; 15. The omega ontology Andrew Philpot, Eduard Hovy and Patrick Pantel; 16. Automatic acquisition of lexico-semantic knowledge for question answering Lonneke van der Plas, Gosse Bouma and Jori Mur; 17. Agricultural ontology construction and maintenance in Thai Asanee Kawtrakul and Aurawan Imsombut.