Preface. Opening Speech; I. Pesmazoglou. The University Research System in Greece and its Effect on Science Policy; Ch. Proukakis. The Role of the French Academy of Sciences; M. Grunberg-Manago. Academies in Transition; V.N. Constantinescu. The National Research Centers and their Role on the Technology Transfer and Science Policy of Greece; N. Katsaros. The Role and Place of Research Institutes in Romania. Restructuring Strategies between Tradition and Modernism; F.T. Tanasescu. The Role of the National Academy of Sciences in the Science and Technology System of Armenia; Y.L. Sarkissyan. Research and the Evaluation of its Results in Industry; G. Parissakis. Bulgarian Academy of Sciences - Scientific Potential and Research Priorities; N. Yakmoff, N. Petrova. Realizing the Economic Benefits of Good Science; R.E. Armit. Turkish Academy of Sciences (TUEBA); A.O. Cavdar. For a New Conception and Stronger Role of the Academy of Sciences as a Productive, Competitive and Collaboration Promoting Research Center; P.D. Skende. The Survival Problems of the Academies of Sciences of the Balkan Countries: To Be Or Not to Be? S. Radautsan. Science and International Communication: The Role of Academies of Sciences: Building Bridges; P.J.D. Drenth. Activities of the Canadian Academy of Science and of Recent Innovative Centres in Canada; B.P. Stoicheff. Transition Period Problems of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia; F. Sargsyan. The Academy's Role in Promoting Interdisciplinary Scientific Research; M. Jeeves. The Role of Academies of Sciences in Periods of Transition; H. Sorensen. Inventions as Promoters of Scientific and Technical Progress; I. Bostan, V. Dulgheru. Some Aspects of Reformation of the National Academy ofSciences of Ukraine; S.A. Andronati. Transformation of Research in the Czech Republic: The Role of the Academy of Sciences; V. Paces. A Strategy for Knowledge Diffusion; E. Malitikov. Academies from Plato to Zamolxis; A. Vartic. The Role of the National Academy of Sciences of Armenia in Coordination of Fundamental Research and Scientific Networking; Y. Shoukourian. Science at the Edge of the Twenty First Century: Social Results and Problems; Y. Solodukhin. Subject Index.