New and Old World Philosophy : Introductory Readings
For Introduction to Philosophy and American Philosophy courses.An introductory anthology comparing American Pragmatist philosophy to Old World philosophy, this text explores the core issues of philosophy while examining both the foundations of American Pragmatism and its divergence from Old World thought into an identifiable tradition of its own.
- Paperback | 366 pages
- 177.5 x 233.4 x 18mm | 636.99g
- 29 Aug 2000
- Pearson Education (US)
- Upper Saddle River, NJ, United States
Back cover copy
New and Old World Philosophy shows how the divergent voices of American thought have drawn upon, extended, and challenged the Western European philosophical tradition. Selections from American pragmatists C.S. Peirce, William James, John Dewey, and Jane Addams begin each chapter and are followed by writings of both "Old World" philosophers such as Plato and Descartes and "New World" thinkers such as Anzaldua, Du Bois, Santayana, and Warhol. Featuring short passages from primary sources and concise commentary, the text includes chapters on the nature of philosophy, reality, knowledge, morality, art, religion, and society. Readers are encouraged to join the dialogue and develop as critical thinkers.
Table of contents
(NOTE: Each chapter begins with anIntroduction.)1. PHILOSOPHY. Philosophy Can Learn From the Experimental Sciences and the Sciences Can Learn from Philosophy, Charles Sanders Peirce. Base the Choice of a Theory on its Practical Consequences, William James. Philosophy, Education, and Social Problems are Interconnected, John Dewey. The Developmental Approach of Pragmatism Can Fruitfully Guide Our Understanding of Justice and Technology, Jane Addams. Admit Ignorance, Cross-Examine People, and Dismiss Their False Claims, Socrates. Seek Certainty with a Method of Doubt, Rene Descartes. Morality is a Part of Rationality, Benjamin Franklin. Engage in Liberated Dialogue to End Oppression, Jorge Valadez. Recognize the Rhetoric of Silencing, Stephen L. Carter. Writing Helps Us to Think Critically, Henry David Thoreau. Philosophy Frees Us from Superstition, Lucretius. Philosophy Transforms the Deceived and Drowsy Person into One Who is Knowledgeable and Spiritually Strong, Boethius. Philosophy Clarifies Our Thoughts, Ludwig Wittgenstein. Philosophy Opens Our Minds, Bertrand Russell. Only Philosophy Can Answer Three Basic Questions that Trouble All of Us, Ayn Rand. Apes Might Well Be Self-Conscious, Free Agents and More Like Us Than We Might Think, Raymond Corbey. Three American Philosophers, George Santayana.2. REALITY. Reality is What the Community of Thinkers Agree Upon, Charles Sanders Peirce. Reality is What Truths Have to Take Account Of, William James. Science Doesn't Have the Last or Only Word on What is Real, John Dewey. The Art of Children Offers New Ways of Seeing the World Because Children are Better in Tune with Nature, Jane Addams. Reality is a Realm of Essences, Plato. Reality Consists of Mental and Physical Substances, and the Two Substances are Connected in Us, Rene Descartes. Non-Human Animals are Not Mindless Machines, Morris Berman. We Are All Cyborgs, Donna Haraway. Do Near Death Experiences Confirm the Existence of the Immaterial Soul?, Raymond Moody, Carol Zaleski. The Language of the Hopi Provides a Metaphysics Without Space and Time, Benjamin Whorf. There are Many Ways the World Is, Nelson Goodman. Philosophers and Metaphysicians Can Contribute to Science, Charles Hartshorne. Truth is the System of My Intellectual Limitations, Oliver Wendell Holmes. Doubting and Working, Josiah Royce.3. KNOWLEDGE. Acting is a Part of the Doubting, Thinking and Believing, Charles Sanders Peirce. Consciousness Is a Stream Always Moving On, William James. Knowledge is an Instrument for Enhancing Human Satisfaction, John Dewey. The Value of Knowledge Is in Its Use, Jane Addams. The Source of Knowledge Is the Mind, Rene Descartes. The Source of Knowledge is the Senses, John Locke. The Source of Knowledge is the Senses, David Hume. The Source of Knowledge is the Mind and the Senses, Immanual Kant. Animals Don't Reason But Do Learn From Experience and Custom and are Guided by Instinct, David Hume. To Know is to be Connected With What Is Known, Elizabeth Fee. An Afrocentric/Feminist Standpoint Challenges the Tradition of Positivism, Patricia Hill Collins. The Mind Structures Sensory Input, Ralph Waldo Emerson. Knowledge Involves Justified True Belief with Some Qualifications, Willard Van Orman Quine. Students Must Claim an Education, Adrienne Rich. Public Opinion, George Santayana.4. MORALITY. Look to Science for Advice on Moral Development, Charles Sanders Peirce. Take a Scientific Approach to Ethics to Maximize Human Satisfaction, William James. Abandon Dogmatic Theories of Morality, John Dewey. The Moral Equation is Action Plus its Social Significance, Jane Addams. Act to Further Self-Interest, Ayn Rand. We are Free to Create Our Own Values, Hazel Barnes. Good Christians Don't Have Much Self-Love, Anne Bradstreet. Create the Greatest Good for the Greatest Number, Jeremy Bentham. Happiness is the Ultimate End of Human Conduct, John Stuart Mill. Honor Rationality by Following Universalizable Rules, Immanuel Kant. Begin a Search for Absolute Values with Kantian Openness and Tolerance, Robert Kane. Kantianism is the Highest Stage of Moral Development, Lawrence Kohlberg. Women Approach Morality with an Eye to Caring for Others, Carol Gilligan. Lying is Self-Destructive and Interferes with Loving Relationships, Adrienne Rich. Ethical Correctness is a Function of One's Culture, Ruth Benedict. Ethical Correctness is a Function of One's Feelings, David Hume. There Are No Moral Truths, Ivan Turgenev. The Moral Community Includes the Land and Natural Processes, Aldo Leopold. Native American Values Promote Living in Harmony with Nature, Ed McGaa (Eagle Man). Animals Behave in Moral Ways, Frans de Waal. Fragments on Ethics, George Herbert Mead.5. RELIGION. Love and Instinct Rather than Argument Guide Us in Deciding Whether God Exists, Charles Sanders Peirce. It is Not Irrational to Believe Religious Teachings Which are Unproved, William James. Redefining God as a Union of the Ideal and the Actual Helps to Secure Useful Values, John Dewey. Religious Teachings are Guides for Human Betterment, Jane Addams. We Can Infer God's Existence from Evidence of Design in Nature, William Paley. The Human Eye is the Result of Natural Evolution, Charles Darwin. Arguments Which Attempt to Prove God's Existence from Design and Purpose are Flawed, Clarence Darrow. There is a First Cause of the Universe: God, Saint Thomas Aquinas. The Universe Began with a Big Bang, Stephen W. Hawking. The World is Coming to An End, Jonathan Edwards. Miracles Occur and are Evidence of God's Existence, C.S. Lewis. There are No Reliable Reports of Miracles, David Hume. We Cannot Square the Usual Idea of God with All of the Evil in the World, Mark Twain. The Evil of Human Suffering is Necessary, Josiah Royce. Religion Has Caused People to Do Great Evil, Lucretius. Religion is Humanity's Neurosis, Sigmund Freud. Faith is One Thing and Reason Another, Tertullian. Faith Makes Certain What Reason Finds Uncertain or Absurd, Soren Kierkegaard. I Deny Knowledge (Not Reason) to Make Room for Faith, Immanuel Kant. Wager!, Blaise Pascal. Be Truly Religious by Abandoning Belief in a Personal God and Appreciating the Rational Order of the Universe, Albert Einstein. God is Social; God is Personal, Charles Hartshorne. Non-Human Animals Perhaps Perform Rituals for Their Dead and Worship, Jeffrey Masson and Susan McCarthy. The Native American Has a Personal Relationship with Nature, N. Scott Momaday. Letter to Mr. F.E. Abbot, Chauncey Wright.6. ART. Raphael has a Feminine Mind and Michelangelo a Masculine Mind, Charles Sanders Peirce. Artists Capture Experiences Which Give Life Meaning, William James. Art Should Connect with Human Experience, John Dewey. Art Enlivens Our Thinking, Jane Addams. Keep Artists Out of Society Because They Lead Us Away From Reality and Upset the Psychic Harmony of the Soul, Plato. Plato Helps Us to Understand How Rock Music Interferes with Liberal Education, Allan Bloom. Plato is Wrong-Art Gives Us Knowledge and Provides a Valuable Outlet for Our Emotions, Aristotle. Art is Liberating, George Santayana. Women Should Express Their Bodily and Intellectual Experiences to Create a Women's Art, Lucy Lippard. America is Poetry, Walt Whitman. Aesthetics Cannot Be Separated from Metaphysics, Leslie Marmon Silko. Art and Ritual Cannot Be Separated in Tribal Cultures, Gloria Anzaldua. Art is Junk, Andy Warhol. The Art and Art Galleries of Modern Europe, W.E.B. Du Bois.7. SOCIETY. Logic Requires Us to be Concerned with the Whole Community, Charles Sanders Peirce. End War, Establish Peace, But Preserve the Manly Virtues,William James. Experiment With Forms of Government, John Dewey. A Separation of the Haves from the Have-Nots Preserves Social Ills, Jane Addams. We Should Agree to Establish Government to Secure Peace, Thomas Hobbes. We Should Agree to Pool Our Individual Wills with the General Will, Jean-Jacques Rousseau. History Shows the Implausibility of a Social Contract, David Hume. Consider What Principles People Would Agree to in an Initial Position, John Rawls. Each Generation Makes its Own Government, Thomas Jefferson. The State is a Contract of a Very Special Sort, Edmund Burke. Government Should Not Interfere with Self-Government Unless There is Harm to Other People, John Stuart Mill. Workers of the World Unite!, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Here is How a Marxist Society Works, Edward Bellamy. Create a Society with No Government, Robert Paul Wolff. War is Not Inevitable, Sigmund Freud. Smoke the Peace Pipe to Bring Good Among People, Black Elk. Some Governmental Constraints on Aggressive Behavior are Justifiable, Robert Nozick. The Exercise of Free Choice is Properly Constrained by Morality, Stephen L. Carter. The Asian Conception of Society Does Not Negate Human Rights,Xiaorong Li. Challenge Unjust Laws Through Non-violent Acts of Civil Disobedience, Martin Luther King, Jr. Use Violence in the Fight Against Injustice But Only in Self-Defense, Malcolm X. To Change the World, Speak!, Ayn Rand. Oppressed People Should Seize All Opportunities to Better Themselves, Audre Lorde. The Mind and the Self are Products of Society, George Herbert Mead. Individuals Profit from Society, and Society Profits from Individuals, C.I. Lewis. We May Have Bigger Houses, But Have We Advanced from Our Savage Condition?, Henry David Thoreau. The Right to Vote Belongs to All People, Frederick Douglass. Woman Suffrage, Emma Goldman.
"In an exciting and original way, this introductory anthology sets the ideas of American philosophers over against the thoughts of European writers. Such integration will engage the interests of diverse student."-Peter H. Hare, SUNY Distinguished Service Professor and Co-Editor, Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society"This book traces the pragmatic strain in philosophy, history and literature. It sees pragmatism not as a localized philosophy but as a shape taken in our knowledge, in our morality, in our conception of reality, and in our productive efforts. The book can help shape our thinking and action: indeed we become pragmatic in its best and honorable sense."-Abraham Edel, Research Professor of Philosophy, University of Pennsylvania