New Methods and Astrophysical Applications of Adaptive Mesh Fluid Simulations.
The formation of stars, galaxies and supermassive black holes are among the most interesting unsolved problems in astrophysics. Those problems are highly nonlinear and involve enormous dynamical ranges. Thus numerical simulations with spatial adaptivity are crucial in understanding those processes. In this thesis, we discuss the development and application of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) multi-physics fluid codes to simulate those nonlinear structure formation problems. To simulate the formation of star clusters, we have developed an AMR magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code, coupled with radiative cooling. We have also developed novel algorithms for sink particle creation, accretion, merging and outflows, all of which are coupled with the fluid algorithms using operator splitting. With this code, we have been able to perform the first AMR-MHD simulation of star cluster formation for several dynamical times, including sink particle and protostellar outflow feedbacks. The results demonstrated that protostellar outflows can drive supersonic turbulence in dense clumps and explain the observed slow and inefficient star formation. We also suggest that global collapse rate is the most important factor in controlling massive star accretion rate. In the topics of galaxy formation, we discuss the results of three projects. In the first project, using cosmological AMR hydrodynamics simulations, we found that isolated massive star still forms in cosmic string wakes even though the mega-parsec scale structure has been perturbed significantly by the cosmic strings. In the second project, we calculated the dynamical heating rate in galaxy formation. We found that by balancing our heating rate with the atomic cooling rate, it gives a critical halo mass which agrees with the result of numerical simulations. This demonstrates that the effect of dynamical heating should be put into semi-analytical works in the future. In the third project, using our AMR-MHD code coupled with radiative cooling module, we performed the first MHD simulations of disk galaxy formation. We find that the initial magnetic fields are quickly amplified to Milky-Way strength in a self-regulated way with amplification rate roughly one e-folding per orbit. This suggests that Milky Way strength magnetic field might be common in high redshift disk galaxies. We have also developed AMR relativistic hydrodynamics code to simulate black hole relativistic jets. We discuss the coupling of the AMR framework with various relativistic solvers and conducted extensive algorithmic comparisons. Via various test problems, we emphasize the importance of resolution studies in relativistic flow simulations because extremely high resolution is required especially when shear flows are present in the problem. Then we present the results of 3D simulations of supermassive black hole jets propagation and gamma ray burst jet breakout. Resolution studies of the two 3D jets simulations further highlight the need of high resolutions to calculate accurately relativistic flow problems. Finally, to push forward the kind of simulations described above, we need faster codes with more physics included. We describe an implementation of compressible inviscid fluid solvers with AMR on Graphics Processing Units (GPU) using NVIDIA's CUDA. We show that the class of high resolution shock capturing schemes can be mapped naturally on this architecture. For both uniform and adaptive simulations, we achieve an overall speedup of approximately 10 times faster execution on one Quadro FX 5600 GPU as compared to a single 3 GHz Intel core on the host computer. Our framework can readily be applied to more general systems of...
- Paperback | 220 pages
- 189 x 246 x 12mm | 399g
- 01 Sep 2011
- Proquest, Umi Dissertation Publishing
- Charleston SC, United States