Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators

Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators : Handbook of Receptors and Biological Effects

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This is a complete update of the highly acclaimed handbook with data on all neurotransmitters and the majority of neuromodulators. The coverage is now even more comprehensive, with 15 per cent more entries on neuropeptides, "classic" neurotransmitters and related substances in a clear, alphabetical format. The methodological section has been expanded by 50 per cent and now includes color figures, plus new chapters on genomics, proteomics, databases, microarrays, MALDI-TOF, neutrophins, FGF, endocannabinoids and neuroimaging. The text provides clearly structured information on the biosynthesis and degradation, localization, receptors, signal transduction pathways, and biological effects in the central nervous system, with all substances uniformly treated for an easy comparison of data. Furthermore, introductory chapters on receptors, transporters, and the blood-brain barrier make this an indispensable tool for researchers, teachers, and advanced students, as well as a must-have for every more

Product details

  • Other digital | 402 pages
  • 188 x 246 x 188mm | 886g
  • Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH
  • Weinheim, Germany
  • 2nd
  • 3527609962
  • 9783527609963

Table of contents

Preface for the Second Edition.Preface for the First Edition.1 Introduction.1.1 Neuroactive Substances.1.1.1 Neurotransmitters.1.1.2 Neuromodulators.1.2 Receptors and Transporters.1.2.1 Ionotropic Receptors.1.2.2 Metabotropic Receptors.1.2.3 Receptor Regulation.1.2.4 Transporters.1.3 Distribution and Localization of Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators.1.4 The Blood-Brain Barrier.1.5 Volume Transmission and Wiring Transmission.2 Methods.2.1 Bio- and Radioisotope Assays.2.2 Microdialysis and Electrochemical Detection.2.2.1 Microdialysis.2.2.2 Electrochemical Detection.2.3 Chromatography.2.3.1 Affinity Chromatography.2.3.2 High Performance Liquid Chromatography.2.3.3 Proteomics: Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology.2.4 Autoradiography.2.5 Immunohistochemical Methods.2.6 In situ Hybridization.2.7 Staining and Neuroanatomical Tract Tracing.2.8 Electrophysiology.2.8.1 In vivo Recording.2.8.2 In vitro Recording.2.9 Behavioral Testing.2.9.1 Classic Conditioning.2.9.2 Operant Conditioning.2.9.3 Further Behavioral Tests.3 Neurotransmitters.3.1 Acetylcholine.3.1.1 General Aspects and History.3.1.2 Localization Within the Central Nervous System.3.1.3 Biosynthesis and Degradation.3.1.4 Receptors and Signal Transduction.3.1.5 Biological Effects.3.1.6 Neurological Disorders and Neurogenerative Diseases.3.2 Dopamine.3.2.1 General Aspects and History.3.2.2 Differentiation and Localization of the Dopaminergic System.3.2.3 Biosynthesis and Degradation.3.2.4 Release, Re-uptake and Degradation.3.2.5 Receptors and Signal Transduction.3.2.6 Biological Effects.3.2.7 Neurological Disorders and Neurodegenerative Diseases.3.3 --Amino Butyric Acid.3.3.1 General Aspects and History.3.3.2 Localization Within the Central Nervous System.3.3.3 Biosynthesis and Degradation.3.3.4 GABA Transporters.3.3.5 Receptors and Signal Transduction.3.3.6 Biological Effects.3.3.7 Neurological Disorders and Neurogenerative Diseases.3.4 Glutamate and Aspartate.3.4.1 General Aspects and History.3.4.2 Localization Within the Central Nervous System.3.4.3 Biosynthesis and Degradation.3.4.4 Transporters.3.4.5 Receptors and Signal Transduction.3.4.6 Biological Effects.3.4.7 Neurological Disorders and Neurodegenerative Diseases.3.5 Glycine.3.5.1 General Aspects and History.3.5.2 Localization Within the Central Nervous System.3.5.3 Biosynthesis and Degradation.3.5.4 Receptors and Signal Transduction.3.5.5 Biological Effects.3.5.6 Neurological Disorders and Neurodegenerative Diseases.3.6 Histamine.3.6.1 General Aspects and History.3.6.2 Localization Within the Central Nervous System.3.6.3 Biosynthesis and Degradation.3.6.4 Receptors and Signal Transduction.3.6.5 Biological Effects.3.6.6 Neurological Disorders and Neurodegenerative Diseases.3.7 Norepinephrine.3.7.1 General Aspects and History.3.7.2 Localization Within the Central Nervous System.3.7.3 Biosynthesis and Degradation.3.7.4 Receptors and Signal Transduction.3.7.5 Biological Effects.3.7.6 Neurological Disorders and Neurodegenerative Diseases.3.8 Serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine).3.8.1 General Aspects and History.3.8.2 Localization Within the Central Nervous System.3.8.3 Biosynthesis and Degradation.3.8.4 Receptors and Signal Transduction.3.8.5 Biological Effects.3.8.6 Neurological Disorders and Neurodegenerative Diseases.4 Neuromodulators.4.1 Adrenocorticotropic Hormone.4.1.1 General Aspects and History.4.1.2 Localization Within the Central Nervous System.4.1.3 Biosynthesis and Degradation.4.1.4 Receptors and Signal Transduction.4.1.5 Biological Effects.4.1.6 Neurological Disorders and Neurodegenerative Diseases.4.2 Anandamide (Endocannabinoids).4.2.1 General Aspects and History.4.2.2 Localization Within the Central Nervous System.4.2.3 Biosynthesis and Degradation.4.2.4 Receptors and Signal Transduction.4.2.5 Biological Effects.4.2.6 Neurological Disorders and Neurodegenerative Diseases.4.3 Angiotensin.4.3.1 General Aspects and History.4.3.2 Localization Within the Central Nervous System.4.3.3 Biosynthesis and Degradation.4.3.4 Receptors and Signal Transduction.4.3.5 Biological Effects.4.3.6 Neurological Disorders and Neurodegenerative Diseases.4.4 Atrial Natriuretic Factor.4.4.1 General Aspects and History.4.4.2 Localization Within the Central Nervous System.4.4.3 Biosynthesis and Degradation.4.4.4 Receptors and Signal Transduction.4.4.5 Biological Effects.4.4.6 Neurological Disorders and Neurodegenerative Diseases.4.5 Bombesin and Related Neuropeptides.4.5.1 General Aspects and History.4.5.2 Localization Within the Central Nervous System.4.5.3 Biosynthesis and Degradation.4.5.4 Receptors and Signal Transduction.4.5.5 Biological Effects.4.6 Calcitonin and Calcitonin Gene-related Protein.4.6.1 General Aspects and History.4.6.2 Localization Within the Central Nervous System.4.6.3 Biosynthesis and Degradation.4.6.4 Receptors and Signal Transduction.4.6.5 Biological Effects.4.6.6 Neurological Disorders and Neurodegenerative Diseases.4.7 Cholecystokinin.4.7.1 General Aspects and History.4.7.2 Localization Within the Central Nervous System.4.7.3 Biosynthesis and Degradation.4.7.4 Receptors and Signal Transduction.4.7.5 Biological Effects.4.7.6 Neurological Disorders and Neurodegenerative Diseases.4.8 Corticotropin-releasing Factor.4.8.1 General Aspects and History.4.8.2 Localization Within the Central Nervous System.4.8.3 Biosynthesis and Degradation.4.8.4 Receptors and Signal Transduction.4.8.5 Biological Effects.4.8.6 Neurological Disorders and Neurodegenerative Diseases.4.9 Dynorphin.4.9.1 General Aspects and History.4.9.2 Localization Within the Central Nervous System.4.9.3 Biosynthesis and Degradation.4.9.4 Receptors and Signal Transduction.4.9.5 Biological Effects.4.9.6 Neurological Disorders and Neurodegenerative Diseases.4.10 Eicosanoids and Arachidonic Acid.4.10.1 General and History Aspects.4.10.2 Biosynthesis and Degradation.4.10.3 Receptors and Signal Transduction.4.10.4 Biological Effects.4.10.5 Neurological Disorders and Neurodegenerative Diseases.4.11 Endorphin.4.11.1 General Aspects and History.4.11.2 Localization Within the Central Nervous System.4.11.3 Biosynthesis and Degradation.4.11.4 Biological Effects.4.11.5 Neurological Disorders and Neurodegenerative Diseases.4.12 Enkephalin.4.12.1 General Aspects and History.4.12.2 Localization Within the Central Nervous System.4.12.3 Biosynthesis and Degradation.4.12.4 Receptors and Signal Transduction.4.12.5 Biological Effects.4.12.6 Neurological Disorders and Neurodegenerative Diseases.4.13 Fibroblast Growth Factors.4.13.1 General Aspects and History.4.13.2 Localization Within the Central Nervous System.4.13.3 Biosynthesis and Degradation.4.13.4 Receptors and Signal Transduction.4.13.5 Biological Effects.4.13.6 Neurological Disorders and Neurodegenerative Diseases.4.14 Galanin.4.14.1 General Aspects and History.4.14.2 Localization Within the Central Nervous System.4.14.3 Biosynthesis and Degradation.4.14.4 Receptors and Signal Transduction.4.14.5 Biological Effects.4.14.6 Neurological Disorders and Neurodegenerative Diseases.4.15 Ghrelin.4.15.1 General Aspects and History.4.15.2 Localization Within the Central Nervous System.4.15.3 Biosynthesis and Degradation.4.15.4 Receptors and Signal Transduction.4.15.5 Biological Effects.4.15.6 Neurological Disorders and Neurodegenerative Diseases.4.16 Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone.4.16.1 General Aspects and History.4.16.2 Localization Within the Central Nervous System.4.16.3 Biosynthesis and Degradation.4.16.4 Receptors and Signal Transduction.4.16.5 Biological Effects.4.16.6 Neurological Disorders and Neurodegenerative Diseases.4.17 Growth Hormone-releasing Hormone.4.17.1 General Aspects and History.4.17.2 Localization Within the Central Nervous System.4.17.3 Biosynthesis and Degradation.4.17.4 Receptors and Signal Transduction.4.17.5 Biological Effects.4.17.6 Neurological Disorders and Neurodegenerative Diseases.4.18 Hypocretin (Orexin).4.18.1 General Aspects and History.4.18.2 Localization Within the Central Nervous System.4.18.3 Biosynthesis and Degradation.4.18.4 Receptors and Signal Transduction.4.18.5 Biological Effects.4.18.6 Neurological Disorders and Neurodegenerative Diseases.4.19 Interleukin.4.19.1 General Aspects.4.19.2 Localization Within the Central Nervous System.4.19.3 Biosynthesis and Degradation.4.19.4 Receptors and Signal Transduction.4.19.5 Biological Effects.4.19.6 Neurological Disorders and Neurodegenerative Diseases.4.20 Melanin-concentrating Hormone.4.20.1 General Aspects and History.4.20.2 Localization Within the Central Nervous System.4.20.3 Biosynthesis and Degradation.4.20.4 Receptors and Signal Transduction.4.20.5 Biological Effects.4.20.6 Neurological Disorders and Neurodegenerative Diseases.4.21 Melanocyte-stimulating Hormone.4.21.1 General Aspects.4.21.2 Localization Within the Central Nervous System.4.21.3 Biosynthesis and Degradation.4.21.4 Receptors and Signal Transduction.4.21.5 Biological Effects.4.21.6 Neurological Disorders and Neurodegenerative Diseases.4.22 Neuropeptide Y.4.22.1 General Aspects and History.4.22.2 Localization Within the Central Nervous System.4.22.3 Biosynthesis and Degradation.4.22.4 Receptors and Signal Transduction.4.22.5 Biological Effects.4.22.6 Neurological Disorders and Neurodegenerative Diseases.4.23 Neurotensin.4.23.1 General Aspects and History.4.23.2 Localization Within the Central Nervous System.4.23.3 Biosynthesis and Degradation.4.23.4 Receptors and Signal Transduction.4.23.5 Biological Effects.4.23.6 Neurological Disorders and Neurodegenerative Diseases.4.24 Neurotrophins.4.24.1 General Aspects and History.4.24.2 Localization Within the Central Nervous System.4.24.3 Biosynthesis and Degradation.4.24.4 Receptors and Signal Transduction.4.24.5 Biological Effects.4.24.6 Neurological Disorders and Neurodegenerative Diseases.4.25 Nitric Oxide and Carbon Monoxide.4.25.1 General Aspects and History.4.25.2 Localization Within the Central Nervous System.4.25.3 Biosynthesis and Degradation.4.25.4 Receptors and Signal Transduction.4.25.5 Biological Functions.4.25.6 Neurological Disorders and Neurodegenerative Diseases.4.26 Nociceptin (Orphanin FQ).4.26.1 General Aspects and History.4.26.2 Localization Within the Central Nervous System.4.26.3 Biosynthesis and Degradation.4.26.4 Receptors and Signal Transduction.4.26.5 Biological Effects.4.26.6 Neurological Disorders and Neurodegenerative Diseases.4.27 Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-activating Polypeptide.4.27.1 General Aspects and History.4.27.2 Localization Within the Central Nervous System.4.27.3 Biosynthesis and Degradation.4.27.4 Receptors and Signal Transduction.4.27.5 Biological Effects.4.27.6 Neurological Disorders and Neurodegenerative Diseases.4.28 Proopiomelanocortin.4.28.1 General Aspects and History.4.28.2 Localization Within the Central Nervous System.4.28.3 Biosynthesis and Degradation.4.28.4 Receptors and Signal Transduction.4.28.5 Biological Effects.4.29 Purines.4.29.1 General Aspects.4.29.2 Biosynthesis and Degradation.4.29.3 Receptors and Signal Transduction.4.29.4 Biological Effects.4.29.5 Neurological Disorders and Neurodegenerative Diseases.4.30 Somatostatin.4.30.1 General Aspects and History.4.30.2 Localization Within the Central Nervous System.4.30.3 Biosynthesis and Degradation.4.30.4 Receptors and Signal Transduction.4.30.5 Biological Effects.4.30.6 Neurological Disorders and Neurodegenerative Diseases.4.31 Substance P and Tachykinins.4.31.1 General Aspects and History.4.31.2 Localization Within the Central Nervous System.4.31.3 Biosynthesis and Degradation.4.31.4 Receptors and Signal Transduction.4.31.5 Biological Effects.4.31.6 Neurological Disorders and Neurodegenerative Diseases.4.32 Thyrotropin-releasing Hormone.4.32.1 General Aspects and History.4.32.2 Localization Within the Central Nervous System.4.32.3 Biosynthesis and Degradation.4.32.4 Receptors and Signal Transduction.4.32.5 Biological Effects.4.32.6 Neurological Disorders and Neurodegenerative Diseases.4.33 The Tyr-MIF-1 Family.4.34 Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide.4.34.1 General Aspects and History.4.34.2 Localization Within the Central Nervous System.4.34.3 Biosynthesis and Degradation.4.34.4 Receptors and Signal Transduction.4.34.5 Biological Effects.4.34.6 Neurological Disorders and Neurodegenerative Diseases.4.35 Vasopressin and Oxytocin.4.35.1 General Aspects and History.4.35.2 Localization Within the Central Nervous System.4.35.3 Biosynthesis and Degradation.4.35.4 Receptors and Signal Transduction.4.35.5 Biological Effects.4.35.6 Neurological Disorders and Neurodegenerative Diseases.4.36 Deorphanized Neuropeptides.4.36.1 Apelin.4.36.2 Kisspeptin/Metastin.4.36.3 Opiod-modulating Peptides (NPFF and NPAF).A Appendix.A1 Amino Acids.A2 Nucleotides.A3 Abbreviations for Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators.A4 Miscellaneous Abbreviations (Enzymes and Transporters).Subject more

Author information

Oliver von Bohlen und Halbach gained his PhD in biology at the University of Constance, Germany. He carried out his postdoctoral training at the Medical Faculty, Charite of the Humboldt-University in Berlin (Director Professor U. Heinemann). Since 2001 he is postdoctoral fellow at the Interdisciplinary Center for Neurosciences (Director Professor K. Unsicker) at the Medical Faculty of the University of Heidelberg, Germany. Rolf Dermietzel obtained his MD in 1970 at the Medical School Essen, Germany, where he continued his training, being appointed as Associate Professor 1976. In 1984 he started a research fellowship at the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (supervisor Dr. J.-P. Revel) followed by a position as Visiting Professor at the Albert-Einstein College of Medicine, New York, in 1988. One year later he became Chairman of the Institute of Anatomy at the University of Regensburg, Germany, and in 1998 Chairman of the Institute of Anatomy at the University of Bochum, more