Network Management

Network Management : Accounting and Performance Strategies

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Network Management: Accounting and Performance Strategies The definitive guide to collecting usage information from Cisco networks Benoit Claise, CCIE(R) No. 2868 Ralf Wolter Understanding network performance and effectiveness is now crucial to business success. To ensure user satisfaction, both service providers and enterprise IT teams must provide service-level agreements (SLA) to the users of their networks-and then consistently deliver on those commitments. Now, two of the Cisco(R) leading network performance and accounting experts bring together all the knowledge network professionals need to do so. Network Management: Accounting and Performance Strategies imparts a deep understanding of Cisco IOS(R) embedded management for monitoring and optimizing performance, together with proven best strategies for both accounting and performance management. Benoit Claise and Ralf Wolter begin by introducing the role of accounting and performance management in today's large-scale data and voice networks. They present widely accepted performance standards and definitions, along with today's best practice methodologies for data collection. Next, they turn to Cisco devices and the Cisco IOS Software, illuminating embedded management and device instrumentation features that enable you to thoroughly characterize performance, plan network enhancements, and anticipate potential problems and prevent them. Network standards, technologies, and Cisco solutions covered in depth include Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) and Management Information Bases (MIB), Remote Monitoring (RMON), IP accounting, NetFlow, BGP policy accounting, AAA Accounting, Network Based Application Recognition (NBAR), and IP SLA (formerly known as SAA). For each, the authors present practical examples and hands-on techniques. The book concludes with chapter-length scenarios that walk you through accounting and performance management for five different applications: data network monitoring, capacity planning, billing, security, and voice network performance. Network Management: Accounting and Performance Strategies will be indispensable to every professional concerned with network performance, effectiveness, or profitability, especially NMS/OSS architects, network and service designers, network administrators, and anyone responsible for network accounting or billing. Benoit Claise, CCIE(R) No. 2868, is a Cisco Distinguished Engineer working as an architect for embedded management and device instrumentation. His area of expertise includes accounting, performance, and fault management. Claise is a contributor to the NetFlow standardization at the IETF in the IPFIX and PSAMP Working Groups. He joined Cisco in 1996 as a customer support engineer in the Technical Assistance Center network management team and became an escalation engineer before joining the engineering team. Ralf Wolter is a senior manager, consulting engineering at Cisco. He leads the Cisco Core and NMS/OSS consulting team for Europe, works closely with corporate engineering, and supports large-scale customer projects. He specializes in device instrumentation related to accounting and performance management. * Compare accounting methods and choose the best approach for you * Apply network performance best practices to your network * Leverage built-in Cisco IOS network management system components to quantify performance * Uncover trends in performance statistics to help avoid service degradation before it occurs * Identify under use of network paths, so you can improve overall network efficiency * Walk through hands-on case studies that address monitoring, capacity planning, billing, security, and voice networks * Understand Cisco network performance, deliver on your SLAs, and improve accounting and billing This book is part of the Networking Technology Series from Cisco Press(R), which offers networking professionals valuable information for constructing efficient networks, understanding new technologies, and building successful careers.show more

Product details

  • Paperback | 672 pages
  • 192 x 228 x 38mm | 1,202.01g
  • Pearson Education (US)
  • Cisco Press
  • Indianapolis, United States
  • English
  • 1587142732
  • 9781587142734

About Ralf Wolter

Benoit Claise, CCIE No. 2686, is a Cisco Distinguished Engineer working as an architect for embedded management and device instrumentation. His area of expertise includes accounting, performance, and fault management. Claise is a contributor to the NetFlow standardization at the IETF in the IPFIX and PSAMP working groups. He joined Cisco in 1996 as a customer support engineer in the Technical Assistance Center network management team. He then became an escalation engineer before joining the engineering team. Ralf Wolteris a senior manager, Consulting Engineering at Cisco Systems. He leads the Core and NMS/OSS consulting team for Europe and works closely with corporate engineering, as well as supporting large customer projects. His special field of interest is device instrumentation, related to accounting and performance management. He joined Cisco in 1996 as a systems engineer. He has provided technical leadership for many large network management projects in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. Before his current position, he worked as a networking consultant at AT&T/NCR, focusing on the design and management of data networks.show more

Back cover copy

"Network Management: Accounting and Performance Strategies" The definitive guide to collecting usage information from Cisco networks Benoit Claise, CCIE(R) No. 2868 Ralf Wolter Understanding network performance and effectiveness is now crucial to business success. To ensure user satisfaction, both service providers and enterprise IT teams must provide service-level agreements (SLA) to the users of their networks-and then consistently deliver on those commitments. Now, two of the Cisco(R) leading network performance and accounting experts bring together all the knowledge network professionals need to do so. "Network Management: Accounting and Performance Strategies" imparts a deep understanding of Cisco IOS(R) embedded management for monitoring and optimizing performance, together with proven best strategies for both accounting and performance management. Benoit Claise and Ralf Wolter begin by introducing the role of accounting and performance management in today's large-scale data and voice networks. They present widely accepted performance standards and definitions, along with today's best practice methodologies for data collection. Next, they turn to Cisco devices and the Cisco IOS Software, illuminating embedded management and device instrumentation features that enable you to thoroughly characterize performance, plan network enhancements, and anticipate potential problems and prevent them. Network standards, technologies, and Cisco solutions covered in depth include Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) and Management Information Bases (MIB), Remote Monitoring (RMON), IP accounting, NetFlow, BGP policy accounting, AAA Accounting, Network Based Application Recognition (NBAR), and IP SLA (formerly known as SAA). For each, the authors present practical examples and hands-on techniques. The book concludes with chapter-length scenarios that walk you through accounting and performance management for five different applications: data network monitoring, capacity planning, billing, security, and voice network performance. Network Management: Accounting and Performance Strategies will be indispensable to every professional concerned with network performance, effectiveness, or profitability, especially NMS/OSS architects, network and service designers, network administrators, and anyone responsible for network accounting or billing. Benoit Claise, CCIE(R) No. 2868, is a Cisco Distinguished Engineer working as an architect for embedded management and device instrumentation. His area of expertise includes accounting, performance, and fault management. Claise is a contributor to the NetFlow standardization at the IETF in the IPFIX and PSAMP Working Groups. He joined Cisco in 1996 as a customer support engineer in the Technical Assistance Center network management team and became an escalation engineer before joining the engineering team. Ralf Wolter is a senior manager, consulting engineering at Cisco. He leads the Cisco Core and NMS/OSS consulting team for Europe, works closely with corporate engineering, and supports large-scale customer projects. He specializes in device instrumentation related to accounting and performance management. Compare accounting methods and choose the best approach for you Apply network performance best practices to your network Leverage built-in Cisco IOS network management system components to quantify performance Uncover trends in performance statistics to help avoid service degradation before it occurs Identify under use of network paths, so you can improve overall network efficiency Walk through hands-on case studies that address monitoring, capacity planning, billing, security, and voice networks Understand Cisco network performance, deliver on your SLAs, and improve accounting and billing This book is part of the Networking Technology Series from Cisco Press(R), which offers networking professionals valuable information for constructing efficient networks, understanding new technologies, and building successful careers.show more

Table of contents

Part I Data Collection and Methodology Standards 3 Chapter 1 Understanding the Need for Accounting and Performance Management 5 Definitions and the Relationship Between Accounting and Performance Management 11 Defining Accounting Management 11 Defining Performance Management 13 The Relationship Between Accounting and Performance 17 A Complementary Solution 20 The Purposes of Accounting 22 Network Monitoring 22 User Monitoring and Profiling 24 Application Monitoring and Profiling 26 Capacity Planning 31 Traffic Profiling and Engineering 34 Peering and Transit Agreements 37 Billing 43 Security Analysis 57 Purposes of Performance 61 Device Performance Monitoring 62 Network Performance Monitoring 65 Service Monitoring 66 Baselining 68 Fault Management 70 Applying the Information to the Business 74 Summary 80 Chapter 2 Data Collection Methodology 85 Data Collection Details: What to Collect 86 What Are the Keys? 89 What Are the Values? 89 What Are the Required Versus Nice-to-Have Types of Data? 93 Data Types List 93 Example: Application Monitoring 94 Example: Traffic Matrix 98 Example: SLA Monitoring 99 Defining the User 100 Metering Methods: How to Collect Data Records 102 Active Versus Passive Monitoring 103 Passive Monitoring Concepts 104 Active Monitoring Concepts 120 Best Practice: How to Position Active and Passive Monitoring 128 Outlook: Passive Monitoring for One-Way Delay Analysis 129 Metering Positions: Where to Collect Data Records 130 Network Element Versus End Device Collection 130 Edge Versus Core Collection 132 Embedded Versus External Device Collection 136 Ingress Versus Egress Collection 138 Flow Destination or Source Lookup 140 Technology-Dependent Special Constraints 141 Collection Infrastructure: How to Collect Data Records 144 Pull Versus Push Model 144 Event-Based Model 145 Export Protocols 146 Network Design for the Collection Infrastructure 151 Communication Concepts 152 Collection Server Concepts 154 Mediation Device Functionality: How to Process Data Records 157 Filtering 157 Estimation from Sampling 159 Threshold Monitoring 159 Data Aggregation 160 Data Record Correlation and Enrichment 164 Flow De-Duplication 165 Data Record Formatting and Storage 165 Security Considerations: How to Ensure Data Authenticity and Integrity 167 Source Authentication 167 Ensuring Data and Device Integrity 168 Denial-of-Service (DoS) Attacks 169 Summary 170 Chapter 3 Accounting and Performance Standards and Definitions 173 Understanding Standards and Standards Organizations 173 Architectural and Framework Standards: The TMN/FCAPS Model (ITU-T) 176 Fault Management 180 Configuration Management 181 Accounting Management 181 Performance Management 182 Security Management 183 The TMN Framework 184 Architectural and Framework Standards: the eTOM Model (TMF) 185 Informational IETF Standards 189 IETF RFC 2924, Accounting Attributes and Record Formats 189 IETF RFC 2975, Introduction to Accounting Management 189 Information Modeling 190 Data Collection Protocols: SNMP, SMI, and MIB 191 Internet Management Model and Terminology 191 MIB Modules and Object Identifiers 193 SMI Definitions 194 SNMP Versions 196 References for SMIv1 and SMIv2 199 Data Collection Protocols: NetFlow Version 9 and IPFIX Export Protocols 201 NetFlow Version 9 Export Protocol 202 IPFIX 208 Data Collection Protocols: PSAMP 212 PSAMP Protocol Specifications 212 PSAMP References 213 Data Collection Protocols: AAA (RADIUS, Diameter, and TACACS+) 214 RADIUS 214 TACACS+ 216 Diameter 216 Data Collection Protocols: IPDR 217 Data Collection Protocols: CMISE/CMIP and GDMO 218 Service Notions 219 Summary 222 Part II Implementations on the Cisco Devices 225 Chapter 4 SNMP and MIBs 227 MIBs 228 IOS Support for SNMP Versions 229 net-snmp Utilities 229 CLI Operations and Configuration Example for SNMPv2c 230 SNMPv2c Configuration Example 230 SNMPv2c Data Retrieval 231 Displaying SNMPv2c Statistics 231 CLI Operations and Configuration Examples for SNMPv3 231 authNoPriv SNMP Example 233 authPriv SNMP Example 235 MIB Table Retrieval Example 235 MIB Functional Area Comparison Table 237 General-Purpose MIBs for Accounting and Performance 239 MIB-II (RFC 1213), IF-MIB (RFC 2863), and CISCO-IF-EXTENSION-MIB 240 CISCO-PING-MIB 241 CISCO-PROCESS-MIB 242 CISCO-ENVMON-MIB and CISCO-HEALTH-MONITOR-MIB 244 CISCO-MEMORY-POOL-MIB 244 CISCO-DATA-COLLECTION-MIB 244 Advanced Device Instrumentation 247 Technology-Specific MIBs for Accounting and Performance 247 Frame Relay 247 IPv6 251 Multicast 252 VLAN 253 Traffic Management and Control 255 Telephony 257 Creating New MIB Objects: EXPRESSION-MIB 265 EXPRESSION-MIB Examples 266 EVENT-MIB Associated with EXPRESSION-MIB 268 Obtaining MIBs 269 Chapter 5 RMON 273 RMON 1 and RMON 2 MIBs 273 RMON Principles 277 Supported Devices and IOS Versions 277 Cisco NAM Modules 278 CLI Operations 279 SNMP Operations 280 Examples 282 DSMON MIB 284 DSMON MIB Principles 286 Supported Devices and IOS Versions 286 CLI Operations 286 SNMP Operations 286 Examples 287 SMON MIB 287 Supported Devices and IOS Versions 288 CLI Operations 288 SNMP Operations 288 Examples 289 Collection Monitoring 289 APM MIB and ART MIB 289 Supported Devices and IOS Versions 291 CLI Operations 291 SNMP Operations 291 Examples 291 Collection Monitoring 291 Applicability 292 Further Reading 293 Chapter 6 IP Accounting 297 IP Accounting (Layer 3) 298 IP Accounting (Layer 3) Principles 298 Supported Devices and IOS Versions 299 CLI Operations 299 SNMP Operations 300 Examples (CLI and SNMP) 301 IP Accounting Access Control List (ACL) 303 IP Accounting ACL Principles 304 Supported Devices and IOS Versions 304 CLI Operations 304 SNMP Operations 305 Examples (CLI and SNMP) 305 IP Accounting MAC Address 308 IP Accounting MAC Address Principles 308 Supported Devices and IOS Versions 309 CLI Operations 309 SNMP Operations 310 Examples (CLI and SNMP) 311 IP Accounting Precedence 312 IP Accounting Precedence Principles 313 Supported Devices and IOS Versions 313 CLI Operations 314 SNMP Operations 314 Examples (CLI and SNMP) 315 Applicability 317 Chapter 7 NetFlow 319 Fundamentals of NetFlow 322 Flow Definition 322 Cache Concept 325 Aging Flows on a Router 327 Aging Flows on a Catalyst 328 Export Version and Related Information Elements 329 Supported Interfaces 339 Export Protocol: UDP or SCTP 340 NetFlow Device-Level Architecture: Combining the Elements 342 Cisco NetFlow Collector 344 CLI Operations 345 SNMP Operations with the NETFLOW-MIB 346 Example: NetFlow Version 5 on a Router 347 Example: NetFlow Configuration on the Catalyst 348 Example: NetFlow Version 8 350 Example: NetFlow Version 9 350 New Features Supported with NetFlow Version 9 351 SCTP Export 351 Sampled NetFlow 353 NetFlow Input Filters 358 MPLS-Aware NetFlow 360 BGP Next-Hop Information Element 362 NetFlow Multicast 363 NetFlow Layer 2 and Security Monitoring Exports 365 Top Talkers 366 Flexible NetFlow 370 Deployment Guidelines 385 Supported Devices and IOS Versions 387 Chapter 8 BGP Policy Accounting 389 Input BGP Policy Accounting 390 Output BGP Policy Accounting 391 Summary of All Four BGP Policy Accounting Combinations 392 Fundamentals 393 BGP Policy Accounting Commands 394 SNMP Operations 395 Examples (CLI and SNMP) 396 Initial Configuration 396 Collection Monitoring 397 Destination-Sensitive Services 398 Destination-Sensitive Billing 398 Destination-Sensitive Traffic Shaping (DSTS) 399 Applicability 400 Chapter 9 AAA Accounting 403 Fundamentals of AAA Accounting 405 High-Level Comparison of RADIUS, TACACS+, and Diameter 406 RADIUS 407 RADIUS Attributes 409 RADIUS CLI Operations 415 Voice Extensions for RADIUS 416 Diameter Details 428 Chapter 10 NBAR 433 NBAR Functionality 434 Distributed NBAR 435 NBAR Classification Details 435 NBAR Packet Description Language Module (PDLM) 437 NBAR Scope 438 Supported Devices and IOS Versions 438 NBAR Protocol Discovery (PD) MIB 439 NBAR Supported Protocols 440 NBAR Protocol Discovery Statistics 440 NBAR Top-N Statistics 441 NBAR Protocol Discovery Thresholds, Traps, and History 442 NBAR Configuration Commands 443 NBAR show Commands 443 NBAR Examples (CLI and SNMP) 445 Basic NBAR Configuration 445 Custom Application Example 446 Limiting Peer-to-Peer Traffic 447 HTTP Requests Payload Inspection 447 NBAR Applicability 449 Chapter 11 IP SLA 451 Measured Metrics: What to Measure 453 Network Delay 454 Jitter 454 Packet Loss 455 Measurement Accuracy 455 TCP Connect 456 DHCP and DNS Response Time 456 HTTP Response Time 456 Linking Metrics to Applications 456 Operations: How to Measure 457 Operations Parameters 457 MPLS VPN Awareness 459 IP SLA Responder 459 Operation Types 463 IP SLA CLI Operations 480 SNMP Operations with the CISCO-RTTMON-MIB 482 Application-Specific Scenario: HTTP 483 Application-Specific Scenario: VoIP 486 Advanced Features 488 Scheduling 488 Distribution of Statistics 491 History Collection 494 Thresholds and Notifications 495 Enhanced Object Tracking for IP SLA 499 Implementation Considerations 501 Supported Devices and IOS Versions 501 Performance Impact 503 Accuracy 504 Security Considerations 506 IP SLA Deployment 507 Chapter 12 Summary of Data Collection Methodology 515 Applicability 515 Part III Assigning Technologies to Solutions 523 Chapter 13 Monitoring Scenarios 525 Network Blueprint for Monitoring 525 Device and Link Performance 526 Network Connectivity and Performance 530 Application Monitoring 534 Service Monitoring and Routing Optimization 536 Chapter 14 Capacity Planning Scenarios 541 Link Capacity Planning 541 Network Blueprint for Capacity Planning 543 Problem Space 544 Capacity Planning Tools 546 Methods for Generating the Core Traffic Matrix 548 NetFlow BGP Next Hop ToS Aggregation 551 Flexible NetFlow 552 MPLS-Aware NetFlow 553 BGP Passive Peer on the NetFlow Collector 554 BGP Policy Accounting 555 Other Methods 556 Additional Considerations: Peer-to-Peer Traffic 557 Summary 557 Chapter 15 Voice Scenarios 559 Network Blueprint for IP Telephony 560 Voice Performance Measurement 561 Standards and Technology 561 Network Elements in the Voice Path 564 Cisco CallManager (CCM) 565 Application Examples 570 Voice Accounting 573 Standards and Technology 573 Network Elements in the Voice Path 574 Gateway, Gatekeeper, Multimedia Conference Manager 575 Cisco CallManager (CCM) 575 Application Example 575 Is Your Network Ready for IP Telephony? 577 Chapter 16 Security Scenarios 579 Network Blueprint for Security Management 580 Security Management Process 582 Preparation 583 Identification 584 Classification 587 Trace Back 591 Reaction 593 Postmortem 594 Summary 596 Chapter 17 Billing Scenarios 599 Network Blueprint for Billing 600 Billing Approaches 602 Time-Based Billing 602 Volume-Based Billing 603 Destination-Sensitive Billing 606 Time- and Distance-Based Billing 606 Service-Based Billing 607 Enterprise Departmental Charge Back 608 Flat Rate Billing 609 Summary 609show more