The Nature of Emotion

The Nature of Emotion : Fundamental Questions

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The editors of this unique volume have selected 24 leading emotion theorists and asked them to address 12 fundamental questions about the subject of emotion. For example; Are there basic emotions? How do you distinguish emotions from moods, temperament, and emotional traits? Can we control our emotions? Can emotions be non-conscious? What is the relation between emotion and memory? What develops in emotional development? Each chapter addresses a different one of these fundamental questions about emotion, with often divergent answers from several of leading researchers represented here: James Averill, Gordon Bower, Linda Camras, Lee Clark, Gerald Clore, Richard Davidson, Judy Dunn, Paul Ekman, Phoebe Ellsworth, Nico Frijda, Hill Goldsmith, Jeffrey Gray, Carroll Izard, Jerome Kaga, Richard Lazarus, Joseph Le Doux, Robert Levenson, Jaak Panksepp, Mary Rothbart, Klaus Shere, Richard Shweder, David Watson, and Robert Zajonc. At the end of each chapter, the editors--Ekman and Davidson--highlight the areas of agreement and disagreement about each of the 12 questions about emotion. In the final chapter, Affective Science: A Research Agenda, the editors describe the research they believe would help answer each of the questions. Not a textbook offering a single viewpoint, The Nature of Emotion, uniquely reveals the central issues in emotion research and theory in the words of many of the leading scientists working in the field today. It is ideal for students, researchers, and clinicians interested in emotion.show more

Product details

  • Paperback | 512 pages
  • 154 x 232 x 34mm | 762.03g
  • Oxford University Press Inc
  • New York, United States
  • English
  • line drawings, tables
  • 0195089448
  • 9780195089448
  • 658,887

About Paul Ekman

Dr. Paul Ekman, Ph.D. is Professor of Psychology at the University of California, San Francisco. Dr. Richard J. Davidson, Ph.D. is Williams James Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Wisconsin, Madison.show more

Table of contents

Introduction ; QUESTION 1: ARE THERE BASIC EMOTIONS? ; 1. In the eyes of the beholder ; 2. All emotions are basic ; 3. The basics of basic emotion ; 4. Toward a concept of "Modal Emotions" ; 5. "You're not sick, you're just in love" ; 6. Emotion as an interpretive system ; Afterword ; QUESTION 2: HOW DO YOU DISTINGUISH EMOTIONS? ; 7. On emotion, mood, and related affective constructs ; 8. Moods, emotions, and traits ; 9. Varieties of affect: Emotions and episodes, moods, and sentiments ; 10. Parsing the emotional domain from a developmental perspective ; 11. Distinctions among emotions, moods, and temperamental qualities ; 12. The stable and unstable in emotion ; 13. Basic emotions ramify widely in the brain, yielding many concepts that cannot be distinguished unambiguously ... yet ; 14. Emotions, moods, traits, and temperaments: Conceptual distinctions and empirical findings ; Afterword ; QUESTION 3: WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF EMOTIONS? ; 15. Emotions are many splendored things ; 16. Why emotions are felt ; 17. Emotions are functional, most of the time ; 18. Human emotions: A functional view ; 19. A phylogenetic view ; 20. Distinguishing functional from dysfunctional affective responses ; 21. Responses ; QUESTION 4: HOW DO YOU EXPLAIN EVIDENCE OF UNIVERSALS IN ANTECEDENTS OF EMOTION? ; 22. It's a small world, but a large stage ; 23. Antecedent events and emotion metaphors ; 24. Some reasons to expect universal antecedents of emotion ; 25. Universal antecedents of the emotions ; 26. Evidence for both universality and cultural specificity of emotion elicitation ; 27. Elicitation ; QUESTION 5: WHAT ARE THE MINIMAL COGNITIVE PREREQUISITES FOR EMOTION? ; 28. Why emotions require cognition ; 29. Levels of thought and levels of emotion ; 30. Emotions require cognitions, even if simple ones ; 31. Answer - None: Cognition is one of four types of emotion activating systems ; 32. Systems ; 33. Appraisal: The long and short of it ; 34. Cognitive-emotional interactions in the brain ; 35. A proper distinction between affective and cognitive process is essential for neuroscientific progress ; 36. An emotion's occurrence depends on the relevance of an event to the organism's goal/need hierarchy ; 37. Afterword ; QUESTION 6: IS THERE EMOTION-SPECIFIC PHYSIOLOGY? ; 38. Complexities in the search for emotion-specific physiology ; 39. Three fundamental emotion systems ; 40. Emotion-specific physiology activity: Don't forget about CNS physiology ; 41. The search for autonomic specificity ; 42. The clearest physiological distinctions between emotions will be found among the circuits of the brain ; 43. Afterword ; QUESTION 7: CAN WE CONTROL OUR EMOTIONS? ; 44. Emotions unbecoming and becoming ; 45. The degree of emotional control depends on the kind of personal system involved ; 46. Emotional control: Variations and consequences ; 47. Afterword ; QUESTION 8: CAN EMOTIONS BE NONCONSCIOUS? ; 48. Why emotions are never unconscious ; 49. Emotional processing, but not emotions, can occur unconsciously ; 50. Evidence for nonconscious emotions ; 51. Afterword ; QUESTION 9: WHAT IS THE RELATION BETWEEN EMOTION AND MEMORY? ; 52. Some relations between emotions and memory ; 53. The past and the present in emotion ; 54. Memory versus emotional memory in the brain ; 55. Subjectivity may have evolved in the brain as a simple value-coding process that promotes the learning of new behaviors ; 56. Afterword ; QUESTION 10: HOW DO INDIVIDUALS DIFFER IN EMOTION-RELATED ACTIVITY? ; 57. Honoring biology in the study of affective style ; 58. Personality dimensions and emotion systems ; 59. Individualized differences in emotion ; 60. Broad dimensions of temperament and personality ; 61. Afterword ; QUESTION 11: WHAT DEVELOPS IN EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT? ; 62. Two aspects of emotional development: Expression and elicitation ; 63. Experience and understanding of emotions, relationships, and membership in a particular culture ; 64. Particular Culture ; 65. Intersystem connections ; 66. Meaning and emotional development ; 67. Lots of "stuff" ... especially mind "stuff" that emerges from brain "stuff" ; 68. Emotional development: Changes in reactivity and self-regulation ; 69. Afterword ; QUESTION 12: WHAT INFLUENCES THE SUBJECTIVE EXPERIENCE OF EMOTION? ; 70. I feel, therefore I am - I think ; 71. Why emotions vary in intensity ; 72. Emotional experience is an output of, not a cause of, emotional processing ; 73. Evolution constructed the potential for subjective experience within the neurodynamics of the mammalian brain ; 74. The vicissitudes of mood: A schematic model ; 75. Afterword ; Epilogue ; References ; Indexshow more

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