Nationalism : A Religion

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This classic volume tells the story of nationalism, the fusion of patriotism with ethnic consciousness. It documents the emergence of nationalism in the modern world and the way that nationalism has become a substitute for religion over the past two centuries. Nationalism, for Hayes, draws its power from cultural and social factors, primarily language. Second to language are historical forces that stem from an accumulation of a people's remembered or imagined experiences.

Hayes bases his observations on historic European examples. He sees nationalism as a religion, reacting against historic Christianity and the values of the Western tradition. This combination of powerful forces stresses neither charity nor the brotherhood of man. Historically it has rationalized selfishness, intolerance, and violence. The growth of nationalism, Hayes observed, brings not peace but war.

As a testament to its timeless insight, Nationalism remains an informative guide despite the failure of globalization, the Internet, and international communications and connectivity to move us beyond the bonds of nationalism. Hayes's linking of the potent forces of nationalism and religion still rings true: the insurgency in Ukraine, the unrest in the Middle East, and tribal conflicts in Africa are all undergirded by nationalist sentiments.
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Product details

  • Paperback | 198 pages
  • 152 x 229 x 10.16mm | 249g
  • AldineTransaction
  • Somerset, United States
  • English
  • New edition
  • New
  • 141286285X
  • 9781412862851

Table of contents

Introduction to the Transaction Edition, by John P. Rossi

A Personal Apology

1 What Nationalism Is
1. Bases of Nationality: Language and Traditions
2. Fluidity and Complexity of Nationality
3. Patriotism

2 The Religious Sense
1. Varieties of Religious Experience
2. Applications of the Religious Sense, Especially to Communism and Nationalism
3. Religio-Nationalist Communism

3 Primitive Nationalism and Its Long Submergence
1. Tribalism
2. Submergence of Tribalism: Military and Religious Factors
3. Linguistic and Economic Factors
4. Continuing National Consciousness

4 Roots of Modern Nationalism in Christendom, Particularly in England
1. Vernacular Languages and Literatures
2. National States and National Economy
3. Religious Revolt and Reform
4. England the Seat of Modern Nationalism

5 Making Nationalism a Religion in Revolutionary France
1. Deist and Classical Setting
2. Pietist and Proto-Romantic Setting
3. From American Revolution to French National Assembly
4. Religious Emblems and Crusading Zeal

6 Advance of Nationalism in Europe from Napoleon I to Napoleon III, 1800-1870
1. Under the First Napoleon
2. From Vienna Peace Settlement to the 1830's
3. Propaganda of Cultural Nationalism in Central and Eastern Europe
4. Nationalism in Revolutions of 1848-1849
5. The Third Napoleon as Nationalist, 1848-1870

7 Forceful Nationalism and Industrialized Society, 1864-1914
1. New and Competitive Militarism
2. Effects of Industrial Revolution
3. Mass Migration, Democracy, and Literacy
4. Materialism and Nationalism

8 Nationalist Imperialism and Intolerance,1874-1914
1. Outburst of National Imperialism
2. Nationalism, Seed and Product of the New Imperialism
3. Intolerance Toward Religious Minorities
4. Intolerance Toward "Racial" Minorities, Especially Jews
5. Intolerance Toward Ethnic Minorities
6. Nationalist Reaction of Subject Peoples

9 Nationalism,Cause and Result of World War I
1. National Versus Imperial States in Eastern Europe
2. Nationalism in the War (1914-1918)
3. The Peace of Paris and Triumph of Nationalism Throughout Europe
4. Stimulus to Nationalism Outside Europe

10 Totalitarian Nationalism and World War II
1. Advent of "Integral" or "Totalitarian" Nationalism
2. Features of the New Totalitarian Dictatorship
3. Aggressions of Nationalist Dictators
4. World War II

11 Contemporary World-Wide Nationalism
1. Nationalist Imperialism of Communist Russia
2. Native Nationalism Versus Western Imperialism
3. Ambiguous Character of Nationalism in Asia and Africa
4. Nationalism and Tribalism in Africa

12 Reflections on the Religion of Nationalism
1. The Cult
2. Mythology, Intolerance, and Sacrifice
3. Moderating Influences
4. Interaction of Nationalism and Historic World Religions, Especially Christianity

Index of Persons
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Review quote

What Carlton Hayes has written about nationalism has in no small part formed our understanding of the most significant of modern social movements. Hayes is a master of the subject."-Boyd C. Shafer, Political Science Quarterly "The volume is highly readable. It is a mature work by one of the greatest of our historians in a field in which he is a pioneer. Describing what is perhaps the most active force at work today, this study has great relevance throughout the world." -Elmer Louis Kayser, World Affairs
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About Carlton J. H. Hayes

Carlton J. H. Hayes (1882-1964) was an American academic and diplomat. He was a pioneer in the study of nationalism, and a student of European history. John P. Rossi is professor emeritus of history at La Salle University in Philadelphia, USA. He has published many works on the British Liberal Party, baseball history, George Orwell, and other topics.
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