MPLS and Label Switching Networks

MPLS and Label Switching Networks

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The authoritative MPLS introduction for every networking professional. MPLS and related technologies offer the potential to dramatically improve network performance, efficiency, and quality of service. In MPLS and Label-Switching Networks, renowned communication specialist Uyless Black presents a detailed, practical introduction to these technologies, written specifically for network and communications professionals. Using practical examples and realistic configuration diagrams, Black explains each fundamental concept, protocol, and technique associated with MPLS, including: * How the MPLS protocol works, and how it can be applied in IPv4 and IPv6 environments * Maximizing quality of service: using MPLS to combat network latency and jitter * MPLS traffic engineering: building more resilient service provider and ISP backbones * Security and network management in MPLS-enabled networks--including rapid service restoration techniques * Using MPLS to build secure VPNs * New MPLS label distribution protocols Whether you're in an enterprise network or service provider environment, MPLS and Label-Switching Networks is the authoritative resource you need to understand MPLS technologies--and implement them for competitive more

Product details

  • Hardback | 256 pages
  • 182.88 x 233.68 x 22.86mm | 725.74g
  • Pearson Education (US)
  • Prentice Hall
  • Upper Saddle River, United States
  • 0130158232
  • 9780130158239

Table of contents

Preface. 1. Introduction. What is Label Switching? Why Use Label Switching? Speed and Relay. Scalability. Simplicity. Resource Consumption. Route Control (Control of the Forwarding Path). Route Control Using IP. The ZIP Code Analogy. A Label is Not an Address. How Label Switching is Implemented and How it Came About. Clarification of Terms. The Need for a QOS-based Internet. Label Switching and QOS. The Contribution of Label Switching. Label Switching's Legacy: X.25 and Virtual Circuits. The Logical Channel Number: Precursor to the Label. Frame Relay and ATM: A Rose by any Other Name is Still a Rose. MPLS: Status and Concepts. Examples of Label and QOS Relationships. Determination of the Physical Path Through the Network: The Label Switched Path. Summary.2. Label Switching Basics. The Functional Equivalence Class. Scalability and Granularity. Information Used in the Forwarding Decision. Label Allocation Methods. Local and Remote Binding. Downstream and Upstream Binding. Control Binding versus Data-Driven Binding. Label Space and Label Assignments. The Edge Router and the Label Switching Domain. Roles of Hosts and LSRs. Examples of FEC and Label Correlations: The Label Switching Tunnel. Alternatives for Carrying the Label. Label Swapping. Summary.3. Switching and Forwarding Operations. A Taxonomy of Switching and Forwarding Networks. Information Used in the Forwarding Decision. Layer 2 Switching. Layer 3 Routing (Actually Forwarding). Problem with IP Forwarding Operations. Layer 3 Switching. Cache Assisting Switching. Distributed Switching. Example of Layer 3 Switching. Layer 4 Switching. Label Switching/Swapping/Mapping. Layer 3 to Layer 2 Mapping. At the Ingress LSR. At an Intermediate (Interior) LSR. At the Egress LSR. MPLS's Relationship to these Operations. IP Switching. Architecture of the IP Switch. Route Server-based Relaying. Multiprotocol Over ATM (MPOA) and Next Hop Resolution Protocol (NHRP). Tag Switching. Forwarding Component. Tag Encapsulation. Control Component. Destination-based Routing. Multicast and Tag Switching. Flexible Routing (Explicit Routes). Tag Switching with ATM. Quality of Service. Examples of Tag Switching Operations. Border (Edge) TSRs. Flow Classification. IPv6 Flow Operations. IPv4 Codepoint Operations. MPLS and LDP. IPv6 Label Operations. Summary.4. MPLS Key Concepts. Major Attributes of MPLS. Terminology. Label Assignment Rules. Types of MPLS Nodes. Independent and Ordered Label Control. The MPLS Header. The Label Stack. Rules for Stacking for the Label Switched Path. Penultimate Hop Popping. Stacks and Encapsulations. Supporting Tables and Maps. The Next Hop Label Forwarding Entry. Incoming Label Map. FEC-to-NHLFE Map. Aggregation. Label Merging. Scope and Uniqueness of Labels in a Label Space. Hop-by-Hop and Explicit Routing. Label Retention Mode. Advertising and Using Labels. Downstream LSR. Upstream LSR. NotAvailable Procedure. Release Procedure. Label Use Procedure. Summary.5. Label Distribution Operations. Methods for Label Distribution. Introduction to LDP. The LDP Messages. FECs, Label Spaces, and Identifiers. Label Spaces and Identifiers. LDP Sessions. Sessions Between Non-Directly Connected LSRs. How LSRs Know About Other LSRs. Label Distribution and Management. Label Distribution Control Mode. LDP Messages. The LDP Header. Type-Length-Value (TLV) Encoding. The LDP Message Format. The TLVs: Formats and Functions. The LDP Messages: Formats and Functions. RSVP and Label Distribution. Rules on Use of RSVP LABEL Object. BGP and Label Distribution. Summary.6. MPLS and ATM and Frame Relay Networks. Aspects of Atm of Interest to MplS. Virtual Circuits. VPIs and VCIs. The ATM Cell Header. Permanent Virtual Circuits and Switched Virtual Calls. Scaling IP/ATM Overlay Networks. Mapping the MPLS Labels to ATM VIPs/VCIs. Types of Merging (or Nonmerging). Interoperation of VC Merge, VP Merge, and Nonmerge. Performance Issues. The Virtual Circuit ID. Notification Operation. VPI/VCI Values. Connections via an ATM VP. Connections via an ATM SVC. Encapsulation and TTL Operations. Aspects of Frame Relay of Interest to MPLS. Virtual Circuits and DLCIs. The Frame Relay Header. Permanent Virtual Circuits and Switched Virtual Calls. Summary.7. Traffic Engineering. Traffic Engineering Defined. Traffic Oriented or Resource Oriented Performance. Minimizing Congestion. Two Scenarios of Congestion. Tailoring Services Based on QOS Needs and Classes of Traffic. Traffic Engineering and Traffic Shaping. Queuing the Traffic. Problems with Existing Routing Operations. The Overlay Network Approach. Induced MPLS Graph. Traffic Trunks, Traffic Flows, and Label Switched Paths. Attractiveness of MPLS for Traffic Engineering. Link Capacity: The Ultimate Arbiter. Load Distribution. Traffic Trunk Attributes. Attributes of Traffic Trunks for Traffic Engineering. Constraint-Based Routing (CR). Peak Rate. Committed Rate. Excess Burst Size. Peak Rate Token Bucket. Committed Data Rate Token Bucket. Weight. Differentiated Services, MPLS, and Traffic Engineering. Average Rate Meter. Exponential Weighted Moving Average Meter. Token Bucket Meter. Ideas on Shaping Operations. DS Guaranteed Rate. Assured and Expedited Forwarding PHBs. Examples of WFQ and MPLS Flows. Summary.8. MPLS and DiffServ. Diffserv Concepts. Per Hop Behavior. The Diffserv Domain. Types of Per-Hop Behaviors. Mpls and Diffserv Routers. Traffic Classification and Conditioning. The DS Classifiers. Behavior Aggregates, Ordered Aggregates, and LSPs. Classification Operations. Metering Operations. The DS Codepoint Revisited. Code Points for Assured Forwarding. DSCPs and LSR Use of MPLS Labels. The Ordered Aggregate and MPLS LSPs. EXP-Inferred-PSC LSPs. Label-Only-Inferred-PSC LSPs. Bandwidth Reservations for E-LSPs and L-LSPs. Summary.9. Constraint-Based Routing. The Basic Concept. Explicit Routing. LDP and Constraint-based Routing. Pre-emption. The CR Messages and TLVs. Label Request Message. Label Mapping Message. Notification Message. Explicit Route TLV. Explicit Route Hop TLV. Traffic Parameters TLV. Preemption TLV. LSPID TLV. Resource Class TLV. Route Pinning TLV. CR-LSP FEC TLV. Summary.10. Other Key Concepts of MPLS. Determining the Network Layer Protocol. Generating ICMP Messages for Labeled IP Packets. Processing the Time to Live Field. Fragmentation and Path MTU Discovery. Capability Sets. Defined MPLS Capability Set. Examples of Capability Sets. Use of ICMP in MPLS Networks. Summary.Appendix A: Names, Addresses, Subnetting, Address Masks, and Prefixes. Appendix B: CR-LDP and Traffic Engineering and QOS. Glossary. References. more

About Uyless N. Black

UYLESS BLACK is a widely known and respected consultant and lecturer on computer networks and data communications. He is author of all the books in his Prentice Hall Series in Advanced Communications Technologies, including Internet Security Protocols: Protecting IP Traffic, Internet Architecture: Protocols and Applications, Voice Over IP, and Advanced Internet Technologies. He resides in Front Royal, more

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