Minutes of Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers Volume 94, PT. 4

Minutes of Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers Volume 94, PT. 4

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This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can usually download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1838 edition. Excerpt: ...Any soft admixture of clay and lime is termed a marl--clay-marl when the clay is in excess, and marl-clay when the lime predominates. Many clays are known by the name of the neighbourhood from which they are obtained, such as London clay, Oxford clay, Grinstead clay, Wadhurst clay, Weald clay, Kimmeridge clay, Gault clay, Poole clay, and others. Puddle is of considerable importance in engineering works for arresting the passage of water. Some clays, such as the London, Kimmeridge, and Oxford beds, are practically impervious to water in their natural condition; whilst others offer more or less resistance to its passage in proportion to the absence of impurities. Springs at faults or at the outcrop of clay-beds furnish evidence of the impermeability of these beds. Most clays, when free from coarse gritty impurities, contain sufficient alumina to become practically impervious to water when worked up into puddle. When puddle is protected from evaporation, as is generally the case, the admixture of impurities has the disadvantage of diminishing its cohesiveness, and consequently its impermeability. If, however, puddle is placed so near the surface as to be liable to lose its moisture by evaporation or capillary attraction during dry weather, the addition of sand may be necessary to prevent the contraction of the mass, and the consequent formation of fissures such as occur in clay soils in times of drought. The sand, by diminishing the cohesiveness of the clay, obviates the rupture produced by the contraction of a tenacious mass; and with this object, the brickniaker adds sand to clays deficient in silica to prevent his bricks cracking when being burnt, and the potter incorporates ground flint with his clay to reduce the amount of contraction....show more

Product details

  • Paperback | 160 pages
  • 189 x 246 x 9mm | 299g
  • Rarebooksclub.com
  • English
  • Illustrations, black and white
  • 123693993X
  • 9781236939937