Matter in Equilibrium

Matter in Equilibrium : Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics

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Originally Part II of "Physical Chemistry, Second Edition", and now published as its own volume, "Matter in Equilibrium: Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics" simultaneously develops the statistical molecular theory and the classical thermodynamic theory of the bulk properties of matter in a mutually reinforcing fashion. Despite presenting both a microscopic and macroscopic approach, this sophisticated text offers a rigorous treatment of classical thermodynamics and allows professors to separate the two theories if desired. Packed with tables, graphs, and figures, it describes the equilibrium properties of bulk matter and develops the tools needed to study gases, solids, liquids, phase transformations, solutions of non electrolytes, and solutions of electrolytes. The book makes extensive use of computer simulations of molecular behavior and, where appropriate, uses experimental data to illustrate concepts and principles. Ideal for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate level courses, "Matter in Equilibrium" broadens and challenges student perspectives while offering valuable information to more

Product details

  • Mixed media product | 743 pages
  • 218.4 x 276.9 x 30.5mm | 1,474.19g
  • Oxford University Press Inc
  • New York, United States
  • English
  • 2nd ed.
  • numerous line illustrations and CD
  • 0195147499
  • 9780195147490

Table of contents

PREFACE; PART II: MATTER IN EQUILIBRIUM: STATISTICAL MECHANICS AND THERMODYNAMICS; 12. THE PERFECT GAS AT EQUILIBRIUM AND THE CONCEPT OF TEMPERATURE; 12.1 The Perfect Gas: Definition and Elementary Model; 12.2 The Perfect Gas: A General Relation between Pressure and Energy; 12.3 Some Comments about Thermodynamics; 12.4 Temperature and the Zero-th Law of Thermodynamics; 12.5 Empirical Temperature: The Perfect Gas Temperature Scale; 12.6 Comparison of the Microscopic and Macroscopic Approaches; 13. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS; 13.1 Microscopic and Macroscopic Energy in a Perfect Gas; 13.2 Description of Thermodynamic States; 13.3 The Concept of Work in Thermodynamics; 13.4 Intensive and Extensive Variables; 13.5 Quasi-static and Reversible Processes; 13.6 The First Law: Internal Energy and Heat; 13.7 Some Historical Notes; 13.8 Microscopic Interpretation of Internal Energy and Heat; 13.9 Constraints, Work, and Equilibrium; 14. THERMOCHEMISTRY AND ITS APPLICATIONS; 14.1 Heat Capacity and Enthalpy; 14.2 Energy and Enthalpy Changes in Chemical Reactions; 14.3 Thermochemistry of Physical Processes; 14.4 Introduction to Phase Changes; 14.5 Standard States; 14.6 Thermochemistry of Solutions; 14.7 Molecular Interpretation of Physical Processes; 14.8 Bond Energies; 14.9 Some Energy Effects in Molecular Structures; 14.10 Lattice Energies of Ionic Crystals; 15. THE CONCEPT OF ENTROPY: RELATIONSHIP TO THE ENERGY-LEVEL SPECTRUM OF A SYSTEM; 15.1 The Relationship between Average Properties and Molecular Motion in an N-Molecule System: Time Averages and Ensemble Averages; 15.2 Ensembles and Probability Distributions; 15.3 Some Properties of a System with Many Degrees of Freedom: Elements of the Statistical Theory of Matter at Equilibrium; 15.4 The Influence of Constraints on the Density of States; 15.5 The Entropy: A Potential Function for the Equilibrium State; Appendix 15A: Comments on Ensemble Theory; Appendix 15B: *W(E) as a System Descriptor; Appendix 15C: The Master Equation; 16. THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS: THE MACROSCOPIC CONCEPT OF ENTROPY; 16.1 The Second Law of Thermodynamics; 16.2 The Existence of an Entropy Function for Reversible Processes; 16.3 Irreversible Processes: The Second-Law Interpretation; 16.4 The Clausius and Kelvin Statements Revisited; 16.5 The Second Law as an Inequality; 16.6 Some Relationships between the Microscopic and Macroscopic Theories; Appendix 16A: Poincare Recurrence Times and Irreversibility; 17. SOME APPLICATIONS OF THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS; 17.1 Choice of Independent Variables; 17.2 The Available Work Concept; 17.3 Entropy Changes in Reversible Processes; 17.4 Entropy Changes in Irreversible Processes; 17.5 Entropy Changes in Phase Transitions; 18. THE THIRD LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS; 18.1 The Magnitude of the Entropy at T = 0; 18.2 The Unattainability of Absolute Zero; 18.3 Experimental Verification of the Third Law; 19. THE NATURE OF THE EQUILIBRIUM STATE; 19.1 Properties of the Equilibrium State of a Pure Substance; 19.2 Alternative Descriptions of the Equilibrium State for Different External Constraints; 19.3 The Stability of the Equilibrium State of a One-Component System; 19.4 The Equilibrium State in a Multicomponent System; 19.5 Chemical Equilibrium; 19.6 Thermodynamic Weight: Further Connections between Thermodynamics and Microscopic Structure; 19.7 An Application of the Canonical Ensemble: The Distribution of Molecular Speeds in a Perfect Gas; 20. AN EXTENSION OF THERMODYNAMICS TO THE DESCRIPTION OF NONEQUILIBRIUM PROCESSES; 20.1 General Form of the Equation of Continuity; 20.2 Conservation of Mass and the Diffusion Equation; 20.3 Conservation of Momentum and the Navier-Stokes Equation; 20.4 Conservation of Energy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics; 20.5 Linear Transport Processes; 20.6 Negative Temperature; 20.7 Thermodynamics of Systems at Negative Absolute Temperature; Appendix 20A: Symmetry of the Momentum Flux Tensor; 21. THE PROPERTIES OF PURE GASES AND GAS MIXTURES; 21.1 Thermodynamic Description of a Pure Gas; 21.2 Thermodynamic Description of a Gas Mixture; 21.3 Thermodynamic Description of Gaseous Reactions; 21.4 An Example: The Haber Synthesis of NH[3; 21.5 Statistical Molecular Theory of Gases and Gas Reactions; 21.6 The Statistical Molecular Theory of the Equilibrium Constant; 21.7 The Statistical Molecular Theory of the Real Gas; Appendix 21A: Influence of Symmetry of the Wave Function on the Distribution over States: Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein Statistics; Appendix 21B: Symmetry Properties of the Molecular Wave Function: Influence of Nuclear Spin on the Rotational Partition Function; Appendix 21C: The Semiclassical Partition Function; The Equation of State of an Imperfect Gas; 22. THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS; 22.1 Differences between Gases and Condensed Phases; 22.2 The Influence of Crystal Symmetry on Macroscopic Properties; 22.3 Microscopic Theory of the Thermal Properties of Crystalline Solids; 22.4 The Contribution of Anharmonicity to the Properties of a Crystal; 22.5 Some Properties of Complex Solids and of Imperfect Solids; 22.6 Electronic Heat Capacity of Metals; Appendix 22A: Evaluation of Fermi-Dirac Integrals; 23. THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF LIQUIDS; 23.1 Bulk Properties of Liquids; 23.2 The Structure of Liquids; 23.3 Relationships between the Structure and the Thermodynamic Properties of a Simple Liquid; 23.4 The Molecular Theory of Monoatomic Liquids: General Remarks; 23.5 The Molecular Theory of Monoatomic Liquids: Approximate Analyses; 23.6 The Molecular Theory of Polyatomic Liquids; Appendix 23A: X-ray Scattering from Liquids: Determination of the Structure of a Liquid; Appendix 23B: Functional Differentiation; 24. PHASE EQUILIBRIA IN ONE-COMPONENT SYSTEMS; 24.1 General Survey of Phase Equilibria; 24.2 Thermodynamics of Phase Equilibria in One-Component Systems; 24.3 Phase Transitions Viewed as Responses to Thermodynamic Instabilities; 24.4 The Statistical Molecular Description of Phase Transitions; Appendix 24A: The Scaling Hypothesis for Thermodynamic Functions; Appendix 24B: Aspects of Density Functional Theory; 25. SOLUTIONS OF NONELECTROLYTES; 25.1 The Chemical Potential of a Component in an Ideal Solution; 25.2 The Chemical Potential of a Component in a Real Solution; 25.3 Partial Molar Quantities; 25.4 Liquid-Vapor Equilibrium; 25.5 Liquid-Solid Equilibrium; 25.6 The Colligative Properties of Solutions: Boiling-Point Elevation, Freezing-Point Depression, and Osmotic Pressure; 25.7 Chemical Reactions in Nonelectrolyte Solutions; 25.8 More about Phase Equilibrium in Mixtures; 25.9 Critical Phenomena in Mixtures; 25.10 The Molecular Theory of Solutions of Nonelectrolytes; 26. EQUILIBRIUM PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS OF ELECTROLYTES; 26.1 The Chemical Potential; 26.2 Cells, Chemical Reactions, and Activity Coefficients; 26.3 Comments on the Structure of Water; 26 .4 The Influence of Solutes on the Structure of Water; 26.5 The Statistical Mechanics of Electrolyte Solutions; 26.6 Molten Salts and Molten Salt Mixtures; 26.7 The Structure of an Electrolyte Solution Near an Electrode; APPENDICES; I. Systems of Units; II. Partial Derivatives; III. Glossary of Symbols; IV. Searching the Scientific Literature; INDEXshow more

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