PREFACE; PART II: MATTER IN EQUILIBRIUM: STATISTICAL MECHANICS AND THERMODYNAMICS; 12. THE PERFECT GAS AT EQUILIBRIUM AND THE CONCEPT OF TEMPERATURE; 12.1 The Perfect Gas: Definition and Elementary Model; 12.2 The Perfect Gas: A General Relation between Pressure and Energy; 12.3 Some Comments about Thermodynamics; 12.4 Temperature and the Zero-th Law of Thermodynamics; 12.5 Empirical Temperature: The Perfect Gas Temperature Scale; 12.6 Comparison of the Microscopic and Macroscopic Approaches; 13. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS; 13.1 Microscopic and Macroscopic Energy in a Perfect Gas; 13.2 Description of Thermodynamic States; 13.3 The Concept of Work in Thermodynamics; 13.4 Intensive and Extensive Variables; 13.5 Quasi-static and Reversible Processes; 13.6 The First Law: Internal Energy and Heat; 13.7 Some Historical Notes; 13.8 Microscopic Interpretation of Internal Energy and Heat; 13.9 Constraints, Work, and Equilibrium; 14. THERMOCHEMISTRY AND ITS APPLICATIONS; 14.1 Heat Capacity and Enthalpy; 14.2 Energy and Enthalpy Changes in Chemical Reactions; 14.3 Thermochemistry of Physical Processes; 14.4 Introduction to Phase Changes; 14.5 Standard States; 14.6 Thermochemistry of Solutions; 14.7 Molecular Interpretation of Physical Processes; 14.8 Bond Energies; 14.9 Some Energy Effects in Molecular Structures; 14.10 Lattice Energies of Ionic Crystals; 15. THE CONCEPT OF ENTROPY: RELATIONSHIP TO THE ENERGY-LEVEL SPECTRUM OF A SYSTEM; 15.1 The Relationship between Average Properties and Molecular Motion in an N-Molecule System: Time Averages and Ensemble Averages; 15.2 Ensembles and Probability Distributions; 15.3 Some Properties of a System with Many Degrees of Freedom: Elements of the Statistical Theory of Matter at Equilibrium; 15.4 The Influence of Constraints on the Density of States; 15.5 The Entropy: A Potential Function for the Equilibrium State; Appendix 15A: Comments on Ensemble Theory; Appendix 15B: *W(E) as a System Descriptor; Appendix 15C: The Master Equation; 16. THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS: THE MACROSCOPIC CONCEPT OF ENTROPY; 16.1 The Second Law of Thermodynamics; 16.2 The Existence of an Entropy Function for Reversible Processes; 16.3 Irreversible Processes: The Second-Law Interpretation; 16.4 The Clausius and Kelvin Statements Revisited; 16.5 The Second Law as an Inequality; 16.6 Some Relationships between the Microscopic and Macroscopic Theories; Appendix 16A: Poincare Recurrence Times and Irreversibility; 17. SOME APPLICATIONS OF THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS; 17.1 Choice of Independent Variables; 17.2 The Available Work Concept; 17.3 Entropy Changes in Reversible Processes; 17.4 Entropy Changes in Irreversible Processes; 17.5 Entropy Changes in Phase Transitions; 18. THE THIRD LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS; 18.1 The Magnitude of the Entropy at T = 0; 18.2 The Unattainability of Absolute Zero; 18.3 Experimental Verification of the Third Law; 19. THE NATURE OF THE EQUILIBRIUM STATE; 19.1 Properties of the Equilibrium State of a Pure Substance; 19.2 Alternative Descriptions of the Equilibrium State for Different External Constraints; 19.3 The Stability of the Equilibrium State of a One-Component System; 19.4 The Equilibrium State in a Multicomponent System; 19.5 Chemical Equilibrium; 19.6 Thermodynamic Weight: Further Connections between Thermodynamics and Microscopic Structure; 19.7 An Application of the Canonical Ensemble: The Distribution of Molecular Speeds in a Perfect Gas; 20. AN EXTENSION OF THERMODYNAMICS TO THE DESCRIPTION OF NONEQUILIBRIUM PROCESSES; 20.1 General Form of the Equation of Continuity; 20.2 Conservation of Mass and the Diffusion Equation; 20.3 Conservation of Momentum and the Navier-Stokes Equation; 20.4 Conservation of Energy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics; 20.5 Linear Transport Processes; 20.6 Negative Temperature; 20.7 Thermodynamics of Systems at Negative Absolute Temperature; Appendix 20A: Symmetry of the Momentum Flux Tensor; 21. THE PROPERTIES OF PURE GASES AND GAS MIXTURES; 21.1 Thermodynamic Description of a Pure Gas; 21.2 Thermodynamic Description of a Gas Mixture; 21.3 Thermodynamic Description of Gaseous Reactions; 21.4 An Example: The Haber Synthesis of NH[3; 21.5 Statistical Molecular Theory of Gases and Gas Reactions; 21.6 The Statistical Molecular Theory of the Equilibrium Constant; 21.7 The Statistical Molecular Theory of the Real Gas; Appendix 21A: Influence of Symmetry of the Wave Function on the Distribution over States: Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein Statistics; Appendix 21B: Symmetry Properties of the Molecular Wave Function: Influence of Nuclear Spin on the Rotational Partition Function; Appendix 21C: The Semiclassical Partition Function; The Equation of State of an Imperfect Gas; 22. THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS; 22.1 Differences between Gases and Condensed Phases; 22.2 The Influence of Crystal Symmetry on Macroscopic Properties; 22.3 Microscopic Theory of the Thermal Properties of Crystalline Solids; 22.4 The Contribution of Anharmonicity to the Properties of a Crystal; 22.5 Some Properties of Complex Solids and of Imperfect Solids; 22.6 Electronic Heat Capacity of Metals; Appendix 22A: Evaluation of Fermi-Dirac Integrals; 23. THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF LIQUIDS; 23.1 Bulk Properties of Liquids; 23.2 The Structure of Liquids; 23.3 Relationships between the Structure and the Thermodynamic Properties of a Simple Liquid; 23.4 The Molecular Theory of Monoatomic Liquids: General Remarks; 23.5 The Molecular Theory of Monoatomic Liquids: Approximate Analyses; 23.6 The Molecular Theory of Polyatomic Liquids; Appendix 23A: X-ray Scattering from Liquids: Determination of the Structure of a Liquid; Appendix 23B: Functional Differentiation; 24. PHASE EQUILIBRIA IN ONE-COMPONENT SYSTEMS; 24.1 General Survey of Phase Equilibria; 24.2 Thermodynamics of Phase Equilibria in One-Component Systems; 24.3 Phase Transitions Viewed as Responses to Thermodynamic Instabilities; 24.4 The Statistical Molecular Description of Phase Transitions; Appendix 24A: The Scaling Hypothesis for Thermodynamic Functions; Appendix 24B: Aspects of Density Functional Theory; 25. SOLUTIONS OF NONELECTROLYTES; 25.1 The Chemical Potential of a Component in an Ideal Solution; 25.2 The Chemical Potential of a Component in a Real Solution; 25.3 Partial Molar Quantities; 25.4 Liquid-Vapor Equilibrium; 25.5 Liquid-Solid Equilibrium; 25.6 The Colligative Properties of Solutions: Boiling-Point Elevation, Freezing-Point Depression, and Osmotic Pressure; 25.7 Chemical Reactions in Nonelectrolyte Solutions; 25.8 More about Phase Equilibrium in Mixtures; 25.9 Critical Phenomena in Mixtures; 25.10 The Molecular Theory of Solutions of Nonelectrolytes; 26. EQUILIBRIUM PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS OF ELECTROLYTES; 26.1 The Chemical Potential; 26.2 Cells, Chemical Reactions, and Activity Coefficients; 26.3 Comments on the Structure of Water; 26 .4 The Influence of Solutes on the Structure of Water; 26.5 The Statistical Mechanics of Electrolyte Solutions; 26.6 Molten Salts and Molten Salt Mixtures; 26.7 The Structure of an Electrolyte Solution Near an Electrode; APPENDICES; I. Systems of Units; II. Partial Derivatives; III. Glossary of Symbols; IV. Searching the Scientific Literature; INDEX

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