Introduction. 1: Evolution of States of Quantum Systems of Finitely Many Particles. 1. Principal Concepts of Quantum Mechanics. 2. Evolution of States of Quantum Systems with Arbitrarily Many Particles. 3. Evolution of States in the Heisenberg Representation and in the Interaction Representation. Mathematical Supplement I. References. 2: Evolution of States of Infinite Quantum Systems. 4. Bogolyubov Equations for Statistical Operators. 5. Solution of the Bogolyubov Equations. 6. Gibbs Distributions. Mathematical Supplement II. Mathematical Supplement III. References. 3: Thermodynamic Limit. 7. Thermodynamic Limit for Statistical Operators. 8. Statistical Operators in the Case of Quantum Statistics. 9. Bogolyubov's Principle of Weakening of Correlations. Mathematical Supplement IV. References. 4: Mathematical Problems in the Theory of Superconductivity. 10. Froehlich Model. 11. Bogolyubov's Compensation Principle for `Dangerous' Diagrams. Compensation Equations. 12. Bardeen--Cooper--Schrieffer (BCS) Hamiltonian. 13. Microscopic Theory of Superfluidity. Mathematical Supplement V. References. 6: Green's Functions. 14. Green's Functions. Equations for Green's Functions. 15. Investigation of the Equations for Green's Functions in the Theory of Superconductivity and Superfluidity. 16. Green's Functions in the Thermodynamic Limit. References. 6: Exactly Solvable Models. 17. Description of the Hamiltonians of Model Systems. 18. Functional Spaces of Translation--Invariant Function. 19. ModelHamiltonians in the Spaces of Translation Invariant Functions. 20. Model BCS Hamiltonian in the Space hT. Equivalence of General and Model Hamiltonians in the Space of Pairs. 21. Equations for Green's Functions and their Solutions. Mathematical Supplement VI. References. 7: Quasiaverages. Theorem on Singularities of Green's Functions of 1/q2-Type. 22. Quasiaverages. 23. Green's Functions and their Spectral Representations. 24. Theorem on Singularities of Green's Functions of 1/q2-Type. References. Subject Index.