Marine Fisheries Ecology

Marine Fisheries Ecology

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Description

This topical and exciting textbook describes fisheries exploitation, biology, conservation and management, and reflects many recent and important changes in fisheries science. These include growing concerns about the environmental impacts of fisheries, the role of ecological interactions in determining population dynamics, and the incorporation of uncertainty and precautionary principles into management advice. The book draws upon examples from tropical, temperate and polar environments, and provides readers with a broad understanding of the biological, economic and social aspects of fisheries ecology and the interplay between them. As well as covering 'classical' fisheries science, the book focuses on contemporary issues such as industrial fishing, poverty and conflict in fishing communities, marine reserves, the effects of fishing on coral reefs and by-catches of mammals, seabirds and reptiles. The book is primarily written for students of fisheries science and marine ecology, but should also appeal to practicing fisheries scientists and those interested in conservation and the impacts of humans on the marine environment.




particularly useful are the modelling chapters which explain the difficult maths involved in a user-friendly manner
describes fisheries exploitation, conservation and management in tropical, temperate and polar environments
broad coverage of 'clasical' fisheries science
emphasis on new approaches to fisheries science and the ecosystem effects of fishing
examples based on the latest research and drawn from authors' international experience
comprehensively referenced throughout
extensively illustrated with photographs and line drawings
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Product details

  • Paperback | 432 pages
  • 187.96 x 243.84 x 22.86mm | 1,020.58g
  • Blackwell Science Ltd
  • Oxford, United Kingdom
  • English
  • 0632050985
  • 9780632050987
  • 430,314

Back cover copy

This topical and exciting textbook describes fisheries exploitation, biology, conservation and management, and reflects many recent and important changes in fisheries science. These include growing concerns about the environmental impacts of fisheries, the role of ecological interactions in determining population dynamics, and the incorporation of uncertainty and precautionary principles into management advice. The book draws upon examples from tropical, temperate and polar environments, and provides readers with a broad understanding of the biological, economic and social aspects of fisheries ecology and the interplay between them. As well as covering 'classical' fisheries science, the book focuses on contemporary issues such as industrial fishing, poverty and conflict in fishing communities, marine reserves, the effects of fishing on coral reefs and by-catches of mammals, seabirds and reptiles. The book is primarily written for students of fisheries science and marine ecology, but should also appeal to practising fisheries scientists and those interested in conservation and the impacts of humans on the marine environment.
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Table of contents

Preface ix


Acknowledgements xii


1 Marine fisheries ecology: an introduction 1


1.1 Introduction 1


1.2 Fisheries of the world 1


1.2.1 History of fisheries 1


1.2.2 Fishery science 6


1.2.3 Diversity of fisheries 7


1.3 Patterns of exploitation 9


1.3.1 Boom and bust 9


1.3.2 Conservation and ecosystem concerns 14


1.4 Why manage fisheries? 14


1.5 Objectives of management 15


1.5.1 Range of objectives 15


1.5.2 Balancing objectives 16


1.5.3 From objective to action 17


1.6 Meeting management objectives 17


1.7 Structure of this book 18


Summary 20


2 Marine ecology and production processes 21


2.1 Introduction 21


2.2 Primary production: sources and magnitude 21


2.3 Phytoplanktonic production 22


2.3.1 Links between production and physical processes 22


2.3.2 Upwellings and fronts 24


2.3.3 Rates of phytoplanktonic production 25


2.4 Non-phytoplanktonic production 28


2.4.1 Macroalgae 28


2.4.2 Mangroves 29


2.4.3 Coral reef algae 29


2.4.4 Seagrasses and marsh plants 30


2.4.5 Microphytobenthos 31


2.5 Heterotrophic production 31


2.5.1 The fate of primary production 31


2.5.2 Transfer along the food chain 32


2.5.3 Production of fished species 34


2.5.4 Linking primary production and landings 37


Summary 38


3 Fished species life histories and distribution 39


3.1 Introduction 39


3.2 Fishes 39


3.3 Invertebrates 41


3.4 Life histories 55


3.4.1 Sex sex reversal and sex ratios 55


3.4.2 Growth maturity and longevity 56


3.4.3 Egg size fecundity and reproduction 59


3.5 Distribution in space and time 62


3.5.1 Geographical ranges and stock structures 62


3.5.2 Migration 62


3.5.3 Larval transport retention and dispersal 65


3.5.4 Metapopulations 68


Summary 69


4 Population structure in space and time 70


4.1 Introduction 70


4.2 Recruitment 70


4.2.1 Spawner and recruit relationships 71


4.2.2 Mortality during the early life history 78


4.2.3 Depensation 83


4.2.4 Regulation in fish populations 85


4.3 Density-dependent habitat use 86


Summary 88


5 Fishing gears and techniques 90


5.1 Introduction 90


5.2 From shoreline gathering to satellites 90


5.3 Modern commercial fishing gears 94


5.3.1 Towed fishing gear 95


5.3.2 Static fishing gear 103


5.4 Other fishing techniques 106


5.5 Conservation methods 108


Summary 111


6 Fishers: socioeconomics and human ecology 112


6.1 Introduction 112


6.2 Motivations for fishing 112


6.2.1 Food 112


6.2.2 Income 113


6.3 Modifications to fishing behaviour 115


6.3.1 Social 115


6.3.2 Religion 117


6.4 Conflicts and conflict resolution 118


6.4.1 Competing for fish 118


6.4.2 Fish wars 121


6.4.3 Fishers in the political process 122


6.4.4 Traditional management systems 123


6.4.5 Customary marine tenure 124


6.4.6 Co-management 125


Summary 126


7 Single-species stock assessment 127


7.1 Introduction 127


7.2 Balancing birth and death 127


7.3 Surplus production models 128


7.3.1 Stability 128


7.3.2 Models of population growth 130


7.3.3 Fitting models to data 130


7.3.4 Surplus production models in action 132


7.4 Delay difference models 135


7.4.1 Delay difference models in action 137


7.5 Virtual population analysis 138


7.5.1 Age-based cohort analysis 140


7.5.2 Length-based cohort analysis 143


7.6 Statistical catch-at-age methods 144


7.7 Yield-per-recruit models 145


7.7.1 Yield-per-recruit models in action 146


7.8 Incorporating recruitment 149


7.8.1 Replacement lines 149


7.8.2 Replacement lines in action 150


7.9 Confronting risk and uncertainty 152


7.9.1 Bayesian analysis 153


7.9.2 Resampling methods 154


7.10 Biological reference points 155


Summary 157


8 Multispecies assessment and ecosystem modelling 159


8.1 Introduction 159


8.2 Multispecies surplus production 159


8.2.1 Multispecies surplus production in action 160


8.3 Multispecies yield per recruit 162


8.3.1 Multispecies yield per recruit in action 162


8.4 Multispecies virtual population analysis 162


8.4.1 Multispecies VPA in action 164


8.4.2 Applying MSVPA data to single-species model 169


8.5 Predators prey and competitors 169


8.5.1 Predator prey dynamics 169


8.5.2 Competition an unexpected result 170


8.5.3 Management implications 171


8.6 Size spectra 171


8.7 Ecosystem models 173


8.7.1 Ecosystem models in action 174


Summary 177


9 Getting the data: stock identity and dynamics 178


9.1 Introduction 178


9.2 Stock identification 178


9.2.1 The stock concept 178


9.2.2 Methods of stock identification 178


9.3 Stock dynamics 184


9.3.1 Sampling 184


9.3.2 Length weight and age 189


9.3.3 Growth 195


9.3.4 Maturity 199


9.3.5 Fecundity 199


9.3.6 Mortality 201


9.4 The impact of errors 203


Summary 204


10 Getting the data: abundance catch and effort 205


10.1 Introduction 205


10.2 Abundance 205


10.2.1 Survey design 205


10.2.2 Visual census methods 206


10.2.3 Acoustic methods 209


10.2.4 Trawl surveys 210


10.2.5 Depletion methods 213


10.2.6 Mark recapture methods 214


10.2.7 Egg production methods 214


10.3 The fishery 219


Summary 221


11 Bioeconomics 223


11.1 Introduction 223


11.2 The value of fisheries 223


11.2.1 Trade in fished species 223


11.2.2 Catch values and employment 224


11.3 Bioeconomic models 225


11.3.1 Descriptive bioeconomics 226


11.3.2 Optimal fishing strategies 230


11.3.3 Bayesian methods 235


11.4 Economic vs. social management objectives 237


11.4.1 Subsidies 237


11.4.2 The case for economic efficiency 237


Summary 238


12 Fishing effects on populations and communities 239


12.1 Introduction 239


12.2 Vulnerability to fishing 239


12.2.1 Behaviour 239


12.2.2 Life histories 241


12.3 Intraspecific effects 242


12.3.1 Age and size structure 242


12.3.2 Reproduction 243


12.3.3 Genetic structure 244


12.4 Community effects 245


12.4.1 Diversity 245


12.4.2 Community structure 250


12.4.3 Size structure 251


12.4.4 Competition and trophic interactions 252


Summary 256


13 Bycatches and discards 258


13.1 Introduction 258


13.2 Catches discards and bycatches 258


13.2.1 Definitions 258


13.2.2 Reasons for discarding 258


13.3 Alternatives to discarding 260


13.4 Fisheries and bycatches 260


13.5 Incidental captures 262


13.5.1 Seabirds 262


13.5.2 Sea turtles 264


13.5.3 Sea snakes 265


13.5.4 Marine mammals 265


13.6 Methods to reduce bycatches 267


13.7 Ghost fishing 267


13.8 Sociocultural differences 270


Summary 271


14 Impacts on benthic communities habitats and coral reefs 272


14.1 Introduction 272


14.2 Fishing disturbance 272


14.2.1 Fishing vs. natural disturbance 272


14.2.2 Distribution of fishing disturbance 273


14.3 Direct effects of fishing gear on the seabed 276


14.3.1 Towed fishing gear 276


14.3.2 Direct effects on the substratum 277


14.3.3 Effects on infauna 277


14.3.4 Effects on epifauna 281


14.3.5 Meta-analysis 284


14.4 Effects of static fishing gears 284


14.5 Long-term effects 285


14.6 Fishing as a source of energy subsidies 288


14.6.1 Have population changes occurred? 290


14.7 Indirect effects on habitats 290


14.7.1 Loose seabeds 290


14.7.2 Coral reefs 291


Summary 293


15 Fishery interactions with birds and mammals 294


15.1 Introduction 294


15.2 Birds 294


15.2.1 Competition between birds and fisheries 296


15.2.2 Benefits of discarding 300


15.2.3 Waders and shellfish 301


15.3 Mammals 303


15.3.1 Competition between mammals and fisheries 304


15.3.2 Prey release 307


Summary 309


16 A role for aquaculture? 310


16.1 Introduction 310


16.2 Aquaculture past and present 310


16.3 What is cultivated? 312


16.4 Production systems 313


16.5 Feeding constraints 314


16.6 Prospects for expansion 314


16.6.1 Cage cultivation 316


16.6.2 Stock enhancement and ranching 318


16.7 Case studies 319


16.7.1 Shrimp farming 319


16.7.2 Bivalve mariculture 322


Summary 326


17 Management and conservation options 327


17.1 Introduction 327


17.2 Management objectives strategies and actions 327


17.2.1 From objective to action 327


17.2.2 Catch control 328


17.2.3 Effort control 331


17.2.4 Technical measures 331


17.2.5 Management in action 332


17.3 Improving management 335


17.3.1 Enforcement and compliance 335


17.3.2 Co-management 337


17.3.3 Ownership of resources and harvesting rights 338


17.3.4 Uncertainty and the precautionary approach 338


17.3.5 Role of science 339


17.4 Multispecies and ecosystem-based management 341


17.4.1 What are the objectives? 341


17.4.2 What can be achieved? 341


17.5 Managing fisheries for conservation 342


17.5.1 Endangered species 342


17.5.2 Habitats 343


17.5.3 Protected areas and no-take zones 344


17.6 Future trends 346


17.6.1 Fisheries science 346


17.6.2 Fisheries management 346


Summary 347


References 348


Appendices


1 List of symbols 380


2 Fisheries websites 385


3 Geographic index 389


Index 393
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Review quote

"The book is indeed a boon to both the student and teaching communities."Pashudhan "...this book, better than any other single volume I know at present, covers topics that will be important in future ecosystem-based management of fisheries." Fish and Fisheries "Well-written and thoughtfully put together" Professor Terry Quinn (Alaska, Fairbanks) "This book will be widely read and cited"Professor Jeremy Collie (Rhode Island) "Marine Fisheries Ecology is a work of art that provides a broad, ecosystem-level understanding of the biological, economic, and social factors affecting and motivating diverse fisheries at global scales. This "must-read" is an extremely well-written and expertly organized treatise. It will have significant appeal for the established fisheries professional and the student and lecturer alike, including informed members of the public interested in marine ecology and production processes, patterns of fisheries exploitation, socioeconomics, and the complexities of aquatic resource politics and decisionmaking..." Carl V. BurgerPast President, American Fisheries Society -and- Chair of the Executive Committee, 4th World Fisheries Congress, Vancouver, B.C. Canada
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