Manufacture of Cement; Manufacture of Paper Manufacture of Sugar Petroleum and Products Manufacture of Gas

Manufacture of Cement; Manufacture of Paper Manufacture of Sugar Petroleum and Products Manufacture of Gas

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This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1902 edition. Excerpt: ...The granulating in the pan is readily recognized by the practical sugar boiler. Among the empirical tests may be mentioned the thread test. A drop of the liquid is taken up between the thumb and the forefinger, and the concentration is judged by the length to which a thread can be drawn out and the manner in which it breaks. It may be said, as a rule, that if it is possible to draw a thread about J inch without breaking, the granulation point has been reached. In boiling for large grain, it is essential to grain low. The grain commences to form minute specks, and these rapidly increase in size as well as in number, until the whole mass of liquor is filled with them. As each lot of sirup is admitted, it deposits on the grains already formed, causing these to grow larger and larger. During granulation, care should be taken not to allow the temperature to rise above 71 to 78 C. (160 to 173 F.), although this temperature may be raised later on, in order to harden the crystals. But this must not be done too soon after graining, or the contrary of the desired effect will take place; that is, the crystals will melt again. 51. Rules for Graining Sirup In the Vacuum Pan. The thinner the sirup that is admitted into the pan, the larger will be the crystals produced. For this large-grained sugar a few, but heavy, charges should be admitted, so as to give the grain enough time to grow; the larger the crystals required, the more quietly and slowly should the boiling be conducted. To make regular grain, granulation is brought about very slowly, and on no account must the grain be forced by boiling very high before the first charge. In pan boiling, it is important to avoid forming "false grain." The two stages when this is most liable to happen are: ...
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Product details

  • Paperback | 164 pages
  • 189 x 246 x 9mm | 304g
  • Miami Fl, United States
  • English
  • black & white illustrations
  • 1236561422
  • 9781236561428