MRI in Practice
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MRI in Practice

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MRI in Practice continues to be the number one reference book and study guide for the registry review examination for MRI offered by the American Registry for Radiologic Technologists (ARRT). This latest edition offers in-depth chapters covering all core areas, including: basic principles, image weighting and contrast, spin and gradient echo pulse sequences, spatial encoding, k-space, protocol optimization, artefacts, instrumentation, and MRI safety.



The leading MRI reference book and study guide.
Now with a greater focus on the physics behind MRI.
Offers, for the first time, equations and their explanations and scan tips.
Brand new chapters on MRI equipment, vascular imaging and safety.
Presented in full color, with additional illustrations and high-quality MRI images to aid understanding.
Includes refined, updated and expanded content throughout, along with more learning tips and practical applications.
Features a new glossary.

MRI in Practice is an important text for radiographers, technologists, radiology residents, radiologists, and other students and professionals working within imaging, including medical physicists and nurses.
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Product details

  • Paperback | 416 pages
  • 203 x 252 x 18mm | 904g
  • Wiley-Blackwell
  • Hoboken, United States
  • English
  • 5th Edition
  • 1119391962
  • 9781119391968
  • 24,873

Back cover copy

MRI IN PRACTICE

MRI in Practice continues to be the number one reference book and study guide for magnetic resonance imaging, including for the registry review examination for MRI offered by the American Registry for Radiologic Technologists (ARRT). This latest edition offers in-depth chapters covering all core areas, such as: basic principles, image weighting and contrast, spin and gradient echo pulse sequences, spatial encoding, k-space, protocol optimization, artefacts, instrumentation, and MRI safety. The leading MRI reference book and study guide. Now with a greater focus on the physics behind MRI. Offers, for the first time, equations and their explanations and scan tips. Brand new chapters on MRI equipment, vascular imaging and safety. Presented in full color, with additional illustrations and high-quality MRI images to aid understanding. Includes refined, updated and expanded content throughout, along with more learning tips and practical applications. Features a new glossary.

MRI in Practice is an important text for radiographers, technologists, radiology residents, radiologists, and other students and professionals working within imaging, including medical physicists and nurses.
show more

Table of contents

Preface to the Fifth Edition ix


Acknowledgments xi


List of Acronyms xiii


Equation symbols xvii


About the Companion Website xix


Chapter 1 Basic principles 1


Introduction 1


Atomic structure 2


Motion in the atom 2


MR active nuclei 4


The hydrogen nucleus 5


Alignment 6


Net magnetic vector (NMV) 8


Precession and precessional (Larmor) frequency 10


Precessional phase 13


Resonance 13


MR signal 18

The free Induction decay(FDI) signal 20

Pulse timing parameters 22


Chapter 2 Image weighting and contrast 24


Introduction 24


Image contrast 25


Relaxation 25


T1 recovery 26


T2 decay 27


Contrast mechanisms 31


Relaxation in different tissues 32


T1 contrast 36


T2 contrast 40


Proton density contrast 41


Weighting 42


Other contrast mechanisms 51


Chapter 3 Spin echo pulse sequences 58


Introduction 58


RF rephasing 59


Conventional spin echo 65


Fast or turbo spin echo FSE/TSE) 68


Inversion recovery (IR) 78


Short tau inversion recovery (STIR) 82


Fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) 84


Chapter 4 Gradient echo pulse sequences 89



Introduction 89


Variable flip angle 90


Gradient rephasing 91


Weighting in gradient echo pulse sequences 94


Coherent or rewound gradient echo 106


Incoherent or spoiled gradient echo 109


Reverse-echo gradient echo 113


Balanced gradient echo 119


Fast gradient echo 122


Echo planar imaging (EPI) 122


Chapter 5 Spatial encoding 128


Introduction 128


Mechanism of gradients 129


Gradient axes 134


Slice-selection 135


Frequency encoding 142


Phase encoding 145


Bringing it all together - pulse sequence timing 152


Chapter 6 k-space 158



Introduction 158


Part 1 - what is k-space? 159


Part 2 - how are data acquired and how are images created from this data? 165


Part 3 -some important facts about k-space 184


Part 4: how do pulse sequences fill k-space? 197


Part 5: options that fill k-space 199


Chapter 7 Protocol optimization 209


Introduction 209


Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) 210


Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) 226


Spatial resolution 232


Scan time 237


Trade-offs 238


Protocol development and modification 238


Chapter 8 Artefacts 242


Introduction 242


Phase mismapping 243


Aliasing 253


Chemical shift artefact 261


Out-of-phase signal cancellation 265


Magnetic susceptibility artefact 269


Truncation artefact 272


Cross-excitation/cross-talk 273


Zipper artefact 275


Shading artefact 276


Moire artefact 277


Magic angle 279


Equipment faults 280


Flow artefacts 280


Flow-dependent (non-contrast enhanced) angiography 298


Black-blood imaging 303


Phase contrast MRA 304


Chapter 9 Instrumentation 311


Introduction 311


Magnetism 313


Scanner configurations 315


Magnet system 318


Magnet shielding 326


Shim system 328


Gradient system 330


RF system 337


Patient transport system 343


Computer system and graphic user interface 344


Chapter 10 MRI safety 346


Introduction (and disclaimer) 346


Definitions used in MRI safety 347


Psychological effects 350


The spatially-varying static field 351


Electromagnetic (radiofrequency) fields 357


Time-Varying Gradient Magnetic Fields 363


Cryogens 365


Safety tips 367


Additional resources 368


Glossary 370


Index 387
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About Catherine Westbrook

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

CATHERINE WESTBROOK, Senior Lecturer and Course Leader, MSc Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK.

JOHN TALBOT, Senior Lecturer, MSc Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK.
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