Modern Korean Grammar
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Modern Korean Grammar : A Practical Guide

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Routledge's Modern Grammar series is an innovative reference guide combining traditional and function-focused grammar in a single volume, with an accompanying workbook. The aim of the Modern Korean Grammar is to provide an overview of the structures and functions of the Korean language. Designed for those who have already acquired the basics of the language, the book combines a comprehensive description of the grammatical structures of Korean with a functional/usage approach to the language. All target grammatical and functional points will be illustrated with examples in Hangul with English translations for better understanding. In addition, the use of linguistic terminology is limited, to facilitate quick and easy comprehension.show more

Product details

  • Paperback | 366 pages
  • 174 x 246 x 17.78mm | 975.22g
  • Taylor & Francis Ltd
  • ROUTLEDGE
  • London, United Kingdom
  • English, Korean
  • Bilingual edition
  • Bilingual
  • 2 black & white tables
  • 1138931314
  • 9781138931312
  • 748,890

About Andrew Sangpil Byon

Andrew Sangpil Byon is Department Chair and Associate Professor of Korean Studies at the University at Albany, USA. As a Korean applied linguist, his primary research areas are sociolinguistics, Korean-as-a-foreign/second language (KFL) pedagogy, and second language acquisition (for American KFL learners).show more

Table of contents

Acknowledgements Preface Part A: Structures Chapter 1: Nouns Notes before reading 1.1 Three groups in the Korean nouns 1.2 Noun formation 1.3 Prenouns and Bound nouns 1.4 Some characteristics of Korean nouns 1.4.1 Positions 1.4.2 Gender 1.4.3 Plurality 1.4.4 Collocations 1.4.5 Honorific nouns Chapter 2: Pronouns 2.1 The first person pronoun 2.2 The second person pronoun 2.3 The third person pronoun 2.4 Indefinite pronouns Chapter 3: Numbers and Counters 3.1 Numbers 3.2 Counters 3.3 Sino-Korean numbers vs. native Korean numbers 3.4 Counting 3.5 Ordinals Chapter 4: Nominalizers 4.1 The nominalizing ending ~ 4.1.1 ~ "difficult to" 4.1.2 ~ / "just after" 4.1.3 ~ "depending on ~ing" 4.1.4 ~ ( )? "What do you mean?" 4.1.5 ~ "at least do" 4.1.6 ~ "indeed" 4.1.7 ~ "far from ~ing" 4.1.8 ~ "also does" 4.1.9 ~ "because of ~ing" 4.1.10 ~ "decide to" 4.1.11 ~ / "hope" 4.1.12 ~ "bound to" 4.1.13 ~ " begin" 4.1.14 ~ "it is easy to" 4.1.15 ~ "as for (doing something)" 4.1.16 ~ "according to" 4.1.17 ~ "before ~ing" 4.1.18 ~ "as for ~ing" 4.1.19 ~ "routinely" 4.1.20 ~ "before ~ing" 4.1.21 ~ "beyond measure" 4.2 The nominalizing ending ~( ) 4.3 The nominalizing ending ~ 4.4 The use of ~ to create a noun form Chapter 5: Case particles I 5.1 Case and special particles 5.2 Characteristics of particles 5.3 The subject particle / 5.3.1 The particle / in negation 5.3.2 Double subject constructions 5.3.3 Interplay between the subject and the topic particles 5.4 The direct object particle / 5.5 The possessive particle Chapter 6: Case particles II 6.1 Particles of location and movement 6.1.1 "to/in/at/per/in addition to" 6.1.2 ( ) "in/on/addition to" 6.1.3 "from/at/in" 6.1.4 ( ) "from" 6.1.5 / / "to" 6.1.6 ( )/ ( ) "from" 6.2 Instrumental particle 6.2.1 ( ) ( / ) "as/by/with" 6.3 Comitative particles 6.3.1 / "and/with" 6.3.2 ( ) "and/with" 6.3.3 "and/with" Chapter 7: Special particles I 7.1 The differences between case and special particles 7.2 Particles of topic and focus 7.2.1 / "as for" 7.2.2 ( ) "if it be" 7.2.3 ( ) "indeed" 7.3 Particles of comparison and contrast 7.3.1 "more than" 7.3.2 / "like" 7.3.3 "as...as" 7.3.4 "unusually" 7.3.5 "in accordance with" 7.4 Particles of frequency 7.4.1 "every" 7.4.2 "each" Chapter 8: Special particles II 8.1 Particles of extent 8.1.1 "from" 8.1.2 "to, until, including (even)" 8.1.3 "also, even" 8.1.4 / "even" 8.1.5 "only" 8.1.6 "nothing but" 8.1.7 "only, just" 8.1.8 / "far from" 8.2 Particles of approximation and optionality 8.2.1 "about" 8.2.2 ( ) "about, or, just" Chapter 9: Verbs, adjectives, and copula 9.1 Verbs and adjectives 9.1.1 Stems 9.1.2 Vowel- and consonant-based stems 9.2 Endings 9.2.1 Pre-final endings 9.2.2 Non-sentence-final endings 9.2.3 Sentence-final endings 9.3 The copula Chapter 10: Irregular predicates 10.1 -irregular 10.2 -irregular 10.3 -irregular 10.4 -irregular 10.5 -Irregular 10.6 -irregular 10.7 -irregular Chapter 11: Past tense 11.1 Past tense marker ~ / 11.2 Double past tense marker ~ / 11.3 The retrospective suffix ~ Chapter 12: Future tense and aspect 12.1 Future tenses 12.1.1 ~( ) "will" 12.1.2 ~( ) "will(intend)" 12.1.3 ~( ) "will(promise)" 12.1.4 ~ "will (intend), conjecture" 12.2 Continuous tense/aspect 12.2.1 ~ 12.2.2 ~ / Chapter 13: Auxiliary verbs I 13.1 ~ / / "continue to" 13.2 ~ / "do all the way to the very end" 13.3 ~ / (or ) "do for later" 13.4 ~ / "do continuously" 13.5 ~ / "end up doing" 13.6 ~ / "try (doing something)" Chapter14: Auxiliary verbs II 14.1 ~ / "appear to be" 14.2 ~ / "fall into a negative state" 14.3 ~ / "do for" 14.4 ~ / "do hurriedly" 14.5 ~ / "be in the state of" 14.6 ~ / "become" Chapter 15: Auxiliary verbs III 15.1 ~ "end up ~ing" 15.2 ~ "try (doing something first) and see later" 15.3 ~ "want" 15.4 ~( ) "am afraid/wonder" 15.5 ~( ) "am thinking of" 15.6 ~( ) / "I am thinking of ~ing" 15.7 ~ /( ) "I guess" 15.8 ~ "turns out" 15.9 ~ / / "must" Chapter 16: Clausal connectives I 16.1 Restrictions 16.2 Clausal conjunctives (reasons and cause) 16.2.1 ~ / "so, and then" 16.2.2 ~( ) "as, since, because" 16.2.3 ~( ) "since" 16.2.4 ~ "as a result of" 16.2.5 ~( ) "because of" 16.2.6 ~ "but, since" 16.2.7 ~ "so, since" Chapter 17: Clausal connectives II 17.1 Clausal conjunctives (background) 17.1.1 ~ /( ) "and, but, while" 17.1.2 ~( ) "I guess that..." 17.2 Clausal conjunctives (contrast) 17.2.1 ~ "although" 17.2.2 ~( ) "but, however" 17.2.3 ~( ) "whether. or not" 17.2.4 ~ / "although" 17.2.5 ~ /( ) "although, even after" 17.2.6 ~ "even though" 17.2.7 ~ / "even if it means" 17.2.8 ~ "even after" 17.2.9 ~( ) "even if, granted that" 17.2.10 ~( ) "even if" 17.2.11 ~( ) "even though" 17.2.12 ~( ) "even if" 17.2.13 ~ "rather, instead of doing X" 17.2.14 ~ "even though" Chapter 18: Clausal connectives III 18.1 Clausal conjunctives (intention) 18.1.1 ~( ) "to, in order to" 18.1.2 ~( ) "to, intending to" 18.1.3 ~( ) "intending to" 18.1.4 ~ "intending to" 18.1.5 ~ "so that" 18.1.6 ~ "so that, to the extent that" 18.2 Clausal conjunctives (conditions) 18.2.1 ~( ) "if, when" 18.2.2 ~( ) "if/when (one intends to do)" 18.2.3 ~ / "if/when (something had been the case)" 18.2.4 ~ "if, when" 18.2.5 ~ / "only if" 18.2.6 ~( ) "the more. the more" Chapter 19: Clausal conjunctives IV 19.1 Clausal conjunctive endings (sequence) 19.1.1 ~ "and, and also, as well" 19.1.2 ~ "and, and then" 19.1.3 ~ "as well as" 19.1.4 ~( ) "while" 19.1.5 ~( ) "and, and on the other hand" 19.1.6 ~ "as soon as" 19.1.7 ~ "while doing, do and then" 19.3 Clausal connective (option) 19.2.1 ~ "or" 19.2.2 ~ "or, or else, regardless" 19.3 Clausal connective (comparison) 19.3.1 ~ "like, as, as if" 19.3.2 ~ "just as, as if" Chapter 20: Negation 20.1 The short form negation [ / + predicate] 20.2 The long form Negation: ~ and ~ 20.3 The negative auxiliary verb ~ 20.4 Sino-Korean negative prefixes Chapter 21: Modifers 21.1 The noun-modifying ending ~ 21.2 The noun-modifying ending ~( ) 21.3 The noun-modifying ending ~( ) 21.4 The noun-modifying ending ~ 21.5 Placing a noun-modifying unit in a sentence Chapter 22: Expressions with modifier clauses I 22.1 ~ /( ) /( ) / "It seems" 22.2 ~ /( ) "the fact is" 22.3 ~( ) "to do A and to do B" 22.4 ~( ) "plan to" 22.5 ~ /( ) "since/while you are at it/doing it" 22.6 ~ / "on the way to/from" 22.7 ~( ) "after" 22.8 ~( ) "thanks to" 22.9 ~ /( ) "as soon as" 22.10 ~ / "while" 22.11 ~ /( ) /( ) / "seems" 22.12 ~( ) "when" Chapter 23: Expressions with modifier clauses II 23.1 ~( ) "it is not possible that" 23.2 ~( ) "worth" 23.3 ~ /( ) /( ) "appears to" 23.4 ~( ) "rather... than" 23.5 ~ /( ) "because of" 23.6 ~ /( ) "on the other hand" 23.7 ~ "its certain that" 23.8 ~( ) "it is likely" 23.9 ~( ) "almost" 23.10 ~( ) "only" 23.11 ~( ) / "can/cannot" 23.12 ~ /( ) "since, unless" 23.13 ~( ) / / "ever, never" Chapter 24: Expressions with modifier clauses III 24.1 ~( ) "to the extent that" 24.2 ~ /( ) /( ) / "know/think" 24.3 ~ ( ) "in the middle of" 24.4 ~ "be in the middle of" 24.5 ~( ) / "It's been...since" 24.6 ~( ) "just as it is, while" 24.7 ~ /( ) / "pretend" 24.8 ~ /( ) / "because of" 24.9 ~ /( ) "tend to" 24.10 ~ ( ) "as long as" Chapter 25: Sentence endings I 25.1 ~ ( ) "you see" 25.2 ~ ( ) "of course" 25.3 ~ ( ) "Oh I see...!" 25.4 ~ ( ) "Wow, I see that..." 25.4.1 ~ 25.4.2 ~ / Chapter 26: Sentence endings II 26.1 ~( ) ( ) "regrets, guessing" 26.2 ~( ) ( )? "wondering' 26.3 ~( ) "I am afraid that.." 26.4 ~( ) "go ahead (giving orders)" 26.5 ~ ( ) "you know" 26.6 ~ ( ) "right?" Chapter 27: Addressee honorifics: Speech level endings 27.1 Korean honorifics 27.2 Addressee honorifics: Speech level endings 27.2.1 The formal speech level 27.2.2 The polite speech level 27.2.3 The intimate speech level 27.2.4 The plain speech level 27.2.5 The familiar speech level and the blunt speech level Chapter 28: Referent honorifics 28.1 The subject honorific suffix ~( ) 28.2 Honorific verbs/adjectives 28.3 The honorific particles & 28.4 The object honorification by using "humble verbs" 28.5 Honorific nouns 28.6 Using the honorific elements together Chapter 29: The passive construction 29.1 The passive suffix ~ , ~ , ~ , or ~ 29.2 Passives with ~ / 29.3 Passives with "Noun + " 29.4 Verbs with a passive-like meaning Chapter 30: The causative construction 30.1 Causative suffixes: ~ , ~ , ~ , ~ , ~ , ~ , ~ 30.2 The causative constructions ~ and ~ 30.3 Causatives with Noun + Chapter 31: Direct and indirect questions/quotations 31.1 Indirect question form ~ /( ) /( ) 31.2 Indicating a speculative mindset 31.3 Direct quotations 31.4 Indirect quotations 31.5 Abbreviation of the indirect quotation endings in colloquial usages 31.6 Reporting one's thoughts or feelings Chapter 32: Prenouns Chapter 33: Adverbs 33.1 Adverbs 33.1.1 Semantic categorization of adverbs 33.1.2 Structural categorization of adverbs 33.2 Mimetic/onomatopoetic words Part B: Functions Chapter 34: Ability 34.1 Using the words that indicate "ability" 34.2 ~( ) / "know how to" 34.3 ~( ) / "can/cannot" 34.4 ~ ( ) "unable to" Chapter 35: Addressing and referring to someone 35.1 Address terms in Korean 35.2 How to address a family member 35.3 How to address a friend/familiar person 35.4 How to address your colleague at workplace 35.5 How to address a unfamiliar person/stranger Chapter 36: Advice 36.1 Seeking advice 36.1.1 ~( ) ? "wondering" 36.2 Giving advice 36.2.2 ~ ? "why don't you...?" 36.2.3 ~ "Do" 36.3 Seeking and giving advice 36.3.1 / ? "How about?" 36.3.2 ~ ? "Don't you think...?" 36.3.3 ~ "wonder how about..." 36.3.4 ~( ) "worth..." 36.4 Responding to advice Chapter 37: Cause 37.1 Asking about cause 37.2 Expressing cause 37.2.1 N N "N's cause is N." 37.2.2 N "because of N" 37.2.3 ~ "because of ~ing" 37.2.4 N ( ) "owing to N" 37.2.5 N "due to N" Chapter 38: Changes 38.1 Expressing a change in action/states 38.1.1 ~ "turns out" 38.1.2 ~( ) "the more...the more" 38.1.3 ~ / "become" 38.2 Verbs that express a change Chapter 39: Choices 39.1 A B ? "Which would you prefer, A or B?" 39.2 ~ "or" 39.3 ~ ~ "whether...or not" 39.4 ~ "rather; instead of doing X" 39.5 N "instead of N" 39.6 ~ /( ) "in place of ~ing" 39.7 ~ ~ "or else" 39.8 ~( ) "rather...than" 39.9 N ( ) "or" 39.10 N "even if it is" Chapter 40: Comparing 40.1 N / "more/less than Noun" 40.2 ~ / ( ) "rather than" 40.3 N / & N "when compared to" 40.4 N "as... as" 40.5 ~ ~ "doing X is better than doing X." 40.6 N N / Chapter 41: Complaints 41.1 ~( ) ... "while" 41.2 ~ "no matter how... you may be..." 41.3 ~ / "is extremely" 41.4 ~ "prone to" 41.5 ~ / "do frequently" 41.6 ~( ) "rush to" 41.7 ~ / "should have" 41.8 Examples of complaining remarks Chapter 42: Conditions 42.1 Expressing conditions by conjunctives 42.1.1 ~ "when; if" 42.1.2 ~( ) "if; when" 42.1.3 ~( ) "unless" 42.1.4 ~( ) "if you intend to" 42.1.5 ~ / "only if" 42.2 Other ways to express conditions 42.2.1 ~ "in the event that" 42.2.2 ~ / "unless" 42.2.3 ~( ) "it depends on" 42.2.4 ~ "it depends on" Chapter 43: Congratulation, and condolence, and gratitude 43.1 Congratulating someone 43.2 Expressing good wishes for special occasions 43.3 Expressing concerns and condolences 43.3.1 When you express concern 43.3.2 When you express condolences in person 43.3.3 When you express condolences in formal speech or writing 43.4 Gratitude 43.4.1 In casual conversations 43.4.2 In formal speech or writing 43.4.3 When you receive a gift 43.4.4 Before being treated to a meal/drink 43.4.5 After being treated to a meal/drink 43.5 Replying to expressions of gratitude Chapter 44: Conjecture 44.1 ~ / "you must be..." 44.2 ~ /( ) "it looks like" 44.3 ~ /( ) "I thought/guessed that" 44.4 ~ /( ) /( ) "I think/guess that" 44.5 ~ /( ) / ( ) "it seems that ..." 44.6 ~ /( ) /( ) "it appears that..." 44.7 ~ /( ) /( ) / "knew/thought" 44.8 ~ / "appears to be" 44.9 ~( ) "I think/guess" 44.10 ~( ) "I bet/think" 44.11 ~( ) "Do you think... ?" 44.12 ~( ) "not sure if" 44.13 ~( ) "I guess that" 44.14 ~( ) "I suppose... so" Chapter 45: Contrast 45.1 Expressing contrasts with clausal conjunctives 45.1.1 ~ "although; even after" 45.1.2 ~ "despite" 45.1.3 ~ "although" 45.1.4 ~ ~ "indeed... but" 45.1.5 ~ / "although" 45.1.6 ~ "even though" 45.1.7 ~ "but" 45.1.8 ~ /( ) ( ) "even after" 45.2 Expressing contrast with conjunctional adverbs 45.3 Expressing contrast with the particle / 45.4 Other expressions of contrasts 45.4.1 ~ /( ) "on the other hand" 45.4.2 ~ /( ) "on the other hand" 45.4.3 ~( ) "even after; in spite of" 45.5 For writings and formal contexts Chapter 46: Deciding 46.1 + verb "decide" 46.2 "make a resolution" 46.3 "decide on," "choose," "set" 46.4 ~ "decide to" Chapter 47: Degree and extent 47.1 Expressing degree and extent 47.1.1 N "only" 47.1.2 N "be as...as" 47.1.3 N "just talking about..." 47.1.4 N "only" 47.1.5 N "nothing but; only" 47.1.6 ~ "beyond measure" 47.1.7 ~ "to the extent that..." 47.1.8 ~( ) "to the extent that..." 47.1.9 ~( ) 47.1.10 ~ /( ) /( ) "to the extent that..." 47.2 Expressing the degree of satisfaction Chapter 48: Describing people, places, and states 48.1 Describing people 48.2 Describing places 48.3 Describing the weather 48.4 Describing the color 48.5 Describing the taste of food Chapter 49: Discoveries 49.1 ~ ( ) "oh I see..." 49.2 ~( ) "when" 49.3 ~ ( ) "after having tried doing...and then realize" 49.4 ~ ( ) ( ) "after tried doing X... and then realize" 49.5 ~ ( ) "if/when continue to do something...then...will" 49.6 ~( / ) "since, seeing as" Chapter 50: Emphasizing strategies 50.1 ~ "you see, you know" 50.2 ~ "you know" 50.3 ~ (~ / ~ ) "extremely" 50.4 ~ "far from ~ing" 50.5 ~ "really, exceedingly" 50.6 / ~ / ( ) "don't know...how..." 50.7 ~( ) "only, just" 50.8 ~( ) "have no choice but" 50.9 ~( ) ~( ) "though I try...I can't" 50.10 N( ) "indeed" 50.11 ~ /( ) "besides" 50.12 Using exclamatory remarks Chapter 51: Establishing sequences Chapter 52: Experiences 52.1 Nouns and verbs that indicate one's experience 52.2 ~( ) / / "have/don't have an experience of ~ing" 52.3 ~ / "try (doing something)" 52.4 ~ / / / "have/don't have an experience of trying" Chapter 53: Greeting and leave taking 53.1 Greetings 53.1.1 Greetings as phatic expressions 53.1.2 When you meet someone for the first time 53.1.3 When you greet someone who you have not seen for a long time 53.1.4 When you enter unfamiliar places 53.1.5 When you return from your work, school or an outing 53.2 Leaving taking 53.2.1 When you end a conversation 53.2.2 When you leave for work/school 53.2.3 When you leave the office/work 53.2.4 When you say good-bye Chapter 54: Hypothetical situations 54.1 ~( ) "if" 54.2 ~( ) / / "supposedly..." 54.3 ~( ) / "saying we suppose" 54.4 ~ "even if" 54.5 ~( ) "almost" 54.6 ~( ) "even if...may" 54.7 ~( ) "even though...may" 54.8 ~( ) "even if...may" 54.9 ~ "it was good that... otherwise..." 54.10 ~( ) "suppose" Chapter 55: Initiating and maintaining conversation 55.1 Initiating a conversation 55.2 Introducing topics 55.2.1 The particle / "as for" 55.2.2 N "regarding" 55.2.3 N "about" 55.3 Switching topics 55.4 Listener responses 55.4.1 Paying attention 55.4.2 Asking for confirmation 55.4.3 Showing surprise 55.4.4 Requesting a repetition 55.4.5 Making corrections 55.4.6 Acknowledging what the other says Chapter 56: Intentions and plans 56.1 ~ "will" 56.2 ~ "I think that I need to..." 56.3 ~( ) "will" 56.4 ~( ) "will (promise)" 56.5 ~( ) "I am thinking of ~ing" 56.6 ~( ) "will(intend)" 56.7 ~ / "will; should" 56.8 ~( ) ... ~( ) "to do A and to do B" 56.9 ~( ) "intending to" 56.10 ~( ) "will" 56.11 Other ways to indicate intention or plans Chapter 57: Likes and wishes 57.1 "like" 57.2 ~ "want/wish/would like to" 57.3 ~( ) / "It'd be great if..." 57.4 ~ "to hope" 57.5 "be to one's liking" 57.6 "hope" and "wish" 57.7 "to want" 57.8 Expressing good wishes in writing or in person Chapter 58: Listing and including additional information 58.1 Listing 58.1.1 ~ "and" 58.1.2 ~ "while" 58.1.3 ~( ) ~( ) "while doing x and doing x" 58.1.4 ~( ) "and" 58.1.5 N( ) N( ) "and" 58.2 Expressing additional information 58.2.1 Particles and conjunctives 58.2.2 ~ "as well as" 58.2.3 ~ /( ) "in addition to" 58.2.4 ~( ) "not just... but also..." 58.2.5 ~( ) "not only... but also" 58.2.6 N / "including, starting with N" Chapter 59: Location, direction, and distance 59.1 Asking and describing the location of an object 59.1.1 N "there is..." 59.2 Asking and indicating for directions 59.2.1 N 59.2.2 N( ) 59.3 Asking and indicating distance 59.3.1 N N Chapter 60: Means.docx 60.1 Expressing means 60.1.1 N( ) "as/by/with" 60.1.2 N( ) "as/by/with" 60.1.3 N( / ) "by, with" 60.2 Describing means of transportation Chapter 61: Obligation and necessity 61.1 Obligations 61.1.1 ~ & ~( ) "must" 61.1.2 ~ / / "must/have to" 61.1.3 ~ / "should" 61.1.4 ~( ) "have an obligation to" 61.1.5 ~ "do not have to" 61.2 Necessity 61.2.1 ~ / "be necessary" 61.2.2 "no need" 61.2.3 ~( ) "it is necessary to" 61.2.4 ~( ) "there is no need for" Chapter 62: Permission and prohibition 62.1 Seeking and giving permission 62.1.1 ~ / "you may" 62.2. Denying permission/expressing prohibition 62.2.1 ~( ) "must not" 62.2.2 ~ "do not" 62.2.3 Formal written words that specify prohibited activities Chapter 63: Personal information 63.1 Name 63.2 Age 63.3 Place of origin 63.4 Nationality 63.5 Occupation 63.6 Marital status 63.7 Family Chapter 64: Possibility 64.1 "be possible" 64.2 ~( ) ( ) "possible" 64.3 ~( ) "may" 64.4 ~( ) "it's hardly possible" Chapter 65: Probability and inevitability 65.1 Expressing probability 65.1.1 ~( ) 65.1.2 ~( ) "be likely" 65.2 Expressing inevitability 65.2.1 ~( ) "bound to" 65.2.2 ~ "it is easy to" 65.2.3 ~ "bound to" 65.2.4 ~ "it is certain that..." 65.2.5 ~( ) "have no choice but" 65.2.6 ~( ) "have no choice but" 65.2.7 ~ /( ) "in this situation" Chapter 66: Purposes 66.1 Asking about purpose 66.2 Expressing purpose 66.2.1 ~ "intending to" 66.2.2 ~ "in order to" 66.2.3 ~( ) "to" 66.2.4 ~ "so that" 66.2.5 ~ "so that" 66.2.6 N "for the sake of N" Chapter 67: Reasons 67.1 Asking about reasons 67.2 Expressing reasons 67.2.1 ~ "so" 67.2.2 ~ "since" 67.2.3 ~ "since" 67.2.4 ~ "as a result of" 67.2.5 ~ /( ) "because of" 67.2.6 ~ /( ) "since" 67.2.7 ~ /( ) / "because" 67.2.8 ~ / "so" 67.2.9 ~ / "perhaps...so" 67.2.10 ~( ) "since" 67.2.11 ~( ) "because, since" Chapter 68: Recollecting 68.1 Some verbs, words or phrases related to recollection 68.2 The use of past tense marker ~ / 68.2.1 ~ / 68.2.2 ~ / "when" 68.2.3 ~ "used to" 68.3 The use of retrospective suffix ~ 68.3.1 ~ "I notice/remember that..." 68.3.2 ~ ( ) "I'm telling you, you know" 68.3.3 The use of the retrospective noun-modifying ending ~ 68.3.4 ~ / 68.3.5 ~ "I perceived that..." Chapter 69: Regrets and futility 69.1 / "regretful" 69.2 ~ "end up ~ing" 69.3 ~ ... "not sure why..." 69.4 ~( ) "should have" 69.5 ~ / ~( ) "if/when...I guess that..." 69.6 ~ / "should have" 69.7 ~( ) "whether... or not" 69.8 ~ / "though you try...no use" 69.9 ~( ) "no matter how" 69.10 ~( ) "as a result of, driven by" Chapter 70: Requests 70.1 Direct request/command 70.2 ~ / "(Please) ... for me." 70.3 ~( ) ( )? "You will..., right?" 70.4 ~ / ( )/ ? "Will/Would you...?" 70.5 ~( ) ? "Can/Could you...?" 70.6 ~ ? "Do you know how to...?" 70.7 ~ / ( )? "Would it be possible...?" 70.8 ~ / ( )/ ( )? "Would it be fine even if...?" 70.9 ~ / "How about. Let's... I wonder..." 70.10 ~( ) / / "I would appreciate it if..." 70.11 Indirect request (Want/Need) 70.12 Indirect request (Hint) Chapter 71: Similarity 71.1 Indicating resemblance 71.1.1 N "like" 71.1.2 N "like" 71.1.3 "resemble, look alike, take after" 71.1.4 "similar" 71.1.5 "alike" 71.2 Expressing sameness 71.2.1 "the same" 71.2.2 "the same" 71.2.3 N( ) "no different from" 71.3 Expressing in the same manner or form 71.3.1 ~ / "as, in the same way, almost" 71.3.2 ~ "as, as if" 71.3.3 ~ /( ) "as if" 71.3.4 ~ /( ) / "pretend" Chapter 72: Simultaneous actions 72.1 Indicating simultaneous actions by clausal conjunctives 72.1.1 ~ "while doing" 72.1.2 ~( ) "while" 72.2 Indicating simultaneous actions and states by modifier clauses 72.2.1 ~ /( ) "while doing" 72.2.2 ~ /( ) "while you are at it" 72.2.3 ~ "on the way to/from" 72.2.4 ~ ( ) "while" 72.2.5 ~ ( ) "in the middle of " 72.2.6 ~( ) "just as it is, while" 72.2.7 ~( ) "when" 72.2.8 ~( ) "every time" Chapter 73: Softening strategies 73.1 "please" 73.2 "how" 73.3 ~( ) ( )?/~ ( )? 73.4 ~ ( ) 73.5 ~ "to become" and "to be so" 73.6 ~ /( ) "seems/appears to" and ~ / "tends to/kind of" 73.7 ~ / "do something," and ~ / "to try something" 73.8 ~ /( ) "feel like" 73.9 The use of questions 73.10 The use of clausal connectives as sentence endings 73.11 The use of fillers Chapter 74: Telling time, date, etc. 74.1 Telling the time 74.2 Counting days 74.3 Counting months and years 74.4 Asking and telling the time 74.5 Asking and telling dates 74.6 Asking and telling when something will happen or happened 74.7 Asking and telling how long something takes 74.8 Asking and telling the time that has passed for a certain period 74.8.1 N 74.8.2 ~( ) / Chapter 75: Temporal relations 75.1 Expressing "before" 75.1.1 N ( ) "before N" 75.1.2 ~ ( ) "before ~ing" 75.2 Expressing "after" 75.2.1 N / ( ) "after N" 75.2.2 ~( ) / ( ) "after" 75.2.3 ~( ) "after" 75.2.4 N ( ) "after" 75.2.5 ~ "after having (done something)" 75.3 Expressing sequence "and then" 75.3.1 ~ "and then" 75.3.2 ~ / "and then" 75.3.3 ~ "after, and then" 75.3.4 ~ / "did and then" 75.4 Expressing "as soon as" 75.4.1 ~ "just after" 75.4.2 ~ /( ) "as soon as" 75.4.3 ~ "as soon as" 75.5 Expressing "about to" 75.5.1 ~( ) "is about to" 75.5.2 ~( ) "was about to"show more