Local Electrode Atom Probe Tomography

Local Electrode Atom Probe Tomography : A User's Guide

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This book is the first, single-source guide to successful experiments using the local electrode atom probe (LEAP (R)) microscope. Coverage is both comprehensive and user friendly, including the fundamentals of preparing specimens for the microscope from a variety of materials, the details of the instrumentation used in data collection, the parameters under which optimal data are collected, the current methods of data reconstruction, and selected methods of data analysis. Tricks of the trade are described that are often learned only through trial and error, allowing users to succeed much more quickly in the challenging areas of specimen preparation and data collection. A closing chapter on applications presents selected, state-of-the-art results using the LEAP microscope.show more

Product details

  • Hardback | 318 pages
  • 157.48 x 233.68 x 25.4mm | 748.42g
  • Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
  • New York, NY, United States
  • English
  • 2013 ed.
  • 20 Tables, black and white; 54 Illustrations, color; 110 Illustrations, black and white; XVII, 318 p. 164 illus., 54 illus. in color.
  • 146148720X
  • 9781461487203
  • 1,162,699

Back cover copy

This book is the first, single-source guide to successful experiments using the local electrode atom probe (LEAP(R)) microscope. Coverage is both comprehensive and user friendly, including the fundamentals of preparing specimens for the microscope from a variety of materials, the details of the instrumentation used in data collection, the parameters under which optimal data are collected, the current methods of data reconstruction, and selected methods of data analysis. Tricks of the trade are described that are often learned only through trial and error, allowing users to succeed much more quickly in the challenging areas of specimen preparation and data collection. A closing chapter on applications presents selected, state-of-the-art results using the LEAP microscope. Written from the user perspective by the developers of the instrument themselvesCovers the main features of a local electrode atom probe tomography experiment from start to finishContains practical hints and tutorial information that is useful to any atom probe operator to improve the chances of a successful analysisIncludes a chapter on hardware/instrumentation, which explains to the novice user the various parts of the instrument and how they operateProvides an overview of the software methods employed in LEAP, including reconstruction and data analysisshow more

Table of contents

PrefaceAcknowledgementsForewordAbbreviationsChapter 1. History of APT and LEAP1.1 Introduction1.2 Ancestry of the Local Electrode Atom Probe1.2.1 Early History and the Field Electron Emission Microscope (~1935)1.2.2 Field Ion Microscope: The First Images of Atoms (1955)1.2.3 Atom Probe Field Ion Microscope (1967)1.2.4 The Advent of Atom Probe Tomography1.2.5 The Position Sensitive Atom Probe (1988)1.2.6 Electron Beam Pulsed Atom Probe1.2.7 The Scanning Atom Probe1.2.8 The Local Electrode Atom Probe (2001)1.3 The State of Instrumentation1.3.1 The Growth of the Local Electrode Atom Probe1.3.2 Laser Pulsing1.3.3 Fundamental Considerations for Design of Instrumentation1.3.4 Reflectron-Based Instruments1.4 FIB-Based Specimen Preparation1.5 Concluding RemarksReferencesChapter 2. Specimen Preparation2.1 Introduction2.2 Electropolishing2.3 Needles versus Microtips2.4 Electrostatic Discharge Considerations2.5 Focused Ion Beam Methods2.5.1 Capping Considerations & Damage2.5.2 Standard Lift-Out Process2.5.3 Sharpening Process2.5.4 FIB Deprocessing2.6 Hybrid Transmission Electron Microscopy / Atom Probe Tomography2.7 SummaryReferencesChapter 3. Design & Instrumentation3.1 Introduction3.2 How Atom Probes Work3.3 LEAP Performance Parameters3.3.1 Field of View3.3.2 Mass Resolving Power3.3.3 Data Collection Rate3.3.4 Model Comparison3.4. Instrumentation in the LEAP3.4.1 Local Electrode3.4.2 Detection and Imaging3.4.3. Transfer and Storage of Consumables3.4.4. Field Evaporation Systems3.4.5 Ancillary Systems3.5 SummaryReferencesChapter 4. Data Collection4.1 Introduction4.2 Data Quality Considerations4.3 Analysis Yield Considerations4.4 Experimental Parameters4.5 How to Start Your Investigation of Any New Material4.6 Brief Overview of LEAP Operation: Data Collection4.6.1 Voltage Acquisition4.6.2 Laser Acquisition4.6.3 Now You Are Atom ProbingReferencesChapter 5. Data Processing and Reconstruction5.1 Introduction5.2 A Word on Data Files and Work Flow5.3 Conversion from Detector Space to Specimen Space Coordinates5.3.1 Selection of Depth and Areal Regions5.3.2 Spectral Calibration5.3.3 Chemical Identification & Ranging5.3.4 Spatial Reconstruction: Projection and Depth Scaling5.3.5 Wide Angle Reconstruction Protocols5.3.6 Tangential Discontinuity5.3.7 Reconstruction Explorer5.3.8 Creation of ROOT and POS Files5.4 Discussion of Spatial Resolution and Spatial Positioning5.4.1 Spatial Resolution5.4.2 Spatial Positioning (Non-Specimen Dependent) 5.4.3 Spatial Positioning (Specimen Dependent) 5.5 A Word on Density Relaxation5.6 Reconstruction Case Study: NIST Standard Reference Material 21345.6.1 Reconstruction Parameter Discussion5.6.2 Experiment and Analysis DetailsReferencesChapter 6. Selected Analysis Topics6.1 Introduction6.2 Spectral Analysis6.2.1 Ranging6.2.2 Practical Considerations for Detection Levels6.2.3 Peak Decomposition6.3 Concentration Space Analyses6.3.1 Gridding, Voxels, and Delocalization6.3.2 Interface Creation and Interfacial Roughness6.3.3 Effects of Delocalization on Planar Surfaces6.3.4 The Proximity Histogram6.4 Solute Analysis: Cluster Detection Method6.5 Spatial Distribution Maps6.6 Application of Spatial Distribution MapsReferencesChapter 7. Applications of the Local Electrode Atom Probe7.1 Metals7.2 Catalytic Materials7.3 Ceramic and Geological Materials7.4 Semiconductor Materials7.5 Organics and Biological Materials7.6 Composite Structures/Devices7.7 ConclusionsReferencesAppendix A. Data File FormatsAppendix B. Field EvaporationAppendix C. Reconstruction GeometryAppendix D. Mass Spectral PerformanceAppendix E. Additional Considerations for LEAP OperationGlossaryIndexshow more

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