Language Assessment - Principles and Classroom Practice

Language Assessment - Principles and Classroom Practice

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Features:Solid foundation in the basics of validity and reliability, as well as all of the different forms of assessment Concise, comprehensive treatment of all four skills includes classification of assessment techniques. Thorough examination of standards-based assessment and standardized testing. Practical examples illustrate principles. End-of-chapter exercises and suggested additional readings provide opportunities for further exploration.
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Product details

  • Paperback | 336 pages
  • 172.7 x 228.6 x 17.8mm | 498.96g
  • Upper Saddle River, United States
  • English
  • 0130988340
  • 9780130988348
  • 1,401,580

Table of contents

Preface 1 Testing, Assessing, and Teaching What Is a Test?Assessment and Teaching Informal and Formal Assessment Formative and Summative Assessment Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced TestApproaches to Language Testing: A Brief History Discrete-point and Integrative Testing Communicative Language Testing Performance-Based AssessmentCurrent Issues in Classroom Testing New Views on Intelligence Traditional and "Alternative" Assessment Computer-Based TestingExercisesFor Your Further Reading 2 Principles of Language Assessment PracticalityReliability Student-Related Reliability Rater Reliability Test Administration Reliability Test ReliabilityValidity Content-Related Evidence Criterion-Related Evidence Construct-Related Evidence Consequential Validity Face ValidityAuthenticityWashback Applying Principles to the Evaluation of Classroom Tests1. Are the test procedures practical?2. Is the test reliable?3. Does the procedure demonstrate content validity?4. Is the procedure face valid and "biased for best"?5. Are the test tasks as authentic as possible?6. Does the test offer beneficial washback to the learner?ExercisesFor Your Further Reading 3 Designing Classroom Language Tests Test Types Language Aptitude Tests Proficiency Tests Placement Test Diagnostic Tests Achievement TestsSome Practical Steps to Test Construction Assessing Clear, Unambiguous Objectives Drawing Up Test Specifications Devising Test Tasks Designing Multiple-Choice Test Items1. Design each item to measure a specific objective2. State Both stem and options as simply and directly as possible3. Make certain that the intended answer is clearly the only correct one4. Use item indices to accept, discard, or revise itemsScoring, Grading, and Giving Feedback Scoring Grading Giving FeedbackExercisesFor Your Further Reading 4 Standardized Testing What Is Standardization?Advantages and Disadvantages of Standardized TestsDeveloping a Standardized Test1. Determine the purpose and objectives of the test2. Design test specifications3. Design, select, and arrange test tasks/items4. Make appropriate evaluations of different kinds of items5. Specify scoring procedures and reporting formats6. Perform ongoing construct validation studiesStandardized Language Proficiency TestingFour Standardized Language Proficiency Tests Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL (R)) Michigan English Language Assessment Battery (MELAB) International English Language Testing System (IELTS) Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC (R))ExercisesFor Your Further ReadingAppendix to Chapter 4:Commercial Proficiency Tests: Sample Items and TasksTest of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL (R)) Michigan English Language Assessment Battery (MELAB)International English Language Testing System (IELTS)Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC (R)) 5 Standards-Based Assessment ELD StandardsELD AssessmentCASAS and SCANSTeacher StandardsThe Consequences of Standards-Based and Standardized Testing Test Bias Test-Driven Learning and TeachingEthical Issues: Critical Language TestingExercisesFor Your Further Reading 6 Assessing Listening Observing the Performance of the Four SkillsThe Importance of ListeningBasic Types of ListeningMicro- and Macroskills of ListeningDesigning Assessment Tasks: Intensive Listening Recognizing Phonological and Morphological Elements Paraphrase RecognitionDesigning Assessment Tasks: Responsive ListeningDesigning Assessment Tasks: Selective Listening Listening Cloze Information Transfer Sentence RepetitionDesigning Assessment Tasks: Extensive Listening Dictation Communicative Stimulus-Response Tasks Authentic Listening TasksExercisesFor Your Further Reading 7 Assessing Speaking Basic Types of SpeakingMicro- and Macroskills of SpeakingDesigning Assessment Tasks: Imitative SpeakingPhonePass TestDesigning Assessment Tasks: Intensive Speaking Directed Response Tasks Read-Aloud Tasks Sentence/Dialogue Completion Tasks and Oral Questionnaires Picture-Cued Tasks Translation (of Limited Stretches of Discourse)Designing Assessment Tasks: Responsive Speaking Question and Answer Giving Instructions and Directions ParaphrasingTest of Spoken English (TSE)Designing Assessment Tasks: Interactive Speaking Interview Role Play Discussions and Conversations GamesOral Proficiency Interview (OPI)Designing Assessment: Extensive Speaking Oral Presentations Picture-Cued Story-Telling Retelling a Story, News Event Translation (of Extended Prose)ExercisesFor Your Further Reading 8 Assessing Reading Types (Genres) of ReadingMicroskills, Macroskills, and Strategies for ReadingTypes of ReadingDesigning Assessment Tasks: Perceptive Reading Reading Aloud Written Response Multiple-Choice Picture-Cued ItemsDesigning Assessment Tasks: Selective Reading Multiple-Choice (for Form-Focused Criteria) Matching TasksEditing TasksPicture-Cued TasksGap-Filling TasksDesigning Assessment Tasks: Interactive Reading Cloze Tasks Impromptu Reading Plus Comprehension Questions Short-Answer Tasks Editing (Longer Texts) Scanning Ordering Tasks Information Transfer: Reading Charts, Maps, Graphs, DiagramsDesigning Assessment Tasks: Extensive Reading Skimming Tasks Summarizing and Responding Note-Taking and OutliningExercisesFor Your Further Reading 9 Assessing Writing Genres of Written LanguageTypes of Writing performanceMicro- and Macroskills of WritingDesigning Assessment Tasks: Imitative Writing Tasks in [Hand] Writing Letters, Words, and Punctuation Spelling Tasks and Detecting Phoneme-Grapheme CorrespondencesDesigning Assessment Tasks: Intensive (Controlled) Writing Dictation and Dicto-Comp Grammatical Transformation Tasks Picture-Cued Tasks Vocabulary Assessment TasksOrdering Tasks Short-Answer and Sentence Completion TasksIssues in Assessing Responsive and Extensive WritingDesigning Assessment Tasks: Responsive and Extensive Writing Paraphrasing Guided Question and Answer Paragraph Construction Tasks Strategic OptionsTest of Written English (TWE (R))Scoring Methods for Responsive and Extensive Writing Holistic Scoring Primary Trait Scoring Analytic ScoringBeyond Scoring Responding to Extensive Writing Assessing Initial Stages of the Process of Composing Assessing Later Stages of the Process of ComposingExercisesFor Your Further Reading 10 Beyond Tests: Alternatives in Assessment The Dilemma of Maximizing Both Practicality and WashbackPerformance-Based AssessmentPortfoliosJournalsConferences and InterviewsObservationsSelf- and Peer-Assessments Types of Self- and Peer-Assessment Guidelines for Self- and Peer- Assessment A Taxonomy of Self- and Peer-Assessment TasksExercisesFor Your Further Reading 11 Grading and Student Evaluation Philosophy of Grading: What Should Grades Reflect? Guidelines for Selecting Grading Criteria Calculating Grades: Absolute and Relative Grading Teachers' Perceptions of Appropriate Grade DistributionsInstitutional Expectations and Constraints Cross-Cultural Factors and the Question of Difficulty What Do Letter Grades "Mean"?Alternatives to Letter GradingSome Principles and Guidelines for Grading and EvaluationExercisesFor Your Further Reading BibliographyName IndexSubject Index
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191 ratings
3.84 out of 5 stars
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