Knight's American Mechanical Dictionary; A Description of Tools, Instruments, Machines, Processes, and Engineering History of Inventions General Techn
This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1884 edition. Excerpt: ... properly speaking, sublimation. Though the decomposition of sulphuret of mercury by distillation, or rather sublimation, is mentioned by Dioscorides, yet the first distillation of a fluid, that of fresh water from saswater, is to be found in the commentary of Alexander of Aphrodisiac in Caria, to Aristotle de Meteorol. Alexander lived under the reigns of Septimius Severus and Caracalla. "Zosiinus the Panopolitan " (about A D 400) " had described in former times the operation of distillation by which water may be purified; the Arabs called the apparatus for effecting it an alenibic.'' In his treatise, the process is concealed in mythical language. Djafar (Gcbir), who lived toward the end of the eighth century, was the first to describe nitric acid and aqua regia. The former he obtained by distilling in a retort Cyprus vitriol, alum, and saltpeter. The latter made gold potable, and no doubt induced the worthy Arabian to think that he was on the eve of the discovery of the transmutation of metals. To Rhazes, born A. D. 860, .physician-in-chief to the great hospital at Bagdad, is due the credit of the discovery of absolute alcohol, which he obtaiued by distilling spirit of wine from quicklime. He also prepared sulphuric acid. Achild Bechil obtaiued phosphorus by the distillation together of uriue, clay, lime, and powdered charcoal. "The preparation of nitric acid and aqua regia by Djafar (whose proper name was Abu-Mussah-Dschafar, and also known as (.lebir) is more than 500 years anterior to Albertus Magnus and Raymond Lully, and almost 700 years anterior to the Erfurt monk, Basilius Valentiuus. Nevertheless, the discovery of these dissolving acids, which constitutes an epoch iu chemical knowledge, was long ascribed to the three...
- Paperback | 778 pages
- 189 x 246 x 39mm | 1,365g
- 26 Jun 2012
- Illustrations, black and white