Excerpt from The Journal of Educational Psychology, 1919, Vol. 10: Including Experimental Pedagogy, Child Physiology and Hygiene, and Educational Statistics
This standard now becomes a goal which may guide the teacher In the instruction of the children. Her effort and energy may now be directed toward those pupils who have not reached the stand ard of achievement as set by the city instead of having her work distributed over a class, part of which does not need the extra work which is being given. These individuals are pointed out because the teacher keeps a record of each test on a card which is uniform for the city and is sent with the pupils as they go from class to Class in the same school or from school to school within the city.
After this standard of achievement has been found, the pupil also has a knowledge of what he is expected to do. He knows whether his achievement is above or below the standard set for the city. If he is below, he becomes anxious immediately to raise his attainment and come nearer to the standard as set for the City. If he is above the standard, he then immediately becomes anxious to maintain his record. Thus the setting of a standard of achieve ment on a city-wide basis becomes a very important motive in his work.
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