Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. James Francis Ivory (born June 7, 1928) is an American film director, best known for the results of his long collaboration with Merchant Ivory Productions, which included both Indian-born film producer Ismail Merchant, and screenwriter Ruth Prawer Jhabvala. Their films won six Academy Awards. Ivory was born in Berkeley, California, the son of Hallie Millicent (n e De Loney) and Edward Patrick Ivory, a sawmill operator. He is of Irish and French descent, and grew up in Klamath Falls, Oregon. He was educated at the University of Oregon, majoring in Architecture and Fine Arts and then at the University of Southern California School of Cinematic Arts, where he directed the short film Four in the Morning (1953).