Introduction to the Study of Organic Chemistry
This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1882 edition. Excerpt: ...Three dinitrobenzenes, etc. The di-substitutions of benzene are classified as follows: When the substitutions are adjacent (1.2, 1. 6), the compound is called ortho; when separated by one H (1. 3, 1. 5), meta; when separated by two H's (1. 4) para. In writing the formulas, the names are expressed by small letters: o C6H4Cl2, Orthodichlorbenzene, mC0H4(NO2)2, Metadinitrobenzene, p C6H4ClNO2, Parachlornitrobenzene. The tri-substitutions of benzene are named in the same manner: op C6H3Cl3 is C6H3Cl3 1. 2. 4. There are also three tri-substitutions of benzene when the three entering atoms, or atomic groups, are the same: CI CI CI Hd7 ci Hd7 ci Hc7 h HC 00l HC CH ClC CCl V V H CI H (1 0l (1 0l ( 1 0l or: 1) C6H3 i 2 0l, 2) C8H3 2 CI, 3) C6H3 i 3 0l. ( 3 01 ( 4 01 ( 5 01 1. 2. 5 is the same as 1. 2. 4, and 1. 2. 6 = 1. 2. 3. If the substituting atoms or groups are different, the number of isomers is much greater. If two of them are different, there will be six isomers; if all three are different, there will be ten isomers. The number of isomers of tetra-substitutions, when all the atoms or groups are the same, is the same as in the case of di-substitutions. If the substituting elements, or groups, differ among themselves, the number of isomers will be greater than in the case of tri-substitutions. When only one H remains unsubstituted, i.e. when five of the H's are substituted by the same atoms or groups, only one compound is possible. If the atoms differ among themselves, there will be a greater number of isomers. If one or more H's of benzene are replaced by CH3, the substitution of CI, etc., can take place either in the benzenenucleus, or in the methyl-group (side-chain) giving rise to a new form of isomerism: The striking differences between these...
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