Introduction to Philosophy

Introduction to Philosophy

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Introduction to Philosophy: Classical and Contemporary Readings, Third Edition, is a highly acclaimed, topically organized collection that covers five major areas of philosophy--theory of knowledge, philosophy of religion, philosophy of mind, freedom and determinism, and moral philosophy. Editor Louis P. Pojman enhances the text's topical organization by arranging the selections into a pro/con format to help students better understand opposing arguments. He also includes accessible introductions to each part, subsection, and individual reading, a unique feature for an anthology of this depth. While the book focuses on a compelling sampling of classical material--including selections from Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, and Kant--it also incorporates some of philosophy's best twentieth-century and contemporary work, featuring articles by Bertrand Russell, Richard Taylor, John Searle, Thomas Nagel, and others. This third edition contains an expanded glossary, more extensive section introductions, and twelve new selections: Karl Popper: "Epistemology without a Knowing Subject" Richard Rorty: "Dismantling Truth: Solidarity versus Objectivity" Daniel Dennett: "Postmodernism and Truth" Bruce Russell: "The Problem of Evil: Why is There So Much Suffering?" David Chalmers: "Against Materialism: Can Consciousness Be Reductively Explained?" Baron Paul Henri d'Holbach: "A Defense of Determinism" Michael Levin: "A Compatibilist Defense of Moral Responsibility" Plato: "Socratic Morality: Crito" Herodotus: "Custom Is King" J. L. Mackie: "The Subjectivity of Values" Louis P. Pojman: "A Critique of Mackie's Theory of Moral Subjectivism" Thomas Nagel: "Moral Luck"show more

Product details

  • Paperback | 670 pages
  • 190 x 232 x 34mm | 1,161.19g
  • Oxford University Press Inc
  • New York, United States
  • English
  • Revised
  • 3rd Revised edition
  • 0195171500
  • 9780195171501
  • 1,987,320

Review quote

"Excellent selection, well organized. Something here for everyone."--Hugh Curtler, Southwest Minnesota State Universityshow more

Table of contents

Preface; I. WHAT IS PHILOSOPHY?; Plato, Socratic Wisdom: The Trial of Socrates (from the Apology); John Locke, Philosophy as the Love of Truth versus Enthusiasm; Bertrand Russell, The Value of Philosophy; II. THE THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE; Plato, The Theory of Ideas and Doctrine of Recollection (from the Meno); Rene Descartes, Meditations on First Philosophy (complete); John Locke, An Empiricist Theory of Knowledge (from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding); George Berkeley, An Idealist Theory of Knowledge (from Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous); David Hume, An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding; Immanuel Kant, The Copernican Revolution in Knowledge; John Maynard Smith, Science and Myth; Norman Malcolm, Two Types of Knowledge; Karl Popper, Epistemology without a Knowing Subject; Richard Rorty, Dismantling Truth: Solidarity versus Objectivity; Daniel Dennett, Postmodernism and Truth; III. PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION; A. TRADITIONAL ARGUMENTS FOR THE EXISTENCE OF GOD; Saint Thomas Aquinas, The Five Ways; Samuel Clarke, The Argument from Contingency; F.C. Copleston and Bertrand Russell, A Debate on The Argument from Contingency; William Paley, The Watch and the Watchmaker; David Hume, A Critique of the Teleological Argument; Anselm versus Gaunilo, The Ontological Argument; F.C. Copleston and Bertrand Russell, A Debate on The Argument from Religious Experience; C.D. Broad, The Argument from Religious Experience; B. THE PROBLEM OF EVIL; Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Why Is There Evil?; Bruce Russell, The Problem of Evil: Why So Much Suffering?; Richard Swinburne, A Theistic Response to the Problem of Evil; C. FAITH AND REASON; Antony Flew, R.M. Hare, and Basil Mitchell, A Debate on Rationality and Religious Belief; Blaise Pascal, Faith Is a Rational Wager; W.K. Clifford, The Ethics of Belief; William James, The Will to Believe; Alvin Plantinga, Religious Belief Without Evidence; IV. PHILOSOPHY OF MIND; A. THE MIND-BODY PROBLEM; Rene Descartes, Dualism; Jerome Shaffer, Consciousness and the Mind-Body Problem; Paul Churchland, A Critique of Dualism; Paul Churchland, On Functionalism and Materialism; Thomas Nagel, What Is It Like to Be a Bat?; David Chalmers: Against Materialism: Can Consciousness Be Reductively Explained?; John Searle, Minds, Brains, and Computers; B. WHO AM I? THE PROBLEM OF PERSONAL IDENTITY; John Locke, Our Psychological Properties Define the Self; David Hume, We Have No Substantial Self with Which We Are Identical; Derek Parfit and Godfrey Vesey, Brain Transplants and Personal Identity: A Dialogue; C. PERSONAL IDENTITY AND SURVIVAL: WILL I SURVIVE MY DEATH?; Plato, Arguments for the Immortality of the Soul (from the Phaedo); Bertrand Russell, The Illusion of Immortality; John Hick, In Defense of Life after Death; V. FREEDOM OF THE WILL, RESPONSIBILITY, AND PUNISHMENT; A. FREE WILL AND DETERMINISM; Baron Paul Henri D'Holbach, A Defense of Determinism; Richard Taylor, Libertarianism: Defense of Free Will; W.T. Stace, Compatibilism: Free Will Is Consistent with Determinism; John Hospers, Determinism: Free Will and Psychoanalysis; Harry Frankfurt, Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person; B. MORAL RESPONSIBILITY; Aristotle, Voluntary Action and Responsibility; Galen Strawson, The Impossibility of Moral Responsibility; Michael Levin, A Compatibilist Defense of Responsibility; Lois Hope Walker, A Libertarian Defense of Moral Responsibility; C. PUNISHMENT; Immanuel Kant, The Right to Punish: Retributivism; Jonathan Glover, Utilitarianism and Punishment; Karl Menninger, The Crime of Punishment: The Humanitarian Theory; C.S. Lewis, Against the Humanitarian Theory of Rehabilitation; John Rawls, Two Concepts of Punishment; VI. MORAL PHILOSOPHY; WHAT IS MORALITY?; Plato, Socratic Morality: Crito; A. MORAL RELATIVISM; Herodotus, Custom Is King; Ruth Benedict, In Defense of Moral Relativism; Louis P. Pojman, Ethical Relativism Versus Ethical Objectivism; J.L. Mackie, The Subjectivity of Values; Louis P. Pojman, A Critique of Mackie's Theory of Moral Subjectivism; B. MORALITY AND SELF-INTEREST; Plato, Gyges' Ring, or Is the Good Good for You?; James Rachels, Ethical Egoism; J.L. Mackie, The Law of the Jungle: Moral Alternatives and Principles of Evolution; C. RELIGION AND ETHICS; Plato, The Divine Command Theory of Ethics; Bertrand Russell, A Free Man's Worship; George Mavrodes, Religion and the Queerness of Morality; Kai Nielsen, Ethics without Religion; D. WHICH MORAL THEORY IS CORRECT?; Aristotle, The Ethics of Virtue; Thomas Hobbes, Contractualism; John Stuart Mill, Utilitarianism; Immanuel Kant, The Moral Law; F. CHALLENGES TO TRADITIONAL MORAL THEORIES; Friedrich Nietzsche, Beyond Good and Evil; William Gass, The Case of the Obliging Stranger; Thomas Nagel, Moral Luck; APPENDIX I. HOW TO READ AND WRITE A PHILOSOPHY PAPER; APPENDIX II. A LITTLE BIT OF LOGIC; GLOSSARY; SUGGESTED READINGSshow more

Rating details

70 ratings
3.91 out of 5 stars
5 34% (24)
4 34% (24)
3 23% (16)
2 6% (4)
1 3% (2)
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