Introduction to Philosophy

Introduction to Philosophy : Classical and Contemporary Readings

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Introduction to Philosophy, Fourth Edition, is the most comprehensive topically organized collection of classical and contemporary philosophy available. Building on the exceptionally successful tradition of previous editions, this edition for the first time incorporates the insights of a new coeditor, John Martin Fischer, and has been updated and revised to make it more accessible. Ideal for introductory philosophy courses, the text includes sections on the meaning of life, God and evil, knowledge and reality, the philosophy of science, the mind/body problem, freedom of will, consciousness, ethics, and philosophical puzzles and paradoxes. It presents seventy substantial--and in some cases complete--selections from the best and most influential works in philosophy, offering a unique balance between classical and contemporary material. An extensive glossary of philosophical terms is also included. The fourth edition features fifteen new readings, including work by Albert Camus, Roderick M. Chisholm, Daniel Dennett, Harry G. Frankfurt, William Paley, Derek Parfit, John Perry, Richard Taylor, Peter Van Inwagen, Bernard Williams, and Susan Wolf. Part III, Knowledge and Reality, has been restructured and now includes Plato's Thaetetus, selections by Edmund L. Gettier and Robert Nozick, and an essay by Christopher Grau that explores the philosophical concepts presented in the popular film The Matrix. Two new ethics puzzles--"The Trolley Problem" and "Ducking Harm and Sacrificing Others"--are also included. This edition incorporates Study Questions after each reading and is accompanied by a student companion website.show more

Product details

  • Paperback | 834 pages
  • 193 x 233.7 x 35.6mm | 1,292.75g
  • Oxford University Press Inc
  • New York, United States
  • English
  • Revised
  • 4th Revised edition
  • 5 line illustrations
  • 0195169247
  • 9780195169249
  • 1,985,616

Table of contents

*=NEW TO THIS EDITION; Preface to the Fourth Edition; Preface to the First Edition; Introduction: On the Study of Philosophy; PART I: PHILOSOPHY AND THE MEANING OF LIFE; Bertrand Russell, The Value of Philosophy; J. J. C. Smart, The Province of Philosophy; Thomas Nagel, The Absurd; Plato, Apology: Defence of Socrates; * Albert Camus, The Myth of Sisyphus; * Richard Taylor, The Meaning of Human Existence; * Susan Wolf, The Meanings of Lives; PART II: GOD AND EVIL; Introduction; A. WHY BELIEVE?; Saint Anselm, The Ontological Argument; Saint Thomas Aquinas, The Existence of God; Blaise Pascal, The Wager; Bertrand Russell, Why I Am Not a Theist; B. THE PROBLEM OF EVIL; David Hume, Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion; Gottfried Leibniz, God, Evil and the Best of All Possible Worlds; * William Paley, Natural Theology; * John Perry, Dialogue on Good, Evil, and the Existence of God; PART III: KNOWLEDGE AND REALITY; Introduction; * A. PLATO AND THE CONCEPT OF KNOWLEDGE; * Plato, Thaetetus; * Edmund Gettier, Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?; B. DESCARTES AND THE PROBLEMS OF SKEPTICISM; Rene Descartes, Meditations on First Philosophy; * Christopher Grau, Bad Dreams, Evil Demons, and the Experience Machine: Philosophy and The Matrix; * Robert Nozick, Excerpt from Philosophical Explanations; C. HUME'S PROBLEMS AND SOME SOLUTIONS; David Hume, Of Scepticism with Regard to the Senses; David Hume, An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding; W. C. Salmon, The Problem of Induction; PART IV: MINDS, BODIES, AND PERSONS; Introduction; A. THE TRADITIONAL PROBLEM OF MIND AND BODY; Bertrand Russell, The Argument from Analogy for Other Minds; Gilbert Ryle, Descartes's Myth; David M. Armstrong, The Nature of Mind; David Lewis, Mad Pain and Martian Pain; Daniel Dennett, Intentional Systems; Paul M. Churchland, Eliminative Materialism; B. MINDS, BRAINS, AND MACHINES; Hilary Putnam, Turing Machines; A. M. Turing, Computing Machinery and Intelligence; John R. Searle, Minds, Brains, and Programs; C. CONSCIOUSNESS; Thomas Nagel, What Is It Like to Be a Bat?; Frank Jackson, What Mary Didn't Know; David Lewis, Knowing What It's Like; D. PERSONAL IDENTITY; John Perry, A Dialogue on Personal Identity and Immortality; * Bernard Williams, The Self and the Future; * Derek Parfit, Personal Identity; * Daniel Dennett, Where Am I?; E. FREEDOM, DETERMINISM, AND RESPONSIBILITY; * Roderick M. Chisholm, Human Freedom and the Self; * Peter Van Inwagen, The Powers of Rational Beings: Freedom of the Will; David Hume, Of Liberty and Necessity; Richard Taylor, Freedom and Determinism; * Harry G. Frankfurt, Alternate Possibilities and Moral Responsibility; Harry G. Frankfurt, Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person; PART V: ETHICS AND SOCIETY; Introduction; A. UTILITARIANISM; Jeremy Bentham, The Principle of Utility; John Stuart Mill, Utilitarianism; E. F. Carritt, Criticisms of Utilitarianism; J. J. C. Smart, Extreme and Restricted Utilitarianism; Bernard Williams, Utilitarianism and Integrity; Peter Singer, Famine, Affluence, and Morality; B. KANTIAN ETHICS; Immanuel Kant, Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals; Onora O'Neill, Kantian Approaches to Some Famine Problems; Thomas Nagel, War and Massacre; C. ARISTOTELIAN ETHICS; Aristotle, Nichomachean Ethics; Thomas Nagel, Aristotle on Eudaimonia; Rosalind Hursthouse, Virtue Theory and Abortion; D. JUSTICE AND EQUALITY; John Rawls, A Theory of Justice; Robert Nozick, Justice and Entitlement; G. A. Cohen, Where the Action Is: On the Site of Distributive Justice; John Stuart Mill, The Subjection of Women; Debra Satz, Markets in Women's Reproductive Labor; Kwame Anthony Appiah, Racisms; E. CHALLENGES TO MORALITY; 1. MORALITY AND SELF-INTEREST; Plato, The Republic; David Hume, An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals; David Gauthier, Morality and Advantage; J. L. Mackie, The Law of the Jungle: Moral Alternatives and Principles of Evolution; 2. SUBJECTIVISM, RELATIVISM, AND SKEPTICISM; J. L. Mackie, The Subjectivity of Values; Gilbert Harman, Ethics and Observation; Nicholas L. Sturgeon, Moral Explanations; PART VI: PUZZLES AND PARADOXES; Introduction; A. ZENO'S PARADOXES; Achilles and the Tortoise; The Racecourse; The Argument Against Plurality; B. METAPHYSICAL AND EPISTEMOLOGICAL PUZZLES AND PARADOXES; The Paradox of Identity; The Paradox of the Heap; The Surprise Examination; Goodman's New Riddle of Induction; C. PUZZLES OF RATIONAL CHOICE; The Prisoner's Dilemma; Newcomb's Problem; Kavka's Toxin Puzzle; Quinn's Puzzle of the Self-Torturer; D. PARADOXES OF LOGIC, SET THEORY, AND SEMANTICS; The Paradox of the Liar; Other Versions of the Liar; Russell's Paradox; Grelling's Paradox; * E. PUZZLES OF ETHICS; * The Trolley Problem; * Ducking Harm and Sacrificing Others; Glossary of Philosophical Termsshow more

Review quote

"This is a superb introduction to philosophy, the best I know. It combines the best of classic and contemporary texts, organized around philosophical problems in a provocative and lively way. The editors supply first-rate introductions, and the book as a whole conveys the excitement of thinking about philosophical problems in a way that is fully accessible to a first-year student."--Martha Nussbaum, University of Chicago"This splendid anthology features exceptionally well-chosen readings on philosophical issues that are both captivating and central to the field. In combination with the impressively-crafted chapter introductions, these readings provide just the right material for an intensive, state-of-the-art, beginning course in the area."--Derek Pereboom, Cornell University"This is a terrific anthology, just the kind I like to teach from. It covers all the Big Questions that turn people on to philosophy, with a selection of classic and contemporary readings that are clear and accessible while also being challenging and provocative."--Susan Wolf, University of North Carolina"This book is a real gem. It combines the de rigueur historical texts with the cream of the contemporary articles that continue work on all the classic problems of philosophy. It is the best available text for Intro. courses. As a bonus, the authors have included a section on puzzles and paradoxes, and there is also a glossary of technical terms. My next Intro. course text will be Perry-Bratman-Fischer."--Anthony Brueckner, University of California, Santa Barbara"A comprehensive collection of classic and modern contributions to the enduring problems of philosophy. The essays are well chosen and edited; an introductory text without peer."--Jules Coleman, Yale Law School"The editors are a trio of superb philosophers with over 100 years of teaching experience among them. Their experience shines through in the selection of readings, the introductions (to the volume and to the six main parts of the book), and the study questions. This is the best anthology I have ever seen for an introductory philosophy course."--Alfred R. Mele, Florida State University"This collection does a marvelous job of introducing students to philosophy. It contains an excellent selection of texts--a menu rich in options for constructing a wide range of courses. Each section begins with a very helpful summary of the main issues at stake in that section. These summaries are guides, not only to the texts themselves, but also to how to think about problems philosophically. It would be hard for a student to read them without being sucked into the philosophical debates. The paradoxes and puzzles at the end of the book are a terrific addition. And I have never seen a better glossary: for each entry there is, not a definition, but a concise discussion of the issues associated with the term. . . . [A] truly exemplary introduction to philosophy."--Sarah Buss, University of Michigan"The best introduction to philosophy anthology available. . . . The previous edition was the single best anthology on the market; I have been using it happily for over a decade, and believe that with the new readings it is even better. I think the book is excellent and will be using it as soon as I can."--Thomas Ryckman, Lawrence University"The strength of the book is its comprehensiveness. If you're only going to use one book in an introductory course, it should be this one."--Brian Weatherson, Cornell University"These are the best chapter introductions I have seen in any introductory collection. The writing is pitched at just the right level of complexity, but more importantly, the ideas are high quality. . . . The book manages to be interesting and genuinely illuminating (even to me), but remains understandable to the first-year student."--Thomas Bittner, University of British Columbiashow more

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