Introduction to Philosophy - Classic and Contemporary Readings

Introduction to Philosophy - Classic and Contemporary Readings

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The readings in this acclaimed topically organized collection cover five major areas of philosophy--philosophy of religion, theory of knowledge, philosophy of mind, freedom and determinism, and ethics. Editor Louis P. Pojman enhances the topical organization by arranging the selections into a pro/con format to help students better understand opposing arguments. He also includes comprehensive, accessible introductions to each chapter, subsection, and individual reading, a unique feature for an anthology of this depth. While Introduction to Philosophy, 2/e focuses on a compelling sampling of classical material--including selections from Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, and Kant--it also incorporates a representation of philosophy's best twentieth-century and contemporary work, featuring articles by such philosophers as Bertrand Russell, Richard Taylor, John Searle, and Thomas Nagel. This second edition contains an expanded glossary, a more extensive appendix on logic, and eight new selections: John Locke: "Philosophy: The Love of Truth versus Enthusiasm" Fyodor Dostoevsky: "Why Is There Evil?" from The Brothers Karamazov John Maynard Smith: "Science and Myth" Thomas Nagel: "What Is It Like to Be a Bat?" John Searle: "Minds, Brains, and Computers" Richard Taylor: "Libertarianism: A Defense of Free Will" Galen Strawson: "The Impossibility of Moral Responsibility" Thomas Hobbes' defense of contractualism from Leviathan
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Product details

  • Paperback | 828 pages
  • 187.96 x 233.68 x 27.94mm | 1,224.69g
  • Oxford University Press Inc
  • New York, United States
  • English
  • 2nd edition
  • 0195155068
  • 9780195155068

Table of contents

Preface; I. WHAT IS PHILOSOPHY?; Plato, Socratic Wisdom: The Trial of Socrates (from the Apology); John Locke, Philosophy as the Love of Truth versus Enthusiasm; Bertrand Russell, The Value of Philosophy; II. THE THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE; Plato, The Theory of Ideas; A. The Ascent to Knowledge (from the Republic); B. The Theory of Recollection (from the Meno); Rene Descartes, Meditations on First Philosophy (complete); John Locke, An Empiricist Theory of Knowledge (from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding); George Berkeley, An Idealist Theory of Knowledge (from Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous); David Hume, An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding; Immanuel Kant, The Copernican Revolution in Knowledge; John Maynard Smith, Science and Myth; Norman Malcolm, Two Types of Knowledge; III. PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION; A. TRADITIONAL ARGUMENTS FOR THE EXISTENCE OF GOD; St. Thomas Aquinas, The Five Ways; Samuel Clarke, The Argument from Contingency; F.C. Copleston and Bertrand Russell, A Debate on the Argument from Contingency; William Paley, The Watch and the Watchmaker; David Hume, A Critique of the Teleological Argument; Anselm vs. Gaunilo, The Ontological Argument; F.C. Copleston and Bertrand Russell, A Debate on the Argument from Religious Experience; C.D. Broad, The Argument from Religious Experience; B. THE PROBLEM OF EVIL; Fyodor Dostoevski, Why Is There Evil?; B.C. Johnson, Why Doesn't God Intervene to Prevent Evil?; Richard Swinburne, A Theistic Response to the Problem of Evil; C. FAITH AND REASON; Antony Flew, R.M. Hare, and Basil Mitchell, A Debate on the Rationality of Religious Belief; Blaise Pascal, Faith Is a Rational Wager; W.K. Clifford, The Ethics of Belief; William James, The Will to Believe; Alvin Plantinga, Religious Belief Without Evidence; IV. PHILOSOPHY OF MIND; A. THE MIND-BODY PROBLEM; Rene Descartes, Dualism; Jerome Shafer, Consciousness and the Mind-Body Problem; J.P. Moreland, Substance Dualism; Paul Churchland, A Critique of Dualism; Paul Churchland, On Functionalism and Materialism; Thomas Nagel, What Is It Like to Be a Bat?; John Searle, Minds, Brains, and Computers; B. WHO AM I? THE PROBLEM OF PERSONAL IDENTITY; John Locke, Our Psychological Properties Define the Self; David Hume, We Have No Substantial Self with Which We Are Identical; Derek Parfit and Godfrey Vesey, Brain Transplants and Personal Identity: A Dialogue; C. PERSONAL IDENTITY AND SURVIVAL: WILL I SURVIVE MY DEATH?; Plato, Arguments for the Immortality of the Soul (from the Phaedo); Bertrand Russell, The Illusion of Immortality; John Hick, In Defense of Life After Death; V. FREEDOM OF THE WILL, RESPONSIBILITY, AND PUNISHMENT; A. FREE WILL AND DETERMINISM; Richard Taylor, Libertarianism: Defense of Free Will; Ledger Wood, Determinism: Free Will Is an Illusion; W.T. Stace, Compatibilism: Free Will Is Consistent with Determinism; John Hospers, Determinism: Free Will and Psychoanalysis; Harry Frankfurt, Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person; B. MORAL RESPONSIBILITY; Aristotle, Voluntary Action and Responsibility; Galen Strawson, The Impossibility of Moral Responsibility; Sidney Hook, The Compatibilist Defense of Responsibility; Lois Hope Walker, A Libertarian Defense of Moral Responsibility; C. PUNISHMENT; Immanuel Kant, The Right to Punish: Retributivism; Jonathan Glover, Utilitarianism and Punishment; Karl Menninger, The Crime of Punishment: The Humanitarian Theory; C.S. Lewis, Against the Humanitarian Theory of Rehabilitation; John Rawls, Two Concepts of Punishment; VI. MORAL PHILOSOPHY; A. MORAL RELATIVISM; Ruth Benedict, In Defense of Moral Relativism; Louis P. Pojman, Ethical Relativism Versus Ethical Objectivism; B. MORALITY AND SELF-INTEREST; Plato, Gyges' Ring, or Is the Good Good for You?; James Rachels, Ethical Egoism; J.L. Mackie, The Law of the Jungle: Moral Alternatives and Principles of Evolution; C. RELIGION AND ETHICS; Plato, The Divine Command Theory of Ethics; Bertrand Russell, A Free Man's Worship; George Mavrodes, Religion and the Queerness of Morality; Kai Nielsen, Ethics Without Religion; D. WHICH MORAL THEORY IS CORRECT?; Aristotle, The Ethics of Virtue; Thomas Hobbes, Contractualism; John Stuart Mill, Utilitarianism; Immanuel Kant, The Moral Law; E. CHALLENGES TO TRADITIONAL MORAL THEORIES; Friedrich Nietzsche, Beyond Good and Evil; William Gass, The Case of the Obliging Stranger; APPENDIX I. HOW TO READ AND WRITE A PHILOSOPHY PAPER; APPENDIX II. A LITTLE BIT OF LOGIC; GLOSSARY; SUGGESTED READINGS
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73 ratings
3.94 out of 5 stars
5 36% (26)
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3 22% (16)
2 5% (4)
1 3% (2)
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