Introduction to Optical Mineralogy

Introduction to Optical Mineralogy

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The third edition of Introduction to Optical Mineralogy provides complete coverage of the optical properties of minerals and describes more than 125 common rock-forming minerals. Revised chapters on optical theory discuss the petrographic microscope, the nature and properties of light, the behavior of light in isotropic and anisotropic materials, and uniaxial and biaxial anisotropic optics. Comprehensive and accessible, this text is ideal for advanced undergraduate and graduate classes in optical mineralogy. BLFeatures of the Third Edition BLReorganized so silicates-which comprise over %95 of the earth's crust-are discussed first to reflect their abundance and petrologic significance BLIncludes numerous photomicrographs and revised electronic illustrations throughout the text BLProvides step-by-step procedures on using the petrographic microscope and a flow chart detailing the process of identifying unknown minerals BLCovers light optics, opaque minerals, silicates, feldspars, zeolites, clay minerals, chain silicates, disilicates, ring silicates, carbonates, and native elementsshow more

Product details

  • Hardback | 362 pages
  • 196 x 240 x 24mm | 961.62g
  • Oxford University Press Inc
  • New York, United States
  • English
  • Revised
  • 3rd Revised edition
  • 1pp colour plate, numerous line drawings and tables.
  • 0195149106
  • 9780195149104
  • 1,461,349

Table of contents

Preface; 1. LIGHTC THE NATURE OF LIGHT; 1.1. The Nature of Lightiation; 1.2. Electromagnetic Radiation; 1.3. Phaseerception of Color; 1.4. The Perception of Colord Matter; 1.5. Interaction of Light and Matter; 1.5.1. Transmitted Light; 1.5.1.1. Velocity Refraction; 1.5.1.2. Index of Refraction; 1.5.2. Reflectionngle and Total Internal Reflection; 1.5.3. Critical Angle and Total Internal Reflection; 1.5.4. Optical Glass; 1.5.5. Dispersionrption and Color; 1.5.6. Light Absorption and Color; 1.6. Polarized Lightby Double Refraction; 1.6.1. Polarization by Double Refraction; 1.6.2. Polarization by Reflection; 1.6.3. Polarization by Scattering; 2. THE PETROGRAPHIC MICROSCOPE; 2.1. Direction Convention; 2.2. Samplesator; 2.3. Illuminatorsemby; 2.4. Substage Assemby; 2.5. Microscope Stage; 2.6. Objective Lensesator; 2.7. Vertical Illuminator; 2.8. Upper Polarizer; 2.9. Bertrand Lens; 2.10. Ocularng Mechanism; 2.11. Focusing Mechanism; 2.12. AccessoriesEquipment; 2.13. Additional EquipmentMicroscope; 2.14. General Care of the Microscope; 2.15. Adjustment of the Microscope; 2.16.1. Adjusting the Oculars; 2.16.2. Focusingg the Illuminator; 2.16.3. Adjusting the Illuminator; 2.16.4. Adjusting the Substage; 2.17. General Considerations; 3. REFRACTOMETRY; 3.1. ReliefLine Method; 3.2. Becke Line Methodcts; 3.2.1. Dispersion Effects Method; 3.3. Oblique Illumination Method; 3.4. Practical Considerationsn Method; 3.5. Accuracy of the Immersion Methodn in Thin Section; 3.6. Determining Indices of Refraction in Thin Section; 4. OPTICS OF ISOTROPIC MATERIALS; 4.1. Isotropic Indicatrixen Isotropic and Anisotropic; 4.3. Identification of Isotropic Minerals; 4.3.1. Grain Mount; 4.3.2. Thin Section; 5. OPTICS OF ANISOTROPIC MINERALS: INTRODUCTIONION; 5.1. Interference Phenomena; 5.1.1. Monochromatic Illumination; 5.1.2. Polychromatic Illumination; 5.1.3. Orders of Interference Colors; 5.1.4. Anomalous Interference Colors; 5.2. Determining Thickness of a Sample; 5.2.1. Thin Section; 5.2.2. Grain Mount; 5.3. Determining Birefringence from the Color Chart; 5.3.1. Thin Section; 5.3.2. Grain Mount; 5.4. Recognizing the Different Orders of Interference Colors; 5.5.1. Categories of Extinction; 5.6. Use of the Accessory Plates; 5.7. Sign of Elongationry Plates; 5.8. Relieff Elongation; 5.9. Pleochroism; 6. UNIAXIAL OPTICSISM; 6.1. Optic Signs; 6.2. Crystallographic Considerations; 6.3. Uniaxial Indicatrixnsiderations; 6.3.1. Use of the Indicatrix; 6.4. Birefringence and Interference Colors; 6.5. Extinctionnce and Interference Colors; 6.5.1. Textragonal Minerals; 6.5.2. Hexagonal Mineralsls; 6.5.2.1. Rhombohedral Cleavage; 6.5.2.2. Prismatic and Pinacoidal Cleavage; 6.6. Pleochroismic and Pinacoidal Cleavage; 6.7. Interference Figure; 6.7.1. Optic Axis Interference Figure; 6.7.1.1. Formation of Isochromesigure; 6.7.1.2. Formation of Isogyreses; 6.7.1.3. Determining Optic Sign; 6.7.2 Off-center Optic Axis Figures; 6.7.3. Flash Figuretic Axis Figures; 6.8. Selecting Grains to Give Interference Figures; 6.8.1. Optic Axis Figure Give Interference Figures; 6.8.2. Flash Figureigure; 6.9. Determining Indices of Refraction; 6.9.1. Grain Mountndices of Refraction; 6.9.1.1. Determining nw; 6.9.1.2. Determining ne; 6.9.2. Thin Sectiong ne; 6.9.3. Spindle Stage; 7. BIAXIAL OPTICSLE STAGE; 7.1. Biaxial Indicatrix; 7.1.1. Mathematical Relationships; 7.2. Use of the Indicatrixonships; 7.2.1. Normal Incidence Parallel to an Indicatrix Axis; 7.2.2. Normal Incidence Parallel to an Optic Axis Axis; 7.2.3. Normal Incidence in a Random DirectionAxis; 7.2.4. Inclined Incidencen a Random Direction; 7.3. Crystallographic Orientation of Indicatrix Axis; 7.3.1. Orthorhombic Mineralsation of Indicatrix Axis; 7.3.2. Monoclinic Mineralsls; 7.3.3. Triclinic Mineralss; 7.4. Biaxial Interference Figure; 7.4.1. Acute Bisectrix Figureure; 7.4.1.1. Formation of Isochromes; 7.4.1.2. Vibration Directions and Formation of Isogyres; 7.4.2. Centered Optic Axis Figure Formation of Isogyres; 7.4.3. Obtuse Bisectrix Figureure; 7.4.4. Optic Normal Figuregure; 7.4.5. Off-center Figurese; 7.5. Determining Optic Sign; 7.5.1. Acute Bisectrix Figure; 7.5.2. Obtuse Bisectrix Figure; 7.5.3. Optic Axis FigureFigure; 7.5.4. Flash Figureigure; 7.6. Determining 2V; 7.6.1. 2V Versus 2E; 7.6.2. Mallard's Method; 7.6.3. Tobi's Methodhod; 7.6.4. Kamb's Method; 7.6.5. Wright Method; 7.7. Selecting Grains to Produce Interference Figures; 7.8. Pleochroismrains to Produce Interference Figures; 7.9. Extinctionm; 7.9.1. Orthorhombic Minerals; 7.9.2. Monoclinic Mineralsls; 7.9.3. Triclinic Mineralss; 7.10. Sign of Elongations; 7.11. Indicies of Refraction; 7.11.1. Grain Mountefraction; 7.11.2. Spindle Stage; 7.12. Dispersion in Biaxial Materials; 7.12.1. Orthorhombic Mineralsaterials; 7.12.2. Monoclinic Materialss; 7.12.3. Triclinic Materialss; 8. REFLECTED LIGHT OPTICSTERIALS; 8.1. Physical Properties Observed with Polished Sections; 8.1.1. Crystal Form and Habitrved with Polished; 8.2. Observation in Plane Polarized Light; 8.2.1. Reflectance; 8.2.2. RireflectancePlane Polarized Light; 8.2.2.1. Measurement of Reflectance and Bireflectance; 8.2.3. Color and Pleochroism; 8.2.3.1. Isometric Mineralslectance and Bireflectance; 8.3. Observations with Crossed Polarizers; 8.3.1. Polarization Colorss; 8.3.1.1. Isometric Mineralssed Polarizers; 8.3.1.2. Anisotropic Minerals; 8.4. Observations Related to Conoscopic Illumination; 8.5. Practical Considerations; 9. IDENTIFICATION OF MINERALSD TO CONOSCOPIC ILLUMINATION; 9.1. Descriptive Featuresions; 9.2. Cleavageon of Minerals; 9.3. Twinningive Features; 9.4. Alteration; 9.5. Association; 9.6. Tactics for Mineral Identification; 9.6.1. Thin Section Identification; 9.6.2. Grain Mount Identificationcation; 9.6.3. Polished Section Identification; 9.6.4. Use of Identification Tables; 9.7. Non-mineralsection Identification; 9.8. Problems in Paradiseion Tables; 9.8.1. Inconsistencies in Crystallographic Settings; 9.8.2. Poor Data Paradise; 10. FRAMEWORK SILICATESCIES IN CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC SETTINGS; 10.1. Silica Group; 10.1.1. Quartzlicates; 10.1.2. Chalcedony; 10.1.3. Tridymite; 10.1.4. Cristobalite; 10.1.5. Opalymite; 10.1.6. Volcanic Glass; 10.2. Feldspars; 10.2.1. Plagioclaseass; 10.2.2. Alkali Feldspars; 10.2.3. Sanidinease; 10.2.4. Orthoclasedspars; 10.2.5. Micorcline; 10.2.6. Adulariase; 10.2.7. Anorthoclase; 10.3. Feldspathoids; 10.3.1. Nephelinease; 10.3.2. Sodalite Group; 10.3.3. Leucitene; 10.3.4. Cancrinite-Vishnevite; 10.4. Zeolitese; 10.4.1. Analcime (Analcite)te; 10.4.2. Natrolite; 10.4.3. ThomsoniteAnalcite); 10.4.4. Stilbitee; 10.4.5. Chabazitee; 10.4.6. Heulandite; 10.4.7. Laumontite; 10.5. Other Framework Silicates; 10.5.1. Scapolitee; 11. SHEET SILICATESAMEWORK SILICATES; 11.1. TO Layer Silicates; 11.1.1. Kaolinite; 11.1.2. Serpentineer Silicates; 11.2. TOT Layer Silicates; 11.2.1. Pyrophyllite; 11.2.2. Talc Layer Silicates; 11.3. TOT+ Interlayer Cation Layer Silicates; 11.3.1. Muscovite; 11.3.2. Biotite+ Interlayer Cation Layer Silicates; 11.3.3. Lepidolite; 11.3.4. Glauconite; 11.3.5. Margaritee; 11.3.6. Clintonite; 11.4. TOT+O Layer Silicates; 11.4.1. Chloritete; 11.5. Clay Minerals Layer Silicates; 11.6. Other Sheet Silicates; 11.6.1. Stilpnomelane; 11.6.2. Prehnitet Silicates; 11.6.3. Apophyllitene; 12. CHAIN SILICATESTE; 12.1. Pyroxeneslite; 12.1.1. Enstatite-Ferrosilite (Orthopyroxene); 12.1.2. Pigeonite; 12.1.3. Calcic Clinopyroxene (Augite)yroxene); 12.1.4. Aegirine, Aegirine-augite; 12.1.5. Omphaciteinopyroxene (Augite); 12.1.6. Jadeitee, Aegirine-augite; 12.1.7. Spodumene; 12.2. Aphiboles; 12.2.1. Anthophyllite; 12.2.2. Gedrite; 12.2.3. Cummingtonite-Grunerite; 12.2.4. Tremolite-Actinolite-Ferro-Actinolite; 12.2.5. Hornblendeite-Grunerite; 12.2.6. Oxyhornblendeinolite-Ferro-Actinolite; 12.2.7. Kaersutite; 12.2.8. Richteritende; 12.2.9. Arfvedsonite and Eckermannite; 12.2.10. Glaucophane-Riebeckite Series; 12.3. Pyroxinoidsite and Eckermannite; 12.3.1. Wollastonite-Riebeckite Series; 12.3.2. Rhodonite; 12.3.3. Pectoliteite; 12.4. Other Chain Silicates; 12.4.1. Sapphirine; 13. DISILICATES AND RING SILICATES; 13.1. Disilicatese; 13.1.1. Lawsonite Ring Silicates; 13.1.2. Pumpellyite; 13.1.3. Melititee; 13.1.4. Vesuvianite (Idocrase); 13.1.5. Epidote Group; 13.1.6. Zoisitenite (Idocrase); 13.1.7. Clinzoisite-Epidote; 13.1.8. Piemontite; 13.1.9. Allaniteite-Epidote; 13.2. Ring Silicates; 13.2.1. Tourmalite; 13.2.2. Axinitecates; 13.2.3. Berylalite; 13.2.4. Cordierite; 14. ORTHOSILICATES; 14.1. Olivineerite; 14.2. Monticellite>; 14.3. Humite Group; 14.4. Garnet Group; 14.5. Andalusiteup; 14.6. Sillimanitep; 14.7. Kyaniteite; 14.8. Staurolitee; 14.9. Chloritoid; 14.10. Titanite (Sphene); 14.11. Topaztoid; 14.12. Zirconte (Sphene); 14.13. Dumortierite; 15. CARBONATES, BORATES, SULFATES, AND PHOSPHATES; 15.1. Carbonatesite; 15.1.1. Calciteorates, Sulfates, and Phosphates; 15.1.2. Magnesite; 15.1.3. Siderite; 15.1.4. Rhodochrosite; 15.1.5. Dolomite-Ankerite; 15.1.6. Aragonitesite; 15.1.7. Strontianiteerite; 15.1.8. Witherite; 15.2. Boratestianite; 15.2.1. Boraxrite; 15.2.2. Colemanite; 15.3. Sulfates; 15.3.1. Baritenite; 15.3.2. Celestine (Celestite); 15.3.3. Gypsum; 15.4.4. Anhydrite (Celestite); 15.4.5. Alunite; 15.5. Phosphatese; 15.5.1. Apatite; 15.5.2. Monazite; 15.5.3. Xenotime; 16. NATIVE ELEMENTS, SULFIDES, HALIDES, OXIDES AND HYDROXIDES; 16.1. Native Elements; 16.1.1. Sulfurnts, Sulfides, Halides, Oxides and; 16.1.3. Gold Elements; 16.1.4. Silver; 16.1.5. Copperte; 16.2. Sulfides and Related Minerals; 16.2.1. Pyrite; 16.2.2. Marcasite; 16.2.3. Sphalerite Related Minerals; 16.2.4. Galena; 16.2.5. Pyrrhotite; 16.2.6. Chalcopyrite; 16.3. Halidesa; 16.3.1. Halitetite; 16.3.2. Sylviteyrite; 16.3.3. Fuorite; 16.4. Oxideste; 16.4.1. Periclase; 16.4.2. Cuprite; 16.4.3. Rutile; 16.4.4. Anatasese; 16.4.5. Cassiterite; 16.4.6. Corundum; 16.4.7. Hematite; 16.4.8. Ilmeniteite; 16.4.9. Perovskite; 16.5. The Spinel Group; 16.5.1. Spinel Series; 16.5.2. Magnetitee; 16.5.3. Chromite Group; 16.6. Hydroxideseries; 16.6.1. Brucitete; 16.6.2. Gibbsite; 16.6.3. Diaspore; 16.6.4. Bohmite (Boehmite); 16.6.5. Goethite; 16.6.6. Lepidocrocite; 16.6.7. Limonite(Boehmite); APPENDIX A: SAMPLE PREPARATION; Grain Mountepidocrocite; Thin Sectionmonite; Spindle Stageample Preparation; Polished Section; APPENDIX B: IDENTIFICATION TABLES; Mineral Index; Subject Index; APPENDIX B: IDENTIFICATION TABLES; Mineral Index; Subject Indexshow more

About William D. Nesse

WILLIAM D. NESSE is Professor of Geology at the University of Northern Colorado, where he has taught for more than 25 years. He is the author of Introduction to Mineralogy (OUP, 2000) and the Instructor's Manual for Putnam's Geology (OUP, 1989). He is a member of the Geological Society of America, the Mineralogical Society of America, the Rocky Mountain Association of Geologists, and the Colorado Scientific Society.show more

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