An Introduction to Gravity Currents and Intrusions
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An Introduction to Gravity Currents and Intrusions

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Description

Gravity currents and intrusions are the ubiquitous phenomena where a fluid of one density flows horizontally into a fluid of a different density. For researchers and engineers, the ability to understand and predict these flow fields is essential in wide-ranging applications including those involved with atmospheric and ocean dynamics, the propagation of pollutants, and the dispersion of volcanic clouds. Although many new theories, experimental data, simulation results, and insights have surfaced recently, most of these developments remain scattered in journals and conference papers. A systematic and unified introduction to the field, which incorporates the new results and developments, is bound to facilitate the application of the available knowledge to both practical problems and further investigations. Written by a recognized authority active in recent developments in gravity current research, An Introduction to Gravity Currents and Intrusions provides an up-to-date, self-contained, and systematic introduction to the study, interpretation, and prediction of gravity current flows. The author uses a simple mathematical framework to provide an accessible and comprehensive introduction to the mathematical and physical aspects of this important topic. The text supplies researchers and practitioners with the foundation required to formulate problems, interpret experimental results and measurements data, obtain simple and insightful analytical estimates and solutions, and develop or implement numerical codes for related problems. The book also points out gaps of knowledge in the current understanding that require further research. This accessible reference requires only a basic background in fluid mechanics and applied mathematics, making it an ideal starting place for researchers and engineers new to the field. It can also serve as a textbook for upper-level undergraduate and graduate level courses in fluid dynamics.show more

Product details

  • Hardback | 512 pages
  • 158 x 236 x 34mm | 898.11g
  • Taylor & Francis Inc
  • Chapman & Hall/CRC
  • Boca Raton, FL, United States
  • English
  • 182 black & white illustrations, 2 black & white tables
  • 1584889039
  • 9781584889038

Review quote

The whole book is well written in a clear and pedagogical general style. ... the author has, in my opinion, produced the first comprehensive book entirely devoted to the modeling of gravity currents and intrusions. This book will be particularly useful to graduate and PhD students, as well as to academics and research engineers working in this field. It may be used as a self-consistent document to get a detailed idea of the state of knowledge about a given problem or a guide toward more specialized papers. It is rich with ideas regarding the direction in which further research is warranted. This book is ideal to get a first, and yet deep, understanding of the dynamics of gravity currents and intrusions. -International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 37, 2011 ... Noteworthy previous reviews have been written by Simpson (1987) and Huppert (2006). ... In spite of the profound analytical contributions made by these authors, neither review is especially heavy on equations. Stepping into this void is M. Ungarish whose recent monograph devotes most of its pages to the development of a unified theoretical description of gravity current flow in a wide variety of incarnations. ... Ungarish provides a useful summary of the requisite mathematical tools in the appendices and does not shy away from putting these to purposeful employ. On the other hand, each chapter is largely self-contained; for experienced readers, the monograph can be used as a helpful reference in guiding future research. ... Ungarish's consideration of different geometries, flow regimes, etc. is broad, making his book of potential interest to researchers from disparate fields, including oceanography, atmospheric science, hydraulic engineering, and others. -M.R. Flynn, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 2010show more

About Marius Ungarish

Technion, Dept. of Computer Science, Haifa, Israelshow more

Table of contents

Introduction Classification The Navier-Stokes equations Non-stratified ambient currents Shallow-water (SW) formulation for high-Re flows Motion of the interface and the continuity equation One-layer model A useful transformation The full behavior by numerical solution Dam-break stage Similarity solution The validity of the inviscid approximation The steady-state current and nose jump conditions Benjamin's analysis Jump condition Box models for 2D geometry Fixed volume current with inertial-buoyancy balance Inflow volume change Two-layer SW model Introduction The governing equations Boussinesq system in dimensionless form Jumps of interface for H < 2 Energy and work in a two-layer model Axisymmetric currents, SW formulation Governing equations A useful transformation The full behavior by numerical solution Dam-break stage Similarity solution The validity of the inviscid approximation Some comparisons Box models for axisymmetric geometry Fixed volume current with inertial-buoyancy balance Inflow volume change Effects of rotation Axisymmetric case Rotating channel Buoyancy decays: particle-driven, porous boundary, and entrainment Particle-driven currents Axisymmetric particle-driven current Extensions of particle-driven solutions Current over a porous bottom Axisymmetric current over a porous bottom Entrainment Non-Boussinesq systems Introduction Formulation Dam-break and initial slumping motion The transition and self-similar stages Summary Lubrication theory formulation for viscous currents 2D geometry Axisymmetric current Current in a porous medium II Stratified ambient currents and intrusions Continuous density transition Introduction The SW formulation SW results and comparisons with experiments and simulations Dam break Critical speed and nose-wave interaction Similarity solution The validity of the inviscid approximation Axisymmetric and rotating cases SW formulation SW and NS finite-difference results The validity of the inviscid approximation The steady-state current Steady-state flow pattern Results Comparisons and conclusions Intrusions in 2D geometry Introduction Two-layer stratification Linear transition layer Rectangular lock configurations Cylindrical lock in a fully linearly-stratified tank Similarity solution Non-symmetric intrusions Intrusions in axisymmetric geometry Introduction Two-layer stratification Fully linearly-stratified tank, part-depth locks Box models for 2D geometry Fixed volume and inertial-buoyancy balance S = 1, inflow volume change Box models for axisymmetric geometry Fixed volume and inertial-buoyancy balance S = 1, inflow volume change Lubrication theory for viscous currents with S = 1 2D geometry Axisymmetric geometry Energy Introduction 2D geometry Axisymmetric geometry SW equations: characteristics and finite-difference schemes Characteristics Numerical solution of the SW equations Navier-Stokes numerical simulations Formulation A finite-difference code Other codes Some useful formulas Leibniz's Theorem Vectors and coordinate systemsshow more