Introduction to Engineering Experimentation : International Edition
For undergraduate-level courses in Introduction to Engineering Experimentation found in departments of Mechanical, Aeronautical, Civil, and Electrical Engineering. An up-to-date, practical introduction to engineering experimentation. Introduction to Engineering Experimentation, 3E introduces many topics that engineers need to master in order to plan, design, and document a successful experiment or measurement system. The text offers a practical approach with current examples and thorough discussions of key topics, including those often ignored or merely touched upon by other texts, such as modern computerized data acquisition systems, electrical output measuring devices, and in-depth coverage of experimental uncertainty analysis.
- Paperback | 480 pages
- 178 x 232 x 24mm | 739.35g
- 01 Apr 2010
- Pearson Education (US)
- United States
- 3rd edition
About Anthony J. Wheeler
Anthony J. Wheeler received a Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering from Stanford University in 1971. Dr. Wheeler is a licensed Professional Engineer in the State of California. He is currently Emeritus Professor of Engineering at San Francisco State University where he taught courses in Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics, and lectures and laboratories in Experimental Methods. His development activities in laboratories in experimentation were the precursors to the present textbook. Professor Ahmad R. Ganji received his Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley in 1979. He is a professional engineer in the State of California. He has served as a faculty member at San Francisco State University since 1987, teaching courses in the areas of thermal-fluids, experimentation, and air pollution, and publishing over 40 works. Dr. Ganji has been the director of Industrial Assessment Center-a US DOE sponsored project since 1992. In this capacity he has managed hundreds of energy assessments of manufacturing facilities. As a consultant in energy efficiency projects, he has directed and managed numerous measurement and verification (M&V) projects that involve the formulation of detailed measurement protocols based on national and international standards.
Table of contents
Previous Edition TOC CHAPTER 1 Introduction 11.1 Applications of Engineering Experimentation and Measurement 11.1.1 Measurement in Engineering Experimentation 11.1.2 Measurement in Operational Systems 31.2 Objective and Overview 31.3 Dimensions and Units 31.4 Closure 5CHAPTER 2 General Characteristics of Measurement Systems 62.1 Generalized Measurement System 62.2 Validity of Measurement 72.2.1 Measurement Error and Related Definitions 82.2.2 Calibration of Measurement Systems 152.3 Dynamic Measurements 232.4 Closure 27References 27Problems 28CHAPTER 3 Measurement Systems with Electrical Signals 343.1 Electrical Signal Measurement Systems 343.2 Signal Conditioners 353.2.1 General Characteristics of Signal Amplification 363.2.2 Amplifiers Using Operational Amplifiers 423.2.3 Signal Attenuation 483.2.4 General Aspects of Signal Filtering 503.2.5 Butterworth Filters Using Operational Amplifiers 533.2.6 Circuits for Integration, Differentiation, and Comparison 573.3 Indicating and Recording Devices 583.3.1 Digital Voltmeters and Multimeters 583.3.2 Oscilloscopes 593.3.3 Strip-Chart Recorders 613.3.4 Data Acquisition Systems 623.4 Electrical Transmission of Signals Between Components 633.4.1 Low-Level Analog Voltage Signal Transmission 633.4.2 High-Level Analog Voltage Signal Transmission 653.4.3 Current-Loop Analog Signal Transmission 663.4.4 Digital Signal Transmission 66References 67Problems 68CHAPTER 4 Computerized Data-Acquisition Systems 704.1 Introduction 704.2 Computer Systems 714.2.1 Computer Systems for Data Acquisition 714.2.2 Components of Computer Systems 724.2.3 Representing Numbers in Computer Systems 744.3 Data-Acquisition Components 774.3.1 Multiplexers 774.3.2 Basics of Analog-to-Digital Converters 784.3.3 Practical Analog-to-Digital Converters 854.3.4 Digital-to-Analog Converters 884.3.5 Simultaneous Sample-and-Hold Subsystems 894.4 Configurations of Data-Acquisition Systems 904.5 Software for Data-Acquisition Systems 924.5.1 Commercial Software Packages 92References 92Problems 93CHAPTER 5 Discrete Sampling and Analysis of Time-Varying Signals 955.1 Sampling-Rate Theorem 955.2 Spectral Analysis of Time-Varying Signals 1005.3 Spectral Analysis Using the Fourier Transform 1055.4 Selecting the Sampling Rate and Filtering 1105.4.1 Selecting the Sampling Rate 1105.4.2 Use of Filtering to Limit Sampling Rate 111References 115Problems 115CHAPTER 6 Statistical Analysis of Experimental Data 1186.1 Introduction 1186.2 General Concepts and Definitions 1206.2.1 Definitions 1206.2.2 Measures of Central Tendency 1226.2.3 Measures of Dispersion 1236.3 Probability 1246.3.1 Probability Distribution Functions 1256.3.2 Some Probability Distribution Functionswith Engineering Applications 1296.4 Parameter Estimation 1396.4.1 Interval Estimation of the Population Mean 1406.4.2 Interval Estimation of the Population Variance 1466.5 Criterion for Rejecting Questionable Data Points 1496.6 Correlation of Experimental Data 1516.6.1 Correlation Coefficient 1516.6.2 Least-Squares Linear Fit 1556.6.3 Outliers in x-y Data Sets 1596.6.4 Linear Regression Using Data Transformation 1636.6.5 Multiple and Polynomial Regression 1646.7 Linear Functions of Random Variables 1686.8 Applying Computer Software for Statistical Analysisof Experimental Data 169References 169Problems 170CHAPTER 7 Experimental Uncertainty Analysis 1807.1 Introduction 1807.2 Propagation of Uncertainties-General Considerations 1807.3 Consideration of Systematic and Random Componentsof Uncertainty 1847.4 Sources of Elemental Error 1907.5 Uncertainty of the Final Results for Multiple-MeasurementExperiments 1957.6 Uncertainty of the Final Result for Single-MeasurementExperiments 1997.7 Step-by-Step Procedure for Uncertainty Analysis 2027.8 Interpreting Manufacturers' Uncertainty Data 2037.9 Applying Uncertainty Analysis in DigitalData-Acquisition Systems 2047.10 Additional Considerations for Single-MeasurementExperiments 2087.11 Closure 210References 211Problems 211CHAPTER 8 Measurement of Solid-Mechanical Quantities 2228.1 Measuring Strain 2228.1.1 Electrical Resistance Strain Gage 2228.1.2 Strain Gage Signal Conditioning 2278.2 Measuring Displacement 2328.2.1 Potentiometer 2328.2.2 Linear and Rotary Variable Differential Transformers 2338.2.3 Capacitive Displacement Sensor 2378.2.4 Digital Encoders 2398.3 Measuring Linear Velocity 2398.3.1 Linear Velocity Transducer 2398.3.2 Doppler Radar Velocity Measurement 2408.3.3 Velocity Determination Using Displacementand Acceleration Sensors 2418.4 Measuring Angular Velocity 2428.4.1 Electric Generator Tachometers 2428.4.2 Magnetic Pickup 2438.4.3 Stroboscopic Tachometer 2448.4.4 Photoelectric Tachometer 2458.5 Measuring Acceleration and Vibration 2458.5.1 Piezoelectric Accelerometers 2458.5.2 Strain-Gage Accelerometers 2488.5.3 Servo Accelerometer 2498.5.4 Vibrometer 2498.6 Measuring Force 2508.6.1 Load Cells 2508.6.2 Proving Rings 2528.7 Measuring Rotating Shaft Torque 253References 255Problems 256CHAPTER 9 Measuring Pressure, Temperature, and Humidity 2619.1 Measuring Pressure 2619.1.1 Traditional Pressure-Measuring Devices 2619.1.2 Pressure Transducers 2689.1.3 Measuring a Vacuum 2709.2 Measuring Temperature 2749.2.1 Thermocouples 2749.2.2 Resistance-Temperature Detectors 2819.2.3 Thermistor and Integrated-Circuit Temperature Sensors 2859.2.4 Mechanical Temperature-Sensing Devices 2869.2.5 Pyrometers and Infrared Thermometers 2899.2.6 Common Temperature-Measurement Errors 2939.3 Measuring Humidity 2989.3.1 Hygrometric Devices 2999.3.2 Dew-Point Devices 2999.3.3 Psychrometric Devices 299WheeFMv3.qxd 4/18/03 12:47 PM Page viContents vii9.4 Fiber-Optic Devices 3019.4.1 Optical Fiber 3019.4.2 General Characteristics of Fiber-Optic Sensors 3039.4.3 Fiber-Optic Displacement Sensors 3049.4.4 Fiber-Optic Temperature Sensors 3059.4.5 Fiber Optic Pressure Sensors 3079.4.6 Other Fiber-Optic Sensors 307References 308Problems 309CHAPTER 10 Measuring Fluid Flow Rate, Fluid Velocity, Fluid Level,and Combustion Pollutants 31310.1 Systems for Measuring Fluid Flow Rate 31310.1.1 Pressure Differential Devices 31310.1.2 Variable-Area Flowmeters 32910.1.3 Turbine Flowmeters 33210.1.4 Mass Flowmeters 33310.1.5 Positive-Displacement Flowmeters 33610.1.6 Other Methods of Flow Measurement 33610.1.7 Calibrating Flowmeters 34010.2 Systems for Measuring Fluid Velocity 34110.2.1 Pitot-Static Probe 34110.2.2 Hot-Wire and Hot-Film Anemometers 34310.2.3 Fluid Velocity Measurement Using theLaser-Doppler Effect 34510.3 Measuring Fluid Level 34710.3.1 Buoyancy Devices 34810.3.2 Differential-Pressure Devices 34910.3.3 Capacitance Devices 35010.3.4 Conductance Devices 35110.3.5 Ultrasonic Devices 35110.3.6 Weight Methods 35210.4 Measuring Air Pollution Species 35210.4.1 Nondispersive Infrared Detectors 35310.4.2 Chemiluminescent Analyzers 35410.4.3 Flame Ionization Detectors 35510.4.4 Other Gas-Analysis Devices 35610.4.5 General Considerations about Sampling andMeasuring Pollutant Gases 357References 358Problems 359CHAPTER 11 Dynamic Behavior of Measurement Systems 36311.1 Order of a Dynamic Measurement System 36311.2 Zero-Order Measurement Systems 36411.3 First-Order Measurement Systems 36411.3.1 Basic Equations 36511.3.2 Step Input 36511.3.3 Ramp Input 36611.3.4 Sinusoidal Input 36811.3.5 Thermocouple as a First-Order System 36811.4 Second-Order Measurement Systems 37311.4.1 Basic Equations 37311.4.2 Step Input 37411.4.3 Sinusoidal Input 37611.4.4 Force Transducer (Load Cell) as a Second-Order System 37711.4.5 Pressure-Measurement Devices as Second-Order Systems 38011.4.6 Second-Order Systems for Acceleration and Vibration 38811.5 Closure 393References 394Problems 394CHAPTER 12 Guidelines for Planning and Documenting Experiments 39712.1 Overview of an Experimental Program 39712.1.1 Problem Definition 39712.1.2 Experiment Design 39812.1.3 Experiment Construction and Development 39812.1.4 Data Gathering 39912.1.5 Data Analysis 39912.1.6 Interpreting Data and Reporting 39912.2 Common Activities in Experimental Projects 39912.2.1 Dimensional Analysis and Determiningthe Test Rig Scale 39912.2.2 Uncertainty Analysis 40312.2.3 Shakedown Tests 40312.2.4 Test Matrix and Test Sequence 40412.2.5 Scheduling and Cost Estimation 40812.2.6 Design Review 41212.2.7 Documenting Experimental Activities 41312.3 Closure 421References 421Answers to Selected Problems 422APPENDIX A Computational Methods for Chapter 5 425APPENDIX B Selected Properties of Substances 429Glossary 434Index