Introducing Philosophy

Introducing Philosophy : A Text with Integrated Readings

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This text acquaints students with the core problems of philosophy and the many ways in which they have been answered. It acknowledges that philosophy is very much alive today but is also deeply rooted in the past - in the many traditions that converge and diverge from ancient Greece, ancient China, and ancient India. Accordingly, the book combines substantial original sources from significant works in the history of philosophy with detailed commentary and explanation that help to clarify the readings. The selections range from the oldest known fragments to contemporary essays in feminism, multiculturalism, and cognitive science. In this 7th edition, the readings have been edited for clarity and conciseness and include new selections from "The Economist", Robert Kane, John Corvino, Cheshire Calhoun, Nelson Mandela, Mencius, and Hsun Tsu. Each chapter is followed by a summary, a glossary, and a bibliography with suggestions for further readings.show more

Product details

  • Paperback | 752 pages
  • 164.6 x 233.7 x 27.2mm | 961.62g
  • Oxford University Press Inc
  • New York, United States
  • Revised
  • 7th Revised edition
  • notes, bibliography, glossary
  • 0195155106
  • 9780195155105

Table of contents

CHAPTERS 1-10 END WITH SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION, GLOSSARY, AND BIBLIOGRAPHY AND FURTHER READINGS SECTIONS; Preface; INTRODUCTION: PHILOSOPHY; A. SOCRATES; Aristophanes, from The Clouds; Plato, from The Apology; from The Crito; B. WHAT IS PHILOSOPHY?; Plato, from The Apology; Lao Tsu, from Tao Te Ching; C. A MODERN APPROACH TO PHILOSOPHY; Rene Descartes, from Discourse on Method; D. A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC; 1. Deductive Arguments; 2. Inductive Arguments; 3. Argument by Analogy; 4. Argument by Counter-Example; 5. Reductio ad Absurdum; 6. The Worst Kind of Fallacies; Glossary; Bibliography and Further Reading; PART ONE. THE WORLD AND BEYOND; CHAPTER 1. REALITY; A. "THE WAY THE WORLD REALLY IS"; B. THE FIRST PHILOSOPHERS: THE "TURNING POINT OF CIVILIZATION"; Karl Jaspers, from The "Axial Period"; C. THE EARLY GREEK PHILOSOPHERS; 1. The Ionian Naturalists; 2. Monism, Materialism, and Immaterial "Stuff"; 3. Heraclitus; 4. Democritus, Atoms, and Pluralism; 5. Animism; 6. Pythagoras; 7. The Appearance/Reality Distinction; 8. Parmenides; 9. The Sophists; 10. Metaphysics; D. ULTIMATE REALITY IN THE EAST: INDIA, PERSIA, AND CHINA; 1. Reality as Spirit: The Upanishads; 2. Reality, Good, and Evil: Zarathustra; 3. Confucius; 4. Lao Tsu, or the Poets of Tao Te Ching; 5. Buddha; Buddha, the "Fire-Sermon"; E. TWO KINDS OF METAPHYSICS: PLATO AND ARISTOTLE; 1. Plato; Plato, from The Republic; from The Meno; 2. Aristotle; F. MODERN METAPHYSICS: DESCARTES, SPINOZA, AND LEIBNIZ; 1. Rene Descartes; Rene Descartes, On Substance; 2. Benedictus de Spinoza; Benedictus de Spinoza, from Ethics; 3. Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz; Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, from Monadology; CHAPTER 2. RELIGION; A. WHAT IS RELIGION?; John Wisdom, from "Gods"; Albert Einstein, on the Design of the Universe; Keiji Nishitani, from "What Is Religion?"; B. THE WESTERN RELIGIONS; 1. The Traditional Conception of God; 2. Can We Know That God Exists?; St. Anselm, The Ontological Argument; Rene Descartes, The Ontological Argument; Immanuel Kant, Against the Ontological Argument; St. Thomas Aquinas, The Cosmological Argument; St. Thomas Aquinas, The "Fifth Way"; David Hume, An Imperfect Universe; C. RELIGION, MORALITY, AND EVIL; 1. Religion and "Practical Reason"; Immanuel Kant, on God and Morality; William James, from "The Will to Believe"; 2. The Problem of Evil; St. Augustine, from Confessions; 3. Hinduism, Buddhism, Karma, and Compassion; D. REASON AND FAITH; ibn-Rushd, on the Philosophic Study of God; Fyodor Dostoyevski, from The Brothers Karamazov; E. FAITH AND IRRATIONALITY; 1. God as Experience; Mohammed al-Ghazali, from The Deliverance from Error; 2. The Leap of Faith; Soren Kierkegaard, on Subjective Truth; 3. God as Ultimate Concern; Paul Tillich, The Ultimate Concern; F. THE ATTACK ON RELIGION: MARX, NIETZSCHE, AND FREUD; Karl Marx, from Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right; Friedrich Nietzsche, from Beyond Good and Evil and The Antichrist; Friedrich Nietzsche, from The Joyful Wisdom; Sigmund Freud, from The Future of an Illusion; CHAPTER 3. KNOWLEDGE; Bertrand Russell, from The Problems of Philosophy; Plato, from the Theatetus; A. THE RATIONALIST'S CONFIDENCE: DESCARTES; Rene Descartes: from "Meditation I"; from "Meditation II"; from "Meditation VI"; B. INNATE IDEAS CONCERNING HUMAN UNDERSTANDING: JOHN LOCKE; John Locke, from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding; Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, Leibniz's Rebuttal, from New Essays on the Human Understanding; C. THE EMPIRICIST THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE; John Locke, from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding; D. COMMON SENSE UNDONE: BISHOP BERKELEY; Bishop George Berkeley, from the Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge; E. THE CONGENIAL SKEPTIC: DAVID HUME; David Hume, from A Treatise of Human Nature; from the Enquiry; F. AN ANCIENT SKEPTIC: NAGARJUNA; G. DOUBLE VISION: A NON-WESTERN FEMINIST PERSPECTIVE; Uma Narayan, on Feminist Epistemology; CHAPTER 4. TRUTH; A. TWO KINDS OF TRUTH; 1. Analytic Truths; Aristotle, from Metaphysics; Immanuel Kant, from The Critique of Pure Reason; 2. Truths about the World; B. THEORIES OF TRUTH; 1. The Coherence Theory; Brand Blanshard, on the Coherence Theory; 2. The Pragmatic Theory; Charles Peirce, from "How to Make Our Ideas Clear"; William James, on the Pragmatic Theory; 3. The Semantic Theory; Alfred Tarski, from "The Semantic Theory of Truth"; C. KANT'S REVOLUTION; Immanuel Kant, from Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics; D. THE BATTLE IN EUROPE AFTER KANT: RELATIVISM AND ABSOLUTISM; 1. Hegel; G.W.F. Hegel, from The Phenomenology of Spirit; from Reason in History; 2. Schopenhauer; Arthur Schopenhauer, from The World as Will and Representation; 3. Nietzsche; Friedrich Nietzsche, from Various Works; E. PHENOMEONOLOGY; Edmund Husserl, from The 1929 Paris Lectures; F. HERMENEUTICS, PRAGMATISM, AND FEMINISM: RELATIVISM RECONSIDERED; Richard Rorty, from "Solidarity or Objectivity?"; Isamu Nagami, from "Cultural Gaps: Why Do We Misunderstand?"; Elizbeth Grosz, on Feminist Knowledge; PART TWO. KNOW THY SELF; CHAPTER 5. SELF; A. CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE SELF: FROM DESCARTES TO KANT; Rene Descartes, from "Meditation VI"; John Locke, on Personal Identity; David Hume, "There Is No Self"; Immanuel Kant, Against the Soul; Meredith Michaels, "Personal Identity"; B. EXISTENTIALISM: SELF-IDENTITY AND THE RESPONSIBILITY OF CHOICE; Jean-Paul Sartre, on Existentialism; on Bad Faith; from No Exit; C. THE INDIVIDUAL AND THE COMMUNITY; Friedrich Nietzsche, on the Dispensability of Consciousness; Soren Kierkegaard, on "The Public"; on Self and Passion; Martin Heidegger, "Dasein" and the "They"; David Reisman, on Individualism; 1. Voices of Protest; Malcolm X, on Being "African"; from "At the Audobon"; Sherri Ortner, from "Is Female to Male as Nature Is to Culture?"; Ann Ferguson, on Androgyny; 2. Beyond "Individualism"; G.W.F. Hegel, "Spirit" and the Individual; Soren Kierkegaard, A Retort; Karl Marx, on the Social Self; D. ONE SELF? ANY SELF? QUESTIONING THE CONCEPT OF PERSONAL "ESSENCE"; Hermann Hesse, from Steppenwolf; Luce Irigaray, from The Sex Which Is Not One; Genevieve Lloyd, from "The Man of Reason"; From the Dhammapada; Tao Te Ching, 13; CHAPTER 6. MIND AND BODY; A. WHAT IS CONSCIOUSNESS?; Rene Descartes, from "Meditation VI"; from "Meditation III"; B. THE PROBLEM OF DUALISM; The Economist, "A Tour of the Brain"; Rene Descartes, from "The Passions of the Soul"; C. THE REJECTION OF DUALISM; 1. Radical Behaviorism; 2. Logical Behaviorism; Gilbert Rule, "Descartes' Myth"; 3. The Identity Theory; J.J.C. Smart, "Sensations and Brain Processes"; Jerome Shaffer, Against the Identity Theory; 4. Eliminative Materialism; Paul M. Churchland, on Eliminative Materialism; 5. Functionalism: The Mind and the Computer; John R. Searle, from "The Myth of the Computer"; 6. Connectionism; D. THE PROBLEM OF CONSCIOUSNESS; Sigmund Freud, on the "Unconscious"; Thomas Nagel, "What Is It Like to Be a Bat?"; 1. Changing Our Minds: Holism and Consciousness; Aristotle, from De Anima; William James, from "Does Consciousness Exist?"; CHAPTER 7. FREEDOM; A. FATALISM AND KARMA; Sophocles, from Oedipus the King; Keiji Nishitani, on Fate; B. PREDESTINATION; St. Augustine, On Free Choice of the Will, Book II; Mohammad Iqbal, from "The Human Ego: Its Freedom and Immortality"; Jackie Trimier, on the Yoruba Ori; Jonathan Edwards, from "Freedom of the Will"; C. DETERMINISM; 1. Hard Determinism; Paul Henri d'Holbach, from System of Nature; 2. Determinism versus Indeterminism; Robert Kane, on Indeterminism; 3. The Role of Consciousness; 4. Soft Determinism; John Stuart Mill, on Causation and Necessity; David Hume, on Causation and Character; Robert Kane, from "Wiggle Room"; D. COMPULSION AND IGNORANCE; Aristotle, on Voluntary Action; John Hospers, from "What Means This Freedom?"; 1. Conditioning; B.F. Skinner, Beyond Freedom; Robert Kane, Beyond Skinner; Anthony Burgess, from A Clockwork Orange; Catherine MacKinnon, on Coercion of Women's Sexuality; E. FREEDOM IN PRACTICE; Harry Frankfurt, "Coercion and Moral Responsibility"; Martin Luther King, Jr., "The Dilemma of Negro Americans"; F. RADICAL FREEDOM: EXISTENTIALISM; Jean-Paul Sartre, from "Absolute Freedom"; Fyodor Dostoyevski, from "The Most Advantageous Advantage"; Thich Nhat Hanh, from "Turning on the Television"; PART THREE. THE GOOD AND THE BEAUTIFUL; CHAPTER 8. ETHICS; A. MORALITY; B. IS MORALITY RELATIVE?; Walter Stace, on Ethical Relativism; Margaret Mead, Sex and Temperament; C. EGOISM AND ALTRUISM; Plato, from The Republic; Joseph Butler, Against Egoism; D. MORALITY AS VIRTUE: ARISTOTLE; Aristotle, from The Nicomachean Ethics; E. MORALITY AND SENTIMENT: HUME AND ROUSSEAU; David Hume, on "Reason as Slave of the Passions"; Jean-Jacques Rousseau, from Emile; F. MORALITY AND PRACTICAL REASON: KANT; Immanuel Kant, from Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals; G. UTILITARIANISM; Jeremy Bentham, from The Principles of Morals and Legislation; John Stuart Mill, from Utilitarianism; H. THE CREATION OF MORALITY: NIETZSCHE AND EXISTENTIALISM; Friedrich Nietzsche, on "Master and Slave Morality"; Jean-Paul Sartre, from "Existentialism"; I. ETHICS AND GENDER; Virginia Held, on Feminist Ethics; John Corvino, from Same Sex: Debating the Ethics, Science, and Culture of Homosexuality; CHAPTER 9. JUSTICE; A. THE PROBLEM OF JUSTICE; 1. Two Ancient Theories of Justice: Plato and Aristotle; Plato, from The Republic; Aristotle, from The Nicomachean Ethics; 2. Two Modern Theories of Justice: Hume and Mill on Utility and Rights; David Hume, on "Justice and Utility"; John Stuart Mill, from Utilitarianism; 3. The Social Contract; Thomas Hobbes, from Leviathan; Jean-Jacques Rousseau, from The Social Contract; Thomas Jefferson et al., from the Declaration of Independence; 4. Two Contemporary Theories of Justice: Rawls and Nozick; John Rawls, from "Justice as Fairness"; Robert Nozick, from Anarchy, State and Utopia; 5. Justice or Care: A Feminist Perspective; Cheshire Calhoun, from "Justice, Care, Gender Bias"; B. INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS AND FREEDOM; John Locke, from The Second Treatise on Government; John Stuart Mill, On Liberty; C. FIGHTING FOR RIGHTS AND JUSTICE; Frederick Douglass, "In Defense of Purchasing Freedom"; Henry David Thoreau, "Civil Disobedience"; Martin Luther King, Jr., from "Letter from Birmingham Jail"; Malcolm X, "The Ballot or the Bullet"; Nelson Mandela, from Long Walk to Freedom; D. On the Origins of Good and Evil; Mencius, from Human Nature; Hsun Tsu, from Human Nature Is Evil; CHAPTER 10. BEAUTY; A. PLATO AND THE TRANSCENDENCE OF BEAUTY; Plato, from The Symposium; from The Ion; from The Republic; B. ARISTOTLE AND THE SELF-SUFFICIENCY OF ART; Aristotle, from The Poetics; C. THE DISPUTE ABOUT TASTES; David Hume, from "Of the Standard of Taste"; D. KANT: DISPUTES ABOUT TASTE RESOLVED; E. AFTER KANT: ART, SOCIETY, AND SELF-AWARENESS; 1. G.W.F. Hegel; G.W.F. Hegel, from The Philosophy of Fine Art; 2. Arthur Schopenhauer; 3. Friedrich Nietzsche; F. ART AND REALITY IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY; Jose Ortega y Gasset, from The Dehumanization of Art; John Dewey, from Art as Experience; G. THE OTHER HALF OF THE PICTURE: FEMINIST AESTHETICS; Marilyn French, "Is There a Feminist Aesthetic?"; H. ART AND CULTURE: JAPAN AND AFRICA; Mara Miller, on Japanese Erotic Art; Isidore Okpewho, on Traditional African Art; BRIEF BIOGRAPHIES; LITERARY CREDITS; INDEXshow more

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