Section I: What was Achieved in the Last 50 Years? 1. Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Medical Achievements 1947-1997; J.E. Lennard-Jones. 2. The Surgery of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: What Have we Achieved? A.H. Aufses, Jr. 3. What Has Science Provided Over the Last 50 Years?, H.J.F. Hodgson. Section II: Aetio-Pathogenic Controversies. 4. Microbial Stimuli in IBD: Specific Agent Versus Host Response; R.B. Sartor. 5. Autoantibodies and Cytokines in IBD: First Mediators or Secondary Markers? C. Fiocchi. 6. Etio-Pathogenic Controversies. Genetics of Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis; A.S. Pena, et al. 7. What Can We Learn From Animal Models? C.O. Elson, et al. Section III: Clinical Controversies. 8. What is the Best Way to Monitor Treatment of Chronic Inflammatory Bowel Diseases? H. Goebell. 9. What is the Best Way to Monitor Treatment in IBD? Endoscopic Evaluation; R. Modigliani. 10. Earlier Surgery for Inflammatory Bowel Disease - Acute Ulcerative Colitis; Z. Cohen. 11. Clinical Controversies - Early Versus Late Surgery in Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis; D.H. Present. 12. Surveillance in Ulcerative Colitis - The Case For; R.H. Riddell. 13. The Failure of Dysplasiz Surveillance Colonoscopy in Ulcerative Colitis as a Screening Tool; C.N. Bernstein. 14. Clinical Controversies - The Case Against Routine Post-Operative Therapy for Prevention of Recurrence in Crohn's Disease; N.P. Breslin, L.R. Sutherland. 15. Smoking and IBD; T. Gilat, et al. Section IV: Medical Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease. 16. The Role of Salicylate in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease; M. Campieri, et al. 17. Steroids in IBD: Which Steroid for What Patient? J. Scholmerich, T. Andus. 18. For Whom is 6-MP/Imuran the Drug of Choice? D.H. Present. 19. Who Should Get Cyclosporin? D.P. Jewell, G.M. Hyde. 20. The Role of Antibiotics in the Treatment of Crohn's Disease; P. Rutgeerts. 21. Cytokine-Based Intervention Strategies in Crohn's Disease; S.J.H. van Deventer, et al. Section V: Surgery. 22. Laporoscopic Surgery for Crohn's Disease; B. Salky. 23. Laporoscopic Colorectal Surgery: The Case Against; M.G.W. Kettlewell. 24. Mayo Experience with Two-Stage Proctocolectomy and Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis; J.H. Pemberton. 25. Medical Treatment of Fistulae in Crohn's Disease; D.B. Sachar. 26. Surgical Treatment of Fistulae in Crohn's Disease; J.H. Pemberton. Section VI: What Are the Needs? 27. Basic IBD Research: What Are the Needs? D.K. Podolsky. 28. Therapeutic Predictions-Emerging Drug Treatments; S.B. Hannauer. 29. New Drugs and Strategies; D. Rachmilewitz.