Integral Ecology

Integral Ecology

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Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Integral ecology is an emerging field that applies Ken Wilber's integral theory to environmental studies and ecological research. The field was pioneered in the late 1990s by integral theorist Sean Esbj rn-Hargens and environmental philosopher Michael E. Zimmerman. Integral ecology integrates over 80 schools of ecology and 70 schools of environmental thought. It integrates these approaches by recognizing that environmental phenomena are the result of an observer using a particular method of observation to observe some aspect of nature. This postmetaphysical formula is summarized as Who (the observer) x How (method of observation) x What (that which is observed). Integral ecology uses a framework of eight ecological worldviews (e.g., eco-manager, eco-holist, eco-radical, eco-sage), eight ecological modes of research (e.g., phenomenology, ethnomethodology, empiricism, systems theory), and four terrains (i.e., experience, behaviors, cultures, and systems). See table below for an overview of a few of the schools of ecology that integral ecology weaves together.
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Product details

  • Paperback | 80 pages
  • 152 x 229 x 5mm | 127g
  • Lect Publishing
  • United States
  • English
  • black & white illustrations
  • 6136772027
  • 9786136772028