Inside Blockchain, Bitcoin, and Cryptocurrencies

Inside Blockchain, Bitcoin, and Cryptocurrencies

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Description

This book covers blockchain from the underlying principles to how it enables applications to survive and surf on its shoulder. Having covered the fundamentals of blockchain, the book turns to cryptocurrency. It thoroughly examines Bitcoin before presenting six other major currencies in a rounded discussion. The book then bridges between technology and finance, concentrating on how blockchain-based applications, including cryptocurrencies, have pushed hard against mainstream industries in a bid to cement their positions permanent. It discusses blockchain as underlying banking technology, crypto mining and offering, cryptocurrency as investment instruments, crypto regulations, and markets.
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Product details

  • Hardback | 390 pages
  • 156 x 234 x 25.4mm | 826g
  • CRC Press
  • London, United Kingdom
  • English
  • 21 Tables, black and white
  • 1138618152
  • 9781138618152
  • 3,066,680

Table of contents

Contents


List of Figures...............................................................................................xix


List of Tables................................................................................................xxv


Section I BLOCKCHAIN AND BIT COIN


1 Introduction to Blockchain.....................................................................3


1.1 The Birth of Bitcoin............................................................................3


1.1.1 A Mysterious Scientist............................................................4


1.1.2 What is Bitcoin?.....................................................................4


1.1.3 Double-Spending Problem.....................................................5


1.1.4 Nakamotos Solution..............................................................6


1.2 Blockchain..........................................................................................7


1.2.1 Motivation.............................................................................7


1.2.2 Definition of Blockchain........................................................8


1.2.3 Distributed Ledger.................................................................8


1.2.4 Key Properties........................................................................9


1.3 Architectural Overview....................................................................10


1.3.1 Centralised vs Decentralised Architecture...........................10


1.3.2 Peer-to-Peer Network...........................................................11


1.3.3 Characteristics.....................................................................13


1.4 Block................................................................................................14


1.4.1 Structure..............................................................................14


1.4.2 Block Identifier and Height..................................................15


1.4.3 Genesis Block.......................................................................16


1.5 Mining.............................................................................................16


1.5.1 What is Mining?..................................................................16


1.5.2 Consensus............................................................................16


1.5.3 Incentivisation.....................................................................17


1.6 Forks................................................................................................17


1.6.1 When Does a Fork Occur?...................................................17


1.6.2 Types of Forks......................................................................18


1.7 Consensus Mechanisms....................................................................18


1.7.1 Proof of Work (PoW)...........................................................18


1.7.2 Alternative Consensus Algorithms.......................................19


1.7.3 Comparison.........................................................................20


1.8 Types of Blockchains........................................................................21


1.8.1 Public and Private Blockchains............................................21


1.8.2 Consortium, Shared Ledger, Sidechain................................21


1.8.3 Hybrid Blockchains.............................................................22


1.8.4 Comparison.........................................................................22


1.9 Applications......................................................................................23


1.10 Revisiting the Double-Spending Problem.........................................26


1.11 Summary..........................................................................................26


2 Immutability of Blockchain..................................................................27


2.1 Cryptography...................................................................................27


2.1.1 What is Cryptography and Cryptanalysis?...........................28


2.1.2 Background.........................................................................28


2.1.3 Basic Concepts.....................................................................29


2.2 Modern Cryptography......................................................................30


2.2.1 Symmetric-Key Cryptography.............................................31


2.2.2 Public-Key Cryptography....................................................33


2.3 Cryptographic Applications..............................................................36


2.3.1 TLS and SSL........................................................................36


2.3.2 Cryptographic Hash Function.............................................37


2.3.3 Digital Signature..................................................................38


2.4 Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC).................................................41


2.4.1 Basic Concept......................................................................41


2.4.2 Public and Private Keys....................................................... 42


2.4.3 How Does ECC Compare to RSA?......................................43


2.5 Making Blockchain Immutable....................................................... 44


2.5.1 Block and Block Header..................................................... 44


2.5.2 Timestamp.......................................................................... 44


2.5.3 Merkle Tree.........................................................................45


2.5.4 Building the Chain..............................................................45


2.6 Summary..........................................................................................48


3 Consensus Mechanisms of Blockchain..................................................49


3.1 Distributed Systems and Consensus.................................................49


3.1.1 Distributed Systems.............................................................50


3.1.2 Coordination and Agreement..............................................50


3.1.3 Consensus............................................................................51


3.2 Byzantine Generals Problem.............................................................52


3.2.1 Two Generals Paradox..........................................................52


3.2.2 Byzantine Generals Problem................................................53


3.2.3 Byzantine Fault Tolerance....................................................55


3.3 Blockchain's Consensus Mechanism.................................................56


3.3.1 Hashcash Proof of Work......................................................56


3.3.2 Proof of Work in Blockchain...............................................57


3.3.3 BFT in Blockchain...............................................................58


3.4 Solving the Double-Spending Problem.............................................59


3.5 Summary..........................................................................................60


4 Bitcoin: World's First Cryptocurrency..................................................61


4.1 What is Bitcoin?...............................................................................61


4.2 Brief History of Bitcoin....................................................................63


4.2.1 Before Bitcoin......................................................................63


4.2.2 Bitcoin Era.......................................................................... 64


4.3 Token: BTC.................................................................................... 64


4.3.1 Bitcoin Mining and Supply..................................................65


4.3.2 Units of Bitcoin................................................................... 66


4.4 Bitcoin's Blockchain........................................................................ 66


4.4.1 Block Header.......................................................................67


4.4.2 Timestamp...........................................................................67


4.4.3 Merkle Tree.........................................................................67


4.4.4 Hash Generation..................................................................68


4.4.5 Genesis Block.......................................................................68


4.5 Bitcoin Address.................................................................................69


4.5.1 Formats................................................................................71


4.5.2 Hash Generation..................................................................72


4.5.3 Address Structure.................................................................72


4.6 Transactions.....................................................................................73


4.6.1 Input and Output................................................................74


4.6.2 Redeeming Tokens.............................................................. 77


4.6.3 Multi-Signature...................................................................78


4.6.3.1 Escrow..................................................................78


4.6.3.2 Cold Storage.........................................................78


4.6.4 Generation Transaction.......................................................79


4.6.5 Storing Data........................................................................79


4.6.6 Contracts.............................................................................79


4.7 Mining.............................................................................................80


4.7.1 Method................................................................................80


4.7.2 Proof of Work......................................................................82


4.7.3 Target and Difficulty...........................................................83


4.7.4 Mining Process................................................................... 84


4.8 Split Coins and Altcoins...................................................................85


4.8.1 Split Coins...........................................................................85


4.8.1.1 Bitcoin Cash.........................................................85


4.8.1.2 Bitcoin Gold.........................................................85


4.8.1.3 Bitcoin Private.......................................................86


4.8.2 Altcoins................................................................................86


4.8.2.1 Namecoin.............................................................87


4.8.2.2 Litecoin.................................................................87


4.8.2.3 Peercoin................................................................88


4.8.2.4 Nxt........................................................................88


4.8.2.5 Dash.....................................................................88


4.9 Summary..........................................................................................89


Section II SMART CONT RACTS


5 Ethereum and Smart Contracts.............................................................93


5.1 Introduction to Smart Contracts......................................................93


5.1.1 Vending Machine Analogy..................................................94


5.1.2 Nick Szabo and Bit Gold.....................................................95


5.1.3 Turing-Completeness...........................................................96


5.2 What is Ethereum?...........................................................................96


5.3 Token: ETH.....................................................................................97


5.3.1 Pre-Mining..........................................................................97


5.3.2 Price.....................................................................................98


5.3.3 Units....................................................................................98


5.4 Architecture......................................................................................99


5.4.1 Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM).....................................99


5.4.2 Account.............................................................................100


5.4.3 Address..............................................................................101


5.4.4 Mist...................................................................................101


5.5 Mining...........................................................................................102


5.5.1 Mining Process..................................................................102


5.5.2 Block-Generation Rate.......................................................103


5.5.3 Rewards.............................................................................103


5.6 Smart Contracts in Ethereum.........................................................103


5.6.1 Transactions.......................................................................103


5.6.2 Gas....................................................................................104


5.6.3 High-Level Languages.......................................................104


5.7 ERC Standards...............................................................................105


5.7.1 ERC-20..............................................................................105


5.7.2 ERC-223............................................................................106


5.7.3 ERC-721............................................................................106


5.7.4 Other Standards................................................................107


5.8 Comparison to Bitcoin...................................................................107


5.9 Summary........................................................................................107


6 NEO ..................................................................................................109


6.1 What is NEO?................................................................................109


6.2 Token: NEO and GAS................................................................... 110


6.2.1 Token Generation.............................................................. 110


6.2.2 Token Distribution............................................................ 111


6.3 Architecture.................................................................................... 111


6.3.1 Basic Structure................................................................... 111


6.3.2 Advanced Features............................................................. 111


6.4 Consensus Mechanism: dBFT........................................................112


6.4.1 Algorithm..........................................................................112


6.4.2 Procedure...........................................................................113


6.4.3 Transaction Validation.......................................................113


6.4.4 View Change..................................................................... 114


6.4.5 Fault Tolerance and Transaction Time............................... 114


6.5 Smart Contracts............................................................................. 114


6.6 Summary........................................................................................ 116


7 EOS ..................................................................................................117


7.1 What is EOS?................................................................................. 117


7.2 Token: EOS.................................................................................... 118


7.2.1 Initial Coin Offering.......................................................... 118


7.2.2 Transaction Fees................................................................ 119


7.2.3 Inflation............................................................................. 119


7.3 Architecture.................................................................................... 119


7.4 Consensus Mechanism: DPoS........................................................120


7.4.1 Algorithm..........................................................................120


7.4.2 Procedure...........................................................................121


7.4.3 Reward..............................................................................122


7.5 Smart Contracts.............................................................................122


7.6 EOS.IO Operating System.............................................................123


7.6.1 Schema-Defined Actions and Database..............................123


7.6.2 Separation of Authentication from Applications................124


7.6.3 Inter-Blockchain Communication.....................................124


7.7 Summary........................................................................................124


Section III FINANCIAL NET WORKS


8 Ripple ..................................................................................................127


8.1 What is Ripple?..............................................................................127


8.2 Token: XRP....................................................................................128


8.2.1 Token Generation and Distribution...................................128


8.2.2 Bridge Currency.................................................................129


8.2.3 Market Capitalisation........................................................129


8.3 Architecture....................................................................................129


8.3.1 Hawala...............................................................................130


8.3.2 XRP Ledger.......................................................................131


8.3.3 Transactions.......................................................................132


8.4 Consensus Mechanism: RPCA.......................................................133


8.4.1 Components......................................................................133


8.4.2 Consensus Process.............................................................134


8.4.3 Correctness........................................................................135


8.5 Codius and Interledger...................................................................136


8.6 Real-Time Gross Settlement System...............................................136


8.6.1 RippleNet..........................................................................137


8.6.2 xCurrent............................................................................138


8.6.3 xRapid...............................................................................139


8.6.4 xVia....................................................................................139


8.7 Partners..........................................................................................139


8.8 Summary........................................................................................141


9 Stellar ..................................................................................................143


9.1 What Is Stellar?..............................................................................143


9.2 Token: Lumens (XLM)..................................................................144


9.2.1 Generation and Distribution..............................................144


9.2.2 Price and Market Cap........................................................145


9.2.3 Role of XLM in the Protocol.............................................145


9.3 Architecture....................................................................................146


9.4 Consensus Mechanism...................................................................146


9.4.1 Quorum and Slices............................................................146


9.4.2 Agreement..........................................................................148


9.5 Applications....................................................................................148


9.5.1 Anchors..............................................................................148


9.5.2 Distributed Exchange........................................................149


9.5.3 Multi-Currency Transactions.............................................149


9.6 Partners.......................................................................................... 153


9.7 Summary........................................................................................ 153


Section IV ADVANCED LEDGERS AND APPLICATION S


10 Purpose-Built Distributed Ledgers.....................................................157


10.1 Purpose-Built Ledgers and Blockchains.......................................... 157


10.2 Internet of Things: IOTA............................................................... 159


10.2.1 Overview........................................................................... 159


10.2.2 Technical Details............................................................... 159


10.2.3 Applications....................................................................... 161


10.2.4 Alternatives: IBM Watson and Waltonchain...................... 161


10.3 Supply Chain: OriginTrail..............................................................162


10.3.1 Overview...........................................................................162


10.3.2 Technical Details...............................................................163


10.3.3 Applications.......................................................................163


10.3.4 Alternatives: VeChain and OpenChain..............................163


10.4 Connectivity: Moeco......................................................................164


10.4.1 Overview...........................................................................164


10.4.2 Technical Details...............................................................164


10.4.3 Applications.......................................................................166


10.5 Cybersecurity: Naoris.....................................................................166


10.5.1 Overview...........................................................................166


10.5.2 Technical Details...............................................................167


10.5.3 Applications.......................................................................168


10.6 Private Network: HydraChain........................................................168


10.6.1 Overview...........................................................................168


10.6.2 Technical Details...............................................................168


10.6.3 Applications.......................................................................170


10.7 Framework: Hyperledger................................................................170


10.7.1 Overview...........................................................................170


10.7.2 Technical Details...............................................................171


10.7.3 Application........................................................................173


10.8 Emerging Distributed Ledgers........................................................173


10.8.1 Medical Services: MediChain and MediLedger.................173


10.8.2 Drug Development: BlockPhrama..................................... 174


10.8.3 Quality Assurance: Ambrosus............................................ 174


10.8.4 Sharing Economy: Slock.it................................................. 174


10.8.5 Genomic Data Collection: Nebula Genomics.................... 174


10.9 Summary........................................................................................175


11 Applications of Blockchain.................................................................177


11.1 Hype or Hope?...............................................................................177


11.2 Classification..................................................................................180


11.2.1 Classifying the Domains....................................................181


11.2.2 Classifying the Categories..................................................181


11.3 Citizen Services..............................................................................182


11.3.1 e-Governance.....................................................................182


11.3.2 Healthcare.........................................................................183


11.3.3 Education..........................................................................185


11.4 Business and Financial Services......................................................186


11.4.1 Financial Services...............................................................186


11.4.2 Smart Property..................................................................187


11.4.3 Exchange and Trading.......................................................187


11.5 Online Marketplace........................................................................187


11.5.1 e-Commerce......................................................................188


11.5.2 Online Betting, Gambling and Gaming............................189


11.5.3 e-Auctions and Online Bidding.........................................189


11.6 Supply Chain, Production and Provenance..................................... 191


11.6.1 Commercial Supply Chain................................................. 191


11.6.2 Food Production................................................................ 191


11.6.3 Drug Manufacturing.........................................................192


11.7 Safety and Security.........................................................................193


11.7.1 Cybersecurity.....................................................................193


11.7.2 Physical Safety, Security and Tracking...............................194


11.8 Smart City......................................................................................195


11.8.1 Smart Home......................................................................195


11.8.2 Smart Transportation.........................................................196


11.8.3 Smart Grid.........................................................................196


11.8.4 Citizen Engagement...........................................................197


11.8.5 Quality Control.................................................................197


11.9 Summary........................................................................................198


Section V CRYPTO CURREN CY


12 Evolution of Money: From Barter to Bitcoin.......................................201


12.1 Money............................................................................................201


12.1.1 Functions of Money...........................................................202


12.1.2 Properties...........................................................................202


12.1.3 Money Supply....................................................................203


12.1.4 Central Bank.................................................................... 204


12.2 Origin and Early Forms................................................................. 204


12.2.1 Barter: The Origin of Money?........................................... 204


12.2.2 Commodity and Representative Money............................ 206


12.2.3 Coinage.............................................................................207


12.2.4 Banknotes..........................................................................209


12.3 Fiat Money.....................................................................................212


12.3.1 Gold Standard...................................................................212


12.3.2 US Dollar Standard...........................................................212


12.3.3 Nixon Shock and Creation of Fiat Money..........................213


12.4 Digital Money................................................................................213


12.4.1 Centralised Digital Money.................................................213


12.4.2 Decentralised Digital Money.............................................214


12.5 Cryptocurrency.............................................................................. 215


12.6 Summary........................................................................................217


13 Cryptocurrency Mining......................................................................219


13.1 Mining........................................................................................... 219


13.1.1 Evolution of Mining......................................................... 220


13.1.2 Mining Process................................................................. 220


13.1.3 Difficulty...........................................................................221


13.1.4 Rewards.............................................................................221


13.2 Hash Rate.......................................................................................221


13.2.1 Understanding Hash Rate..................................................221


13.2.2 Calculating Hash Rate...................................................... 222


13.2.3 Hash Rate and Profits....................................................... 222


13.3 Mining Hardware.......................................................................... 222


13.3.1 Non-Specialised Hardware............................................... 222


13.3.2 Specialised Hardware (ASICs)...........................................224


13.3.3 Profitability Factors............................................................225


13.4 Pooled Mining................................................................................225


13.4.1 Pooled Mining Basics.........................................................225


13.4.2 Mining Pools.................................................................... 226


13.4.3 Reward Sharing................................................................ 228


13.5 Mining Nations............................................................................. 228


13.6 Criticism of PoW Mining...............................................................229


13.7 Summary........................................................................................231


14 Cryptocurrency Wallet........................................................................233


14.1 Wallet.............................................................................................233


14.1.1 Private Key and Address.................................................... 234


14.1.2 Transferring Funds........................................................... 234


14.2 Types of Wallets.............................................................................235


14.2.1 Web Wallet........................................................................236


14.2.2 Software Wallet.................................................................236


14.2.3 External Storage Media......................................................238


14.2.4 Paper Wallet.......................................................................238


14.2.5 Hardware Wallet................................................................239


14.2.6 Brain Wallet.......................................................................240


14.3 Special Wallets...............................................................................241


14.3.1 Multi-Signature Wallet......................................................241


14.3.2 Cold-Storage Wallet...........................................................241


14.3.3 Receive-Only Wallet..........................................................242


14.4 Deterministic Wallet......................................................................242


14.4.1 Type-1 Wallet....................................................................242


14.4.2 Type-2 Wallet....................................................................243


14.4.3 HD Wallet........................................................................ 244


14.5 Wallet Providers............................................................................ 246


14.6 Summary........................................................................................247


15 Cryptocurrency Trading and Investment............................................249


15.1 Investment......................................................................................249


15.1.1 Financial Instruments........................................................250


15.1.2 Commodities.....................................................................251


15.1.3 Currencies..........................................................................251


15.1.4 Derivatives.........................................................................252


15.1.5 Status of Cryptocurrency...................................................253


15.2 Portfolio.........................................................................................253


15.2.1 Funds.................................................................................253


15.2.2 Indices...............................................................................254


15.2.3 ETFs..................................................................................256


15.3 Exchanges and Platforms................................................................257


15.3.1 Cryptocurrency Trading Exchange....................................258


15.3.2 Derivative Trading Exchanges...........................................259


15.3.3 Investment Platforms........................................................ 260


15.4 Investment Strategy........................................................................261


15.4.1 Day Trading.......................................................................261


15.4.2 Buy and Hold....................................................................262


15.4.3 Value Investment...............................................................262


15.5 Investing in Cryptocurrencies.........................................................262


15.5.1 Self-Investment..................................................................263


15.5.2 Guided Investment........................................................... 264


15.6 Regulation and Tax Affairs.............................................................265


15.7 Summary....................................................................................... 266


16 Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs)..............................................................267


16.1 Overview........................................................................................267


16.1.1 The Creation of ICOs....................................................... 268


16.1.2 How Do ICOs Work?........................................................269


16.2 Token Creation...............................................................................269


16.2.1 Token.................................................................................269


16.2.2 Platforms............................................................................270


16.3 Understanding ICOs......................................................................271


16.3.1 ICOs vs IPOs.....................................................................271


16.3.2 Signs of Good and Bad ICOs.............................................272


16.3.3 Advantages and Disadvantages..........................................273


16.4 ICOs in Number............................................................................274


16.4.1 Amount Raised..................................................................274


16.4.2 Breakdown by Industry......................................................274


16.4.3 Biggest Winners and Losers...............................................275


16.5 Scams and Criticisms.....................................................................275


16.6 Summary........................................................................................277


Section VI SOCIO -ECONO MIC LANDSCAPE


17 Economic Outlook of Cryptocurrency................................................281


17.1 Classification..................................................................................281


17.1.1 Currency............................................................................282


17.1.2 Commodity.......................................................................283


17.1.3 Stock................................................................................. 284


17.2 Price of Bitcoin.............................................................................. 284


17.3 Volatility of Bitcoin........................................................................285


17.4 Historic Price Predictions...............................................................287


17.5 Price Movement of Major Cryptocurrencies...................................287


17.5.1 ETH..................................................................................288


17.5.2 XRP...................................................................................288


17.5.3 XLM..................................................................................289


17.5.4 NEO..................................................................................289


17.5.5 EOS...................................................................................289


17.6 Reception.......................................................................................290


17.6.1 Acceptance by Merchants..................................................290


17.6.2 Acceptance by Investors.....................................................291


17.6.3 Acceptance by Governments..............................................292


17.7 Summary........................................................................................293


18 Crime, Criminals and Cryptocurrencies.............................................295


18.1 Criminal Activities.........................................................................295


18.2 Deep Web.......................................................................................296


18.2.1 Darknet and Dark Web.....................................................297


18.2.2 Onion Routing and Tor.....................................................297


18.2.3 Bitcoin: The Missing Piece.................................................298


18.3 Darknet-Based Crimes...................................................................299


18.3.1 Silk Road...........................................................................299


18.3.2 Post-Silk Road Markets......................................................301


18.3.3 Assassination Markets....................................................... 304


18.3.4 Cybercrimes...................................................................... 306


18.4 Financial Crimes........................................................................... 308


18.4.1 Money Laundering........................................................... 308


18.4.2 Market Manipulation........................................................310


18.5 Fraudulent Activities.......................................................................310


18.5.1 False Claims....................................................................... 311


18.5.2 Scams.................................................................................312


18.6 Prevention......................................................................................312


18.6.1 Regulation.........................................................................313


18.6.2 Cooperation....................................................................... 314


18.6.3 Participation...................................................................... 315


18.7 Summary........................................................................................316


19 Regulations, Laws and Practices.........................................................317


19.1 Legality of Blockchain and Cryptocurrency................................... 317


19.2 Regulatory Issues............................................................................ 318


19.2.1 Misuse of Pre-Mining and ICOs........................................ 319


19.2.2 Crackdowns on Mining and Trading................................. 319


19.3 Current Landscape.........................................................................320


19.3.1 Challenges.........................................................................320


19.3.2 Areas..................................................................................321


19.3.3 Blockchain-Friendly Nations.............................................322


19.4 Regulations for Blockchain Technology and Cryptocurrency.........323


19.4.1 The Americas.....................................................................323


19.4.2 Europe...............................................................................324


19.4.3 Asia....................................................................................326


19.4.4 Australia and Africa...........................................................327


19.5 Summary........................................................................................328


20 Criticism, Scepticism and Support......................................................329


20.1 Before It All Started........................................................................329


20.2 Early Days of Bitcoin......................................................................330


20.3 Bitcoin Grabs Attention..................................................................331


20.4 Beginning of the Bull Run.............................................................332


20.5 Crazy Price Hike............................................................................334


20.6 To Invest or Not to Invest?.............................................................335


20.7 $10K and Counting........................................................................337


20.8 Nosedive.........................................................................................338


20.9 Summary....................................................................................... 344


Bibliography.................................................................................................345


Index............................................................................................................355
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About Niaz Chowdhury

Dr. Niaz Chowdhury is a postdoctoral researcher working with blockchain technology in the European Union funded project QualiChain. His research experience spans over a decade across three British and Irish nations in England, Scotland and Ireland. He presently holds a Research Associate position in the Open Blockchain group of Knowledge Media Institute, a small but renowned and well-regarded research lab within the Open University in England. He also completed two more postdocs before joining this position, one in the Department of Computing and Communication in the same university working for the Big Data and Smart City project MK:Smart while another at his current lab in the Data Science group. Dr. Chowdhury obtained his PhD from the School of Computing Science of the University of Glasgow in Scotland, as a recipient of the prestigious Scottish ORS Scholarship. He was also a research scholar at the School of Computer Science in Trinity College Dublin where he received Government of Ireland IRCSET Embark Initiative Scholarship. His earlier academic achievements include a bachelor and a master degree with gold medal distinction in Computer Science and Engineering from East West University, Bangladesh. Dr. Chowdhury published numerous journal articles, conference papers and book chapters on the blockchain technology, the Internet of Things, wireless networks and data science.
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