IP Routing on Cisco IOS, IOS XE, and IOS XR
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IP Routing on Cisco IOS, IOS XE, and IOS XR : An Essential Guide to Understanding and Implementing IP Routing Protocols

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Description

An Essential Guide to Understanding and Implementing IP Routing Protocols



Cisco's authoritative single-source guide to IP routing protocols for enterprise and service provider environments



Service providers and large enterprises are converging on a common IP infrastructure that supports rapid deployment of high-value services. Demand is soaring for highly skilled IP network engineers who can implement and run these infrastructures. Now, one source combines reliable knowledge about contemporary IP routing protocols and expert hands-on guidance for using them with Cisco IOS, IOS XE, and IOS XR operating systems.





After concisely reviewing the basics, three Cisco experts fully explain static routing, EIGRP, OSPF, IS-IS, and BGP routing protocols. Next, they introduce advanced routing with policies and redistribution, sophisticated BGP-based traffic engineering, and multicast. They present comprehensive coverage of IPv6, from its multicast implementation to its completely revamped address structure. Finally, they discuss advanced high availability techniques, including fast routing convergence.





IP Routing on Cisco IOS, IOS XE, and IOS XR presents each protocol conceptually, with intuitive illustrations, realistic configurations, and appropriate output. To help IOS users master IOS XE and IOS XR, differences in operating systems are explicitly
identified, and side-by-side feature command references are presented.





All content fully aligns with Learning@Cisco, providing efficient self-study for multiple Cisco Career Certifications, including CCNA (R)/CCNP (R)/CCIE (R) Service Provider, CCIE Routing & Switching, Cisco IOS XR Specialist Certification, and the routing components of several additional Cisco Certifications.





Brad Edgeworth, CCIE No. 31574 (R&S & SP) has been with Cisco since 2011 as Systems Engineer and Technical Leader. Formerly a network architect and consultant for various Fortune (R) 500 companies, his 18 years of IT experience includes extensive architectural and operational work in enterprise and service provider environments. He is a Cisco Live distinguished speaker presenting on IOS XR.





Aaron Foss, CCIE No. 18761 (R&S & SP), a High Touch Engineer with the Cisco Focused Technical Support (FTS) organization, works with large service providers to troubleshoot MPLS, QoS, and IP routing issues. He has more than 15 years of experience designing, deploying, and troubleshooting IP networks.





Ramiro Garza Rios, CCIE No. 15469 (R&S, SP, and Security), Senior Network Consulting Engineer with Cisco Advanced Services, plans, designs, implements, and optimizes next-generation service provider networks. Before joining Cisco in 2005, he was Network Consulting and Presales Engineer for a Cisco Gold Partner in Mexico, where he planned and deployed both enterprise and service provider networks.





Foreword by Norm Dunn, Senior Product Manager, Learning@Cisco Global Product Management, Service Provider Portfolio





Understand how IOS (R), IOS XE, and IOS XR operating systems compare
Master IPv4 concepts, addressing structure, and subnetting
Learn how routers and routing protocols work, and how connected networks and static routes behave from the router's perspective
Work with EIGRP and distance vector routing
Deploy basic and advanced OSPF, including powerful techniques for organizing routing domains, path selection, and optimization
Compare IS-IS with OSPF, and implement advanced IS-IS multilevel routing, optimization, and path selection
Make the most of BGP and route manipulation, including IOS/IOS XE route maps and IOS XR's highly scalable Route Policy Language
Use advanced policy-based route manipulation and filtering
Implement route redistribution: rules, potential problems, and solutions
Leverage BGP communities, summaries, and other router conservation techniques
Discover how IPv6 changes IP address and command structure
Establish highly efficient multicast routing in IPv4 and IPv6 environments
Systematically improve network availability and operational uptime through event driven detection and fast routing convergence
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Product details

  • Paperback | 1200 pages
  • 185.42 x 231.14 x 58.42mm | 1,859.72g
  • Cisco Press
  • Indianapolis, United States
  • English
  • 1587144239
  • 9781587144233
  • 474,536

Table of contents

Contents



Foreword





Introduction





Part I Network Fundamentals



Chapter 1 Introduction to the Operating Systems 1

IOS, IOS XE, and IOS XR Software Architecture 1

IOS 1

Kernel and OS Scheduling 2

Memory Management 2

Software Packaging 2

IOS XE 4

Kernel and OS Scheduling 4

Memory Management 4

IOS XR 5

Kernel and OS Scheduling 5

Memory Management 5

Software Packaging 6

Debugging 8

CLI and Configuration 8

IOS 9

User Mode 9

Privileged Mode 10

Global Configuration Mode 10

Configuration Archiving 11

Configuration Replace 13

IOS XR 14

Viewing Changes in the SysDB 17

Commit Label 18

Commit Replace 19

Failed Commits 20

Configuration Rollback 21

Commit Confirmed 22

Multiple Commit Options 23

Loading Files for Changes 24

Hierarchical Configuration 24

PWD 26

Root 26

Summary 27

References in This Chapter 27





Chapter 2 IPv4 Addressing 29

IP Fundamentals 29

Understanding Binary 31

Address Classes 34

Subnet Masks and Subnetting 35

Subnet Mask Purpose 36

Calculating Usable IP Addresses 37

Network Prefix Notation 38

Subnetting 38

Subnet Field 39

Subnet Math 41

Subnet Design 46

Classless Interdomain Routing 49

Classful Versus Classless Routing 50

Classful Routing 50

Classless Routing 53

Variable-Length Subnet Masks 55

Summarization 56

Private IP Addressing 58

Special IP Addresses 59

IPv4 Address Configuration 60

Wildcard Subnet Masks 62

Summary 64

References in This Chapter 65





Chapter 3 How a Router Works 67

IP Routing 67

Distance Vector Algorithms 69

Enhanced Distance Vector Algorithm 70

Link-State Algorithms 70

Path Vector Algorithm 71

Routing Table 72

Prefix Length 73

Administrative Distance 73

Metrics 75

Virtual Routing and Forwarding 76

IP Packet Switching 83

Process Switching 84

Cisco Express Forwarding 85

Software CEF 87

Hardware CEF 88

Planes of Operation 89

References in This Chapter 90





Part II Routing Protocols





Chapter 4 Static Routing 91

Connected Networks 91

Secondary Connected Networks 94

Static Routing Fundamentals 94

Point-to-Point Interfaces 96

Broadcast Interfaces 98

Default Route 99

Floating Static Routing 103

Recursive Lookup 105

Multihop Routing 108

Single Recursive Lookup 108

Multiple Recursive Lookups 109

Problems with Static Route Recursion 112

Null Interface 116

Static VRF Routes 121

References in This Chapter 124





Chapter 5 EIGRP 125

EIGRP Fundamentals 125

EIGRP Neighbors 126

Inter-Router Communication 126

Forming EIGRP Neighbors 128

Classic EIGRP Autonomous System Configuration 131

IOS network Statement 132

IOS XR 134

Passive Interfaces 134

Sample Topology and Configuration 134

Confirmation of Interfaces 136

Verification of EIGRP Neighbor Adjacencies 139

Display of Installed EIGRP Routes 140

Router ID 141

EIGRP Terminology 142

Topology Table 143

Path Metric Calculation 145

Custom K Values 148

Interface Delay Settings 149

Load Balancing 151

EIGRP Wide Metrics 153

Failure Detection and Timers 155

Convergence 156

Stuck in Active 159

Stub 160

Design Considerations with EIGRP Stubs 164

Summarization 166

Interface-Specific Summarization 166

Summarization Metrics 171

Advertising a Default Route 172

Automatic Summarization 172

Authentication 174

Enabling Authentication on the interface 174

Key Chain Configuration 174

WAN Considerations 177

IP Bandwidth Percent 177

Split Horizon 179

Next-Hop Self 182

EIGRP Named Configuration 184

Address Family Instance Configuration 185

Address Family Interface Configuration 186

Address Family Topology Configuration 188

Summary 189

References in This Chapter 189





Chapter 6 OSPF 191

OSPF Fundamentals 191

Inter-Router Communication 193

OSPF Hello Packets 194

Router ID 195

Neighbors 196

Forming OSPF Neighbor Adjacencies 197

Basic OSPF Configuration 202

IOS network Statement 202

IOS Interface Specific 204

IOS XR 205

Passive Interfaces 205

Sample Topology and Configuration 206

Confirmation of Interfaces 208

Verification of OSPF Neighbor Adjacencies 209

Verification of OSPF Routes 211

Designated Router and Backup Designated Router 212

Designated Router Elections 214

DR and BDR Placement 216

Failure Detection 219

Hello Timer 219

Dead Interval Timer 219

Verifying OSPF Timers 220

OSPF Fast Packet Hellos 220

OSPF Network Types 221

Broadcast 221

Non-Broadcast 222

Point-to-Point Networks 224

Point-to-Multipoint Networks 225

Loopback Networks 229

Review of OSPF Network Types 231

OSPF Adjacency with Different OSPF Network Types 231

Link Costs 235

Authentication 236

IOS Support for OSPF Authentication 236

IOS XR Support for OSPF Authentication 236

Summary 239

References in This Chapter 240





Chapter 7 Advanced OSPF 241

Areas 241

Area ID 245

OSPF Route Types 246

External OSPF Routes 247

Link-State Announcements 249

LSA Age and Flooding 251

LSA Types 251

LSA Type 1: Router Link 252

LSA Type 2: Network Link 257

LSA Type 3: Summary Link 259

LSA Type 5: External Routes 263

LSA Type 4: ASBR Summary 265

LSA Type 7: NSSA External Summary 268

LSA Type Summary 270

OSPF Path Selection 270

Intra-Area Routes 271

Interarea Routes 272

External Route Selection 272

E1 and N1 External Routes 273

E2 and N2 External Routes 273

Equal Cost Multi-Path 274

Summarization of Routes 274

Interarea Summarization 276

External Summarization 280

Default Route 283

OSPF Stubby Areas 286

Stub Areas 286

Totally Stubby Areas 289

Not-So-Stubby Areas 292

Totally NSSA Areas 295

Virtual Links 298

Discontiguous Network 301

Multi-Area Adjacency 304

Prefix Suppression 308

Summary 313

References in This Chapter 314





Chapter 8 IS-IS 315

IS-IS Fundamentals 315

Areas 318

OSI Addressing 319

Inter-Domain Part 320

Domain Specific Part 321

NET Addressing 322

Inter-Router Communication 323

IS Protocol Header 325

TLVs 326

IS PDU Addressing 326

Hello Packets 327

Link-State Packets 329

LSP Lifetime 329

LSP ID 330

LSP Sequence 331

Attribute Fields 331

LSP Packet and TLVs 332

IS-IS Neighbor 333

Ethernet 333

Point-to-Point 338

Basic IS-IS Configuration 340

IOS 340

IOS XR 340

Sample Topology and Configuration 341

Confirmation of IS-IS Interfaces 343

Verification of IS-IS Neighbor Adjacencies 346

Verification of IS-IS Routes 347

Designated Intermediate System 348

DIS Elections 351

DIS Placement 352

Point-to-Point Adjacency on Broadcast Media 353

Link State Packet Database 355

Viewing the LSPDB 356

Non-Pseudonode LSPs 357

Pseudonode LSPs 358

Building the Topology 359

Viewing the Topology 360

SPF Calculations 361

Passive Interfaces 362

Removal of Hello Padding 364

Failure Detection 366

Hello Timer 366

Hello Multiplier and Holding Timer 367

Authentication 367

IS-IS Hello Authentication 367

IS-IS LSP Authentication 368

Summary 371

References in This Chapter 372





Chapter 9 Advanced IS-IS 373

Advanced IS-IS Routing 373

Route Leaking 377

Backbone Continuity 380

Loop Prevention 382

Router-Specific IS-IS Levels 384

Interface Specific IS-IS Levels 385

Path Selection 386

Equal Cost Multi-Path 387

Interface Metrics 387

Overload Bit 394

Summarization 396

Default Routes 400

Prefix Suppression 401

Summary 405

References in This Chapter 406





Chapter 10 Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) 407

BGP Fundamentals 408

Autonomous System Numbers 408

Path Attributes 409

Loop Prevention 409

Address Families 410

Inter-Router Communication 410

Open Messages 412

Hold Time 412

BGP Identifier 413

Keepalive Messages 413

Update Messages 413

Notification Messages 414

BGP Sessions 415

BGP Neighbor States 415

Idle State 415

Connect State 415

Active State 416

OpenSent State 416

OpenConfirm State 417

Established State 417

Basic BGP Configuration 418

IOS 419

IOS XR 420

Verification of BGP Sessions 421

Prefix Advertisement 425

Receiving and Viewing Routes 427

iBGP 431

iBGP Full-Mesh Requirement 432

Peering via Loopback Addresses 433

eBGP 438

eBGP and iBGP Topologies 442

Next-Hop Manipulation 444

iBGP Scalability 446

Route Reflectors 446

Loop Prevention in Route Reflectors 451

Out-of-Band Route Reflectors 453

Confederations 453

Failure Detection 459

Security 459

eBGP Multihop 459

TTL Security 461

Summary 463

References in This Chapter 465





Part III Advanced Routing Techniques



Chapter 11 Route Maps and Route Policy 467

Access Control Lists 467

Standard ACLs 468

Extended ACLs 469

IGP Network Selection 469

BGP Network Selection 470

Prefix Matching 471

Prefix Lists 473

Prefix Sets 474

Regular Expressions 475

_ (Underscore) 477

^ (Caret) 478

$ (Dollar Sign) 478

[ ] (Brackets) 479

- (Hyphen) 479

[^] (Caret in Brackets) 480

( ) (Parentheses and | Pipe) 480

. (Period) 481

+ (Plus Sign) 481

? (Question Mark) 481

* (Asterisk) 482

Looking Glass and Route Servers 483

AS_Path Access List 484

IOS XR AS_Path Selection Options 484

is-local 485

length 485

unique-length 486

passes-through 486

neighbor-is 487

originates-from 487

AS Path Set 488

Route Maps 488

Conditional Matching 490

Multiple Conditional Match Conditions 491

Complex Matching 491

Optional Actions 492

Continue 493

Route Map Examples 494

Routing Policy Language 496

Route Policy Structure 496

Match Statements 497

Attribute Modification 498

Common Route Policy Structure 499

Boolean Operators 504

Negation 504

Conjunction 504

Disjunction 505

Order of Processing 505

Comparing Prefix Sets to Prefix Lists 506

Parameterization 507

Route Policy Nesting 510

Original Value 511

Editors 512

RPL Examples 513

RPL Verification 515

Redistribution RPL Verification 516

BGP RPL Verification 517

References in This Chapter 519





Chapter 12 Advanced Route Manipulation 521

Conditional Routing of Packets 521

Policy-Based Routing Configuration 522

Access-List-Based Forwarding Configuration 523

Local PBR 525

Administrative Distance 526

Modifying EIGRP AD 528

Modifying OSPF AD 529

Modifying IS-IS AD 531

Modifying BGP AD 532

Route Filtering and Manipulation 534

EIGRP Filtering by Prefix 534

EIGRP Filtering by Hop Count 538

EIGRP Offset Lists 538

OSPF Filtering (Local) 541

OSPF Filtering (Area) 543

IS-IS Filtering (Local) 546

BGP Filtering 546

Clearing BGP Connections 549

Summary 550

References in This Chapter 550





Chapter 13 Route Redistribution 551

Redistribution Basics 553

Redistribution Is Not Transitive 553

Sequential Protocol Redistribution 555

Routes Must Exist in the RIB 555

Metrics 558

Protocol-Specific Configuration 558

Source-Specific Behaviors 560

Connected Networks 561

IS-IS 561

BGP 562

Destination-Specific Behaviors 563

EIGRP 563

OSPF 568

IS-IS 576

BGP 580

Challenges with Redistribution 582

Route Feedback 583

Suboptimal Routing 584

Invalid Routing Tables 589

Routing Loops 590

Methods to Avoid Routing Loops 593

Prefix Filtering 593

Tagging 595

Increase Seed Metrics 598

Administrative Distance 601

Summarization on Redistributing Router 603

Solutions to Redistribution Challenges 606

Summary 606

References in This Chapter 607





Part IV Advanced BGP





Chapter 14 Advanced BGP 609

BGP Communities 609

Enabling BGP Community Support 610

Well-Known Communities 611

Internet 611

No_Export 611

No_Advertise 614

No_Export_SubConfed 617

Conditionally Matching BGP Communities 620

Community Set 621

Inline 622

Setting Private BGP Communities 625

Route Summarization 628

Aggregate Address 629

Flexible Route Suppression 632

Selective Prefix Suppression 632

Leaking Suppressed Routes 634

Atomic Aggregate 637

Route Aggregation with AS_SET 639

Route Aggregation with Selective Advertisement of AS_Set 641

Default Route Advertisement 643

Default Route Advertisement Per Neighbor 644

Conditional Route Advertisement 645

Outbound Route Filtering 647

Backdoor Networks 649

Maximum Autonomous System 652

Maximum Prefix 654

Remove Private Autonomous System 656

Allow Autonomous System 658

Local Autonomous System 660

Configuration Scalability 664

IOS Peer Groups 664

IOS Peer Templates 665

IOS XR Configuration Templates 667

Summary 668

References in This Chapter 669





Chapter 15 BGP Best Path Selection 671

BGP Best Path Overview 672

Weight 673

Local Preference 679

Locally Originated via Network or Aggregate Advertisement 684

Accumulated Interior Gateway Protocol 686

Shortest AS_Path 694

Origin Type 700

Multi-Exit Discriminator 704

Missing MED behavior 709

Always Compare Med 711

BGP Deterministic MED 713

eBGP over iBGP 714

Lowest IGP Metric 718

Prefer the Oldest EBGP Path 720

Router ID 720

Minimum Cluster List Length 721

Lowest Neighbor Address 722

BGP ECMP 723

eBGP and iBGP Multipath 723

eiBGP Multipath 726

R1 729

R2 730

XR3 730

XR4 730

XR5 731

AS_Path Relax 731

Suboptimal Routing with Route Reflectors 733

Additional Route Reflector 734

Shadow Route Reflector 735

Shadow Session Route Reflector 738

BGP Add-Path 739

Summary 742

Further Reading 743





Part V Multicast





Chapter 16 IPv4 Multicast Routing 745

Multicast Fundamentals 745

Multicast Addressing 749

Layer 2 Multicast Addresses 752

Internet Group Management Protocol 753

IGMP Snooping 753

IGMPv2 756

IGMPv3 759

Multicast Distribution Trees 759

Source Trees 759

Shared Trees 760

Protocol Independent Multicast 762

PIM Dense Mode 765

PIM Sparse Mode 768

PIM Shared and Source Path Trees 768

Shared Tree Join 769

Source Registration 769

PIM SPT Switchover 771

Designated Routers 772

Rendezvous Points 772

Static RP 773

Auto-RP 773

Candidate RPs 773

RP Mapping Agents 774

PIM Bootstrap Router 775

Candidate RPs 775

Reverse Path Forwarding 776

PIM Forwarder 778

Basic Multicast Configuration 780

Configure Rendezvous Points 783

Static RP 784

Auto-RP 785

BSR 786

Multicast Verification 787

Bidirectional PIM 802

Bidir-PIM Designated Forwarder 804

Summary 808

References in This Chapter 809





Chapter 17 Advanced IPv4 Multicast Routing 811

Interdomain Multicast Routing 811

Multiprotocol BGP 812

Multicast Source Discovery Protocol 817

MSDP Source Active Message Types 818

SA Messages 819

Keepalive Messages 819

MSDP Peers 822

MSDP Verification 828

MSDP Stub Networks 831

Rendezvous Point Redundancy 833

Auto-RP with Multiple RPs 835

Auto-RP Group Filtering 836

BSR with Multiple RPs 840

BSR Group Filtering 843

BSR RP Hash Algorithm 845

Static RP with Multiple RPs 846

Anycast RP 847

Source Specific Multicast 850

SSM Mapping 857

DNS SSM Mapping 857

Static SSM Mapping 860

Multicast Security 862

Auto-RP Scoping 862

Multicast Boundaries 863

Administratively Scoped Boundaries 863

Auto-RP Multicast Boundaries 865

BSR Multicast Boundaries 866

Auto-RP Cisco-RP-Announce Message Filtering 867

PIM-SM Source Registration Filtering 867

PIM-SM Accept RP 868

PIM Neighbor Control 869

PIM Register Rate Limit 870

Multicast Traffic Engineering 871

RPF Rules 871

Static Mroutes 872

MBGP 875

Static IGMP Joins 882

Multicast Troubleshooting 886

Mtrace 887

Summary 889

References in This Chapter 891





Part VI IPv6





Chapter 18 IPv6 Addressing 893

IPv6 Address Structure 893

Text Representation Address Abbreviation 895

IPv6 Hexadecimal to Binary Conversion 896

IPv6 Address Types 898

Unicast 898

Global Unicast 900

Unique Local Unicast 904

Link-Local Unicast 905

Anycast 906

Multicast 908

Special IPv6 Addresses 911

Neighbor Discovery Protocol 912

Router, Prefix, and Parameter Discovery. 913

Redirect 919

IPv6 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration 920

Extended Unique Identifier 920

SLAAC Router Configuration 921

RA Options for DNS 923

Stateless DHCPv6 924 IOS Stateless DHCPv6 Configuration 924

IOS XR Stateless DHCPv6 Configuration 925

Stateless DHCPv6 Verification 926

Stateful DHCPv6, Relay Agent, and Relay Proxy 926

IOS Relay Agent Configuration 927

IOS Relay Agent Verification 928

IOS XR Proxy Agent Configuration 928

IOS XR Proxy Agent Verification 929

IOS Stateful DHCPv6 Server Configuration 930

IOS XR Stateful DHCPv6 Server Configuration 931

Stateful DHCPv6 Server Verification 932

IPv6 Address Resolution and Neighbor Unreachability Detection 934

Duplicate Address Detection 937

Summary 938

References in This Chapter 939





Chapter 19 IPv6 Routing 941

Static Routing 941

Static Route Configuration 942

Static Route Reference Chart for IPv6 943

EIGRPv6 944

EIGRPv6 Inter-Router Communication 944

EIGRPv6 Configuration 945

IOS EIGRPv6 Autonomous System Configuration (Classic) 945

IOS EIGRPv6 Hierarchical Configuration (Named Mode) 946

IOS XR EIGRPv6 Configuration 946

EIGRPv6 Verification 947

Summarization 950

Default Route 952

Route Filtering 953

EIGRP Configuration Command Reference Chart for IPv6 954

OSPFv3 956

OSPFv3 Inter-Router Communication 957

OSPFv3 Link-State Advertisement 958

OSPFv3 LSA Flooding Scope 959

OSPFv3 Configuration 960

IOS OSPFv3 Configuration 960

IOS XR OSPFv3 Configuration 961

OSPFv3 Verification 962

OSPFv3 Authentication 970

OSPFv3 Multiple Instances 973

OSPFv3 Configuration Command Reference Chart for IPv6 975

Integrated IS-IS for IPv6 977

IS-IS Inter-Router Communication 978

IS-IS Type-Length-Value 978

IS-IS Topology Modes 978

IS-IS Configuration 979

IOS Base Configuration 979

IOS XR Base Configuration 980

IOS Topology Mode Configuration 981

IOS XR Topology Mode Configuration 981

Verification 985

IS-IS Configuration Reference Chart for IPv6 987

Multiprotocol BGP for IPv6 989

Inter-Router Communication 989

BGP Configuration 991

IOS Base Configuration 991

IOS XR Base Configuration 992

BGP Verification 993

IPv6 over IPv4 BGP Sessions 998

BGP Configuration Command Reference Chart for IPv6 1001

IPv6 Route Redistribution 1002

Summary 1006

References in This Chapter 1006





Chapter 20 IPv6 Multicast Routing 1007

IPv6 Multicast Routing Overview 1007

IPv6 Multicast Address Mapping into MAC Address 1009

Enabling Multicast Routing 1010

Multicast Listener Discovery 1010

Protocol Independent Multicast 1015

PIM Sparse Mode 1015

Static RP 1017

Bootstrap Router 1018

Embedded RP 1021

IPv6 Multicast Verification Commands 1024

Reverse Path Forwarding 1030

Multicast Boundary Scope 1032

PIM Source Specific Multicast 1033

Summary 1034

References in This Chapter 1035





Index 1037





Part VII High Availability





Chapter 21 High Availability Online





Appendixes

Appendix A Decimal to Hex to Binary Values Online

Appendix B BGP Attributes Online
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About Ramiro Garza Rios

Brad Edgeworth, CCIE No. 31574 (R&S & SP), has been with Cisco since 2011, working as a Systems Engineer and a Technical Leader. Brad is a distinguished speaker at Cisco Live, where he has presented on IOS XR. Before joining Cisco, Brad worked as a network architect and consultant for various Fortune 500 companies. Brad's other certifications include Cisco Certified Design Professional (CCDP) and Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer (MCSE). Brad has been working in the IT field for the past 18 years, with an emphasis on enterprise and service provider environments from an architectural and operational perspective. Brad holds a bachelor of arts degree in computer systems management from St. Edward's University in Austin, Texas.







Aaron Foss, CCIE No. 18761 (R&S & SP), is a High Touch Engineer with Cisco's Focused Technical Support (FTS) organization. He works with large service providers to troubleshoot issues relating to Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS), quality of service (QoS), and IP routing protocols. Aaron has more than 15 years of experience designing, deploying, and troubleshooting IP networks. He holds a bachelor of science degree in management information systems from Rochester Institute of Technology.





Ramiro Garza Rios, CCIE No. 15469 (R&S, SP, and Security), is a Senior Network Consulting Engineer with Cisco Advanced Services. His current role consists of planning, designing, implementing, and optimizing next-generation (NGN) service provider networks in the United States. He has been with Cisco for more than 8 years and has 14 years of networking industry experience. Before joining Cisco, Ramiro was a Network Consulting and Presales Engineer for a Cisco Gold Partner in Mexico, where he was involved in the planning, design, and implementation of many enterprise and service provider networks. He holds a bachelor of science degree in electronic engineering from the Instituto Tecnologico de Reynosa and lives with his wife and four children in Cary, North Carolina.
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