Human Biological Variation

Human Biological Variation

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Authoritative yet accessible, Human Biological Variation, Second Edition, opens with an engaging introduction to basic genetics and the evolutionary forces that set the stage for understanding human diversity. It goes on to offer a clear and detailed discussion of molecular genetics, including its uses and its relationship to anthropological and evolutionary models. The text features up-to-date discussions of classic genetic markers (blood groups, enzymes, and proteins) along with extensive background on DNA analysis and coverage of satellite DNA, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and Alu inserts. It covers such current issues as the meaning and significance of "race," quantitative genetics and the "nature versus nurture" debates, biocultural interactions, population structure, and cultural and historical influences on patterns of human variation. Discussing the use of probability and statistics in studying human variation and adaptation in a lucid and approachable way, the book provides clearly explained math that is kept to the level of basic algebra. Integrating real-world examples on interesting topics--including genetic testing, lactose intolerance, dyslexia, IQ, and homosexuality--the second edition of Human Biological Variation provides the most thorough and contemporary view of our biological diversity. New to This Edition * Explorations in Diversity boxes highlight in-the-news examples, including the use of parasites to study human biological variation, determining skin and hair color of Neandertals, and how biology influences mate choice * Includes a new chapter on milk, taste, and cerumen (Chapter 8) * Offers more extensive examples of adaptation and physiological variation * Discusses the latest research on traditional markers (blood groups, enzymes, and proteins) and their uses in anthropological studies of diversity * Provides updated references, web links, and suggestions for further readingshow more

Product details

  • Paperback | 464 pages
  • 165.1 x 231.14 x 27.94mm | 680.39g
  • Oxford University Press Inc
  • New York, United States
  • English
  • Revised
  • 2nd Revised edition
  • 171 black and white illustrations
  • 0195387406
  • 9780195387407
  • 706,449

Review quote

This is the most up-to-date and comprehensive text on human variation I have seen. The authors use excellent examples to elucidate the role of evolutionary forces on human diversity, and they present complex concepts clearly. --Lori Baker, Baylor University (need permission to use quote as edited) "The authors provide an illuminating overview on the history of thinking about race and the classification schemes that have been applied in this arena...Importantly, the authors emphasize humans as social creatures, nothing that our capacity for culture has uniquely influenced our evolutionary trajectory. In most areas, the book is successful in reaching its goals, whereas others could leave readers unsatisfied. Nevertheless, this volume would be appropriate textbook for an upper-division undergraduate or graduate-level course." -- Brian Kemp, The Quarterly Review of Biology This is the most up-to-date and comprehensive text on human variation I have seen. The authors use excellent examples to elucidate the role of evolutionary forces on human diversity, and they present complex concepts clearly. --Lori Baker, Baylor University (need permission to use quote as edited) "The authors provide an illuminating overview on the history of thinking about race and the classification schemes that have been applied in this arena...Importantly, the authors emphasize humans as social creatures, nothing that our capacity for culture has uniquely influenced our evolutionary trajectory. In most areas, the book is successful in reaching its goals, whereas others could leave readers unsatisfied. Nevertheless, this volume would be appropriate textbook for an upper-division undergraduate or graduate-level course." -- Brian Kemp, The Quarterly Review of Biologyshow more

About James H. Mielke

James H. Mielke is Professor of Anthropology at the University of Kansas. Lyle W. Konigsberg is Professor of Anthropology at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. John H. Relethford is Distinguished Teaching Professor of Anthropology at the State University of New York College at Oneonta.show more

Table of contents

PREFACE; SECTION I: BACKGROUND; 1. Comprehending Human Biological Diversity: A Brief History; THE BEGINNINGS OF WESTERN CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS; CLASSIFYING THE DIVERSITY; A SHIFT IN RACIAL CLASSIFICATIONS; POLYGENISM; MORE MEASURING OF SKULLS AND THE IDEAL TYPE; TYPOLOGICAL APPROACH; MENDELIAN GENETICS; QUESTIONING THE USEFULNESS OF THE RACE CONCEPT; A GENETIC DEFINITION OF RACE; CLINES AND POPULATIONS; SO, WHERE ARE WE TODAY?; CHAPTER SUMMARY; SUPPLEMENTAL RESOURCES; 2. The Genetic Basis of Human Variation; A MINIMALIST VIEW OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR INHERITANCE VIA DNA; MITOSIS PRODUCES IDENTICAL NUCLEAR DNA IN DAUGHTER CELLS; MITOSIS PRODUCES HAPLOID DAUGHTER CELLS; HUMAN CHROMOSOMES; THE PROCESSES OF CELL DIVISION; MITOSIS; MEIOSIS; DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID (DNA); THE MOLECULAR COMPOSITION OF DNA; REPLICATION; TRANSCRIPTION; TRANSLATION; FROM GENOTYPE TO PHENOTYPE; DOMINANCE; MUTATION; SUBSTITUTIONS; INSERTIONS AND DELETIONS; RECOMBINATIONS; TRANSLOCATIONS AND NON-DISJUNCTION; MUTATION FREQUENCIES; BASIC TRANSMISSION GENETICS - THE MENDELIAN LAWS; MENDEL'S FIRST LAW - SEGREGATION OF ALLELES; MENDEL'S SECOND LAW - INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT OF ALLELES; BEYOND MENDEL; SEX-LINKED INHERITANCE; MITOCHONDRIAL DNA; WHAT IS A GENE?; *EXPLORATIONS IN DIVERSITY: TELOMERE LENGTH AND AGING; CHAPTER SUMMARY; SUPPLEMENTAL RESOURCES; 3. Population Genetics and Human Variation; PROBABILITY THEORY; PROBABILITY RULES; HARDY-WEINBERG EQUILIBRIUM; ALLELE FREQUENCIES; EXPECTED GENOTYPE FREQUENCIES; WHY IS HARDY-WEINBERG EQUILIBRIUM IMPORTANT?; HOW CAN WE TELL IF A POPULATION IS IN HARDY-WEINBERG EQUILIBRIUM?; DEPARTURES FROM HARDY-WEINBERG EQUILIBRIUM; MULTIPLE LOCUS HARDY-WEINBERG EQUILIBRIUM; ASSORTATIVE MATING; INBREEDING; EVOLUTIONARY FORCES; MUTATION; SELECTION; DRIFT; MIGRATION; COMBINING FORCES; CHAPTER SUMMARY; SUPPLEMENTAL RESOURCES; SECTION II: VARIATION IN GENES, SIMPLE GENETIC TRAITS, AND DNA MARKERS; 4. Blood Group Polymorphisms; *ANTIGENS, ANTIBODIES, AND THE IMMUNE SYSTEM; *THE IMMUNE SYSTEM; *INNATE IMMUNITY; ACQUIRED IMMUNITY (ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY); GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS IN THE BLOOD; ABO, HH (FUT1), SECRETOR (FUT2), AND LEWIS (FUT3) SYSTEMS; THE ABO HISTO-BLOOD GROUP SYSTEM; HH (FUT1) AND BOMBAY; THE SECRETOR SYSTEM (FUT2); THE LEWIS SYSTEM (FUT3); *EXPLORATIONS IN DIVERSITY: HISTO-BLOOD GROUPS AND DIET; GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION AND NATURAL SELECTION OF THE ABO HISTO-BLOOD GROUP SYSTEM; CHOLERA; SYPHILIS (TREPONEMAL DISEASES); PLAGUE; SMALLPOX; *PATHOGEN RECEPTORS; BLOOD GROUP ASSOCIATIONS; OTHER POSSIBLE SELECTIVE FACTORS AND THE ABO SYSTEM; THE RH SYSTEM; THE RH SYSTEM AND SELECTION; *EXPLORATIONS IN DIVERSITY: ERYTHROCYTES AS PATHOGEN DECOYS; THE MNSS BLOOD GROUP SYSTEM; THE DUFFY BLOOD GROUP SYSTEM; OTHER BLOOD GROUPS; CHAPTER SUMMARY; SUPPLEMENTAL RESOURCES; 5. Serum Protein and Red Cell Enzymes; DETECTION OF GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS; SOME PLASMA PROTEINS; HAPTOGLOBIN (ALPHA-2-GLOBULINS); TRANSFERRIN (TF); GROUP-SPECIFIC COMPONENT OR VITAMIN D-BINDING PROTEIN; IMMUNOGLOBULINS (GM-AM AND KM); APOLIPOPROTEINS, BETA LIPOPROTEINS, AND BETA-2-; GLYCOPROTEINS; OTHER PLASMA PROTEINS; *EXPLORATIONS IN DIVERSITY: NOVEL WAYS TO EXPLORE HUMAN VARIATION AND EVOLUTION; RED CELL ENZYMES; GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE; OTHER ENZYME SYSTEMS OF ANTHROPOLOGICAL INTEREST; EXPLORING POPULATION STRUCTURE WITH CLASSICAL MARKERS; EXAMPLE 1: THE IRISH TRAVELERS OR TINKERS; EXAMPLE 2: THE ORIGINS OF INDO-EUROPEANS; CHAPTER SUMMARY; SUPPLEMENTAL RESOURCES; 6. Human Leukocyte Antigen and Polymorphism; THE MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX; LOCATION AND ORGANIZATION OF THE MHC; LINKAGE DISEQUILIBRIUM; HLA AND DISEASE ASSOCIATIONS; HLA AND POPULATION DIVERSITY; *EXPLORATIONS IN DIVERSITY: HLA AND MATE CHOICE?; CHAPTER SUMMARY; SUPPLEMENTAL RESOURCES; 7. Human Hemoglobin Variants; BEGINNINGS OF HEMOGLOBIN RESEARCH; THE HEMOGLOBIN MOLECULE AND HEMOGLOBIN GENES; HEMOGLOBIN VARIANTS; THE GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF THE SICKLE CELL ALLELE; HOW RESISTANCE TO FALIPARUM MALARIA WORKS; THE POSSIBILITY OF DIFFERENTIAL FERTILITY; ORIGIN OF THE SICKLE CELL ALLELE; OTHER HEMOGLOBINOPATHIES; HBE (HEMOGLOBIN E); HBC (HEMOGLOBIN C); OTHER HEMOGLOBINOPATHIES OF ANTHROPOLOGICAL INTEREST; THALASSEMIAS; ?-THALASSEMIAS; ?- THALASSEMIAS; THALASSEMIA HAPLOTYPES; THE THALASSEMIAS AND NATURAL SELECTION; CHAPTER SUMMARY; SUPPLEMENTAL RESOURCES; 8. Milk, Taste, and Cerumen; LACTASE RESTRICTION AND PERSISTENCE; TASTE: PHENYLTHIOCARBAMIDE (6-N-PROPYLTHIOURACIL); VARIATION IN EAR WAX, OR CERUMEN; CHAPTER SUMMARY; SUPPLEMENTAL RESOURCES; 9. DNA Markers; MOLECULAR GENETIC TECHNIQUES AND DNA VARIATION; POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR); RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS (RFLP); INSERTIONS AND DELETIONS ("INDELS"); INTERSPERSED NUCLEAR ELEMENTS: SINES AND LINES; DNA SEQUENCING; TANDEM REPEATS; *EXPLORATIONS IN DIVERSITY: TWO DNA VIGNETTES FROM ACROSS THE GLOBE; *COPY NUMBER VARIANTS; *AMERICAN INDIANS; THE COHEN MODAL HAPLOTYPE AND THE DIASPORA; HOW MANY RACES ARE DOCUMENTED IN OUR DNA?; DNA MARKERS AND INDIVIDUAL VARIATION; THOMAS JEFFERSON AND THE DESCENDANTS OF SALLY HEMMINGS; WHO IS BURIED IN JESSE JAMES'S GRAVE?; CHAPTER SUMMARY; SUPPLEMENTAL RESOURCES; SECTION III: VARIATION IN COMPLEX TRAITS AND OTHER VARIATIONS; 10. Quantitative Variation; THE MENDELIAN BASIS FOR QUANTITATIVE TRAIT VARIATION; COMPONTENTS OF VARIATION FOR A QUANTITATIVE TRAIT; ESTIMATION OF NARROW SENSE HERITABILITY (H2); NARROW SENSE HERITABILITY OF THE CEPHALIC INDEX; MULTIPLE QUANTITATIVE TRAITS; EVOLUTION AND QUANTITATIVE TRAITS; MUTATION; SELECTION; GENETIC DRIFT AND MIGRATION; *EXPLORATIONS IN DIVERSITY: QTLS, LODS, AND AIMS; CHAPTER SUMMARY; SUPPLEMENTAL RESOURCES; 11. Anthropomorphic Variation; ANTHROPOMORPHIC MEASURES; BODY MEASURES; SKIN FOLDS; HEAD MEASURES; VARIATION WITHIN POPULATIONS; GENETICS; *EXPLORATIONS IN DIVERSITY: CAN WE TELL RACE FROM CRANIAL MEASUREMENTS?; HUMAN GROWTH; AGING; SEXUAL DIMORPHISM; ENVIRONMENTAL VARIATIONS; CORRELATIONS WITH CLIMATE; HIGH-ALTITUDE ADAPTATION; *EXPLORATIONS IN DIVERSITY: THE PRACTICAL VALUE OF ANTHROPOMETRY; CHAPTER SUMMARY; SUPPLEMENTAL RESOURCES; 12. Pigmentation; SKIN COLOR; THE BIOLOGY OF SKIN COLOR; *EXPLORATIONS IN DIVERSITY: SKIN AND HAIR COLOR OF THE NEANDERTALS; VARIATION IN HUMAN SKIN COLOR; THE EVOLUTION OF HUMAN SKIN COLOR; SELECTION FOR DARK SKIN; SELECTION FOR LIGHT SKIN; OTHER ASPECTS OF HUMAN PIGMENTATION; HAIR COLOR; EYE COLOR; CHAPTER SUMMARY; SUPPLEMENTAL RESOURCES; SECTION IV: POPULATION STUDIES AND HUMAN BEHAVIORS; 13. Population Structure and Population History; GENETIC DISTANCES; COMPUTING GENETIC DISTANCES; THE REPRESENTATION OF GENETIC DISTANCES; POPULATION STRUCTURE; FACTORS EFFECTING POPULATION STRUCTURE; CASE STUDY: THE ALAND ISLANDS; *EXPLORATIONS IN DIVERSITY: THE COLONIZATION OF THE PACIFIC OCEAN; CASE STUDIES IN POPULATION HISTORY; ADMIXTURE IN AFRICAN AMERICANS; THE POPULATION HISTORY OF IRELAND; *GLOBAL GENETIC DIVERSITY AND THE HISTORY OF THE HUMAN SPECIES; LEVELS OF GENETIC DIVERSITY; GENETIC DISTANCE; GENE TREES; NEANDERTAL DNA; CHAPTER SUMMARY; SUPPLEMENTAL READINGS; 14. Genetics, Behavior, and Human Variation; HUMAN BEHAVIORAL GENETICS; GENETICS, ENVIRONMENT, AND BEHAVIOR; CASE STUDIES IN BEHAVIORAL GENETICS; DYSLEXIA; SEXUAL ORIENTATION; IQ TEST SCORES; CHAPTER SUMMARY; SUPPLEMENTAL RESOURCES ; GLOSSARY; REFERENCES; INDEXshow more

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40 ratings
3.75 out of 5 stars
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3 25% (10)
2 8% (3)
1 2% (1)
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