Human Biological Diversity

Human Biological Diversity

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Description

This text is intended for the sophomore level course in human variation/human biology taught in anthropology departments. It may also serve as a supplementary text in introductory physical anthropology courses. In addition to covering the standard topics for the course, it features contemporary topics in human biology such as the Human Genome Project, genetic engineering, the effects of stress, obesity and pollution.show more

Product details

  • Paperback | 360 pages
  • 200.66 x 248.92 x 15.24mm | 635.03g
  • Taylor & Francis Ltd
  • Pearson Education Limited
  • London, United Kingdom
  • English
  • 0130455717
  • 9780130455710
  • 833,710

About Daniel E. Brown

Daniel Brown is Professor of Anthropology and Coordinator of Research and Graduate Education at the University of Hawaii at Hilo. He has taught classes in all areas of physical anthropology, as well as in cultural anthropology and archaeology. Dr. Brown's research interest focuses on variation in how humans cope with psychosocial and physical stress, and the implications of that variation for health disparities. He has received Chancellor Citations both for teaching and research at his university, and was elected as a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He is a former President of the Human Biology Association, an international organization whose mission "is to advance the understanding of human biological variation, to enhance the training of professional human biologists, and to foster a better comprehension of the scope of human biology among scientific professionals and the public."show more

Back cover copy

This text is intended for the sophomore level course in human variation/human biology taught in anthropology departments. In addition to covering the standard topics for the course, it features contemporary topics in human biology such as the Human Genome Project, genetic engineering, the effects of stress, obesity, disability and pollution. An excellent resource and reference work for readers interested in or involved with in-depth studies of Biological Anthropology.show more

Table of contents

Chapter 1: Introduction p.1 Chapter Summary Chapter 2: Concepts of Evolution p.7 A Brief History of Evolutionary Ideas Ideas About Time Western Ideas Contemporary Western Views of Time Some Non-Western Concepts of Time The Great Chain of Being Scientific Approaches to Evolution: Lamarck's Theory of Evolution Darwin's Theory of Evolution Offspring Resemble Parents Variation Overpopulation Natural Selection Types of Evidence for Evolution Creationists Vs. Evolutionists Adaptation Concealment Mimicry A Human Example: High Altitude Adaptation in Tibet Imperfect Adaptations Paleontology Biogeography Comparative Anatomy Homologous Vs. Analogous Structures Vestigial Structures Comparative Embryology Artificial Selection Other Evidence for Evolution Chapter Summary Chapter 3: Genetics and Microevolution p.26 The Chemical Basis of Life Proteins Protein Structure Protein Function Nucleic Acids DNA Structure DNA function Duplication of DNA Direction of Protein Synthesis Messenger RNA Ribosomes Transfer RNA Genetics Sexual Reproduction Mitosis Meiosis Mendelian Genetics Alleles Vs. Loci Principle of Dominance Principle of Segregation Principle of Independent Assortment Genotype and Phenotype Consequences of Mendel's Principles Sex Chromosomes Complex Traits Mutations Microevolution Introduction to Population Genetics Frequencies Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Forces of Evolution Selection Types of Selection Mutation Genetic Load Migration and Gene Flow Genetic Drift Assortative Mating The Synthetic Theory of Evolution Chapter Summary Chapter 4: Molecular Genetics, Genomics and Human Genetics p.48 A Closer Look at Chromosomes Characteristics of Chromosomes Chromosome Structure Chromosome Structure and Function Regulatory Regions of DNA Special Features on Chromosomes Other Types of Repeated DNA Sequences Chromosome Mapping Linkage Maps Linkage Maps of the X Chromosome Mapping By Means of RFLPs Microsatellites in Mapping DNA Sequencing Polymerase Chain Reaction Epigenetics Methylation of DNA Imprinting In Utero Effects Extrachomosomal Genetics RNA Processing Introns and Exons Other mRNA Processing Why the Complexity? When Things Go Wrong Mitochondrial DNA Origins of Mitochondria Mitochondrial DNA Chloroplast DNA Tracing Genetic Variability and Function Genetic Variability Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) Oligonucleotide Hybridization Analysis DNA Chips Other Allele Differences Understanding Gene Function Gene Inactivation RNA Interference Gene Overexpression A Brief Look at Quantitative Genetics Basis of Quantitative Genetics Heritability Human Genetics and the Human Genome Family Studies in Human Genetics Twin Studies Adoption Studies The Human Genome The Human Genome Project The Next Step? Chapter Summary Chapter 5: Macroevolution and Taxonomy p.66 Taxonomy Species and Speciation Species Sibling Species and "Semispecies" Speciation Adaptive Radiation Rapid Divergent Evolution in Overlapping Incipient Species Anagenesis Evolutionary Significance of Species Taxonomic Units Above the Species Level Genera Families Orders Classes Phyla Kingdoms Two Taxonomic Examples: People and Dogs Intermediate Levels of Taxonomy Subspecies or Races Taxonomy Debates Macroevolution Some Highlights in the History of Life: An Anthropocentric View Origin of the Earth Earliest Life Origin of the Eukaryotes Multi-cellular Life Early Vertebrates Reptiles and Birds Mammals Primates Anthropoids The Human Journay Early Hominids Ardipithecus Ramidus Australopithecus Homo Habilis Plio-Pleistocene Hominids Homo Erectus Homo Sapiens Macroevolutionary Processes Tempo and Mode in Evolution Extinction Mass Extinctions Survivors Chapter Summary Chapter 6: "Race" and Human Variation in Physical Traits p. 89 "Race" "Race," Population, and Ethnic Group Clines Versus Clumps A Short History of Western "Race" Concepts: Ancient Ancient Views of "Race" The Greek Myth of Phaethon Greek Humoral View of Human Variability Biblical View of "Races" Other Ancient Views of Human Variation Western Views of "Race" in the 15th - 17th Centuries A Short History of Race Concepts: Modern Monogenists Vs. Polygenists "Race" and Racism Lamarck's Evolutionary Theory and "Race" Darwin and "Race" Successors to Darwin Carleton Coon and the Origin of "Races" The "New" Physical Anthropology American Anthropological Association Statement on "Race" Phenotypic Characteristics of Human Variability Nature Versus Nurture Heritability Human Pigmentation: Skin Color Melanin Biochemistry of Melanin Production Environmental Effects on Melanin Genetics of Melanin Production Other Determinants of Skin Color The Measurement of Skin Color Intra-Individual Variability in Skin Color Is There Selective Value to Differential Skin Color? UV Radiation and Skin Color Variation Skin Color Variation and Vitamin D Synthesis Skin Color Variation and Folate Photolysis Skin Color Variation and Concealment Skin Color as a "Racial" Marker Human Pigmentation: Hair and Eye Color Hair Color Age and Hair Color Genetics of Hair Color Adaptive Value of Head Hair Color Variation Eye Color Hair Form Epicanthic Eyefolds Body Size and Shape Human Variability in Stature Secular Trend in Stature Short Statured Populations Human Variability in Body Weight The Thrifty Genotype Body Shape and Climate Temporal Dimension of Body Shape Head Form Dermatoglyphics Skeletal and Dental Variation Age Differences in the Skeleton and Teeth Sex Differences in the Skeleton Individual Variation in Skeletal and Dental Features "Race" and Intelligence What Is Intelligence? IQ Versus Intelligence Changes in IQ Tests IQ and Heredity Population Differences in IQ Asian-Americans Versus Euro-Americans African-Americans Versus Euro-Americans The Bell Curve Patterns of Human Variability Chapter Summary Chapter 7: Genotypic Traits and the Tracing of Population Affiliations p.116 Genotypic Traits Traditionally Used in Human Biology Blood Groups: The ABO System Basics of the ABO System The ABO Antigens Genetics of the ABO System Consequences of ABO Variation Distribution of ABO Allele Frequencies The MNSs Blood Group Systems The MN Locus Distribution of MN Alleles in Human Populations The Ss Locus The Rhesus (Rh) Blood Group System The Genetics of the Rh System Rh and Maternal-Fetal Incompatability The Distribution of Rh Polymorphisms Hemoglobin Variants Hemoglobin S and Sickle Cell Anemia Genetics of Sickle-Cell Sickle-Cell and Falciparum Malaria Balanced Polymorphism Complexity Thalassemia Thalassemia and Malaria Hemoglobin E Other Variant Hemoglobins Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency Genetic Traits From Contemporary Molecular Biology Used in Human Biology Major Types of Molecular Genetic Studies Used in Human Biology Mitochondrial DNA Y Chromosome Nuclear DNA Uses for Human Molecular Genetics Studies The Genetic History of Homo Sapiens Human Genetic Diversity Dating Divergences and Ancestry: The Molecular Clock Genetics and Human Population Affinities The Human Genome Diversity Project Genetics and Human Migrations Out of Africa Genetic Data and the Origin of Modern Humans Where Did Pacific Islanders Come From? The Express Train Or an Entangled Bank? The Peopling of America Dating American Origins Tracing the Origins of Specific Populations Through Genetics The Roma African-American Admixture How Do the Saami Relate to Other European Populations? The Ancestry of Papuan "Pygmoid" Populations Genetics and Disease Risk Genetics and the Notion of "Race" Chapter Summary Chapter 8: Demography: Populations, Reproduction and Mortality p.142 Population Ecology Population Growth Specific Growth Rate Biotic Potential and Environmental Resistance Intrinsic Rate of Natural Increase Population Growth Curves Carrying Capacity Survivorship Population Structure Age Structure of Populations Sex Ratios Population Ecology: Concluding Remarks Demography of Human Populations Fertility and Fecundity Male Fecundity Female Fecundity Age and Fecundity Hypoxia and Fecundity Disease and Fecundity Nutrition, Energetics and Fecundity High Levels of Work and Fecundity Adaptation and Reduced Fecundity Lactation and Fecundity Cultural Effects on Fertility Mortality Mortality From a Global Perspective Life Tables Causes of Mortality Migration Human Population Growth Population Increase Global Population Growth Regional Population Growth Human Population Structure Implications of Growth Chapter Summary Chapter 9: Life Span: Growth and Development p.161 The General Pattern of Human Growth Prenatal Growth Early Development The Embryonic Period The Fetal Period Effects of Premature Birth or Disrupted Fetal Development Growth After Birth: General Patterns Whole Body Growth Pattern A Brief Aside on Sampling Issues Distance, Velocity and Acceleration of Growth The Human Pattern of Growth The Three Stages of Growth Saltational Nature of Growth Sex Differences Growth of Specific Body Parts Development of Specific Systems Neurological Development Immunological Development Reproductive System Development Development of Selected Other Systems Dental Development Skeletal Growth Development of Adipose Tissue Growth After Birth: Population Differences Environmental Effects on Growth Secular Trends in General Growth Why the Secular Trend in Growth? Negative Secular Trends in Growth Effects of Undernutrition on Growth Effects of Overnutrition on Growth Effects of Disease on Growth Effects of High Altitude Hypoxia on Growth Catch Up Growth Genetics and Population Growth Differences African Short-Statured Populations Short-Statured Populations in Southeast Asia Growth and Development: A Final Consideration Chapter Summary Chapter 10: Life Span: Aging and Senescence p.181 The Biology of Senescence Aging at the Cellular Level Hayflick and Limits to Mitosis The Cell Membrane and Cytoskeleton in Senescence Aging and the Mitochondrion Aging and Lysosomes Aging at the Organismal Level Aging of the Musculoskeletal System Aging and the Immune System Aging and the Cardiovascular System Aging and the Neurological System Aging and the Reproductive System Superficial Changes During Senescence The Hair Cycle Aging and the Hair Cycle Skin Aging Theories of Senescence Mechanistic Theories of Senescence Oxidative Damage Nonenzymatic Glycation Cross-linkage Mitochondrial Changes Telomere Shortening Evolutionary Theories of Senescence Theory of Mutation Accumulation Theory of Antagonistic Pleiotropy Disposable Soma Theory Selected System-Specific Senescence Theories Menopause and the Grandmother Hypothesis The Cognitive Reserve Hypothesis Conclusion: Theories of Senescence The Human Population Biology of Senescence Population Differences in Life Span Life Expectancy Maximum Life Span Species Differences in Maximum Life Span Shangri-La or Bust Sardinia Sex Differences in Senescence Population Differences in Diseases Associated With Senescence Osteoporosis Osteoarthritis Sarcopenia Cardiovascular Disease Cancer Population Differences: Conclusion Conclusion Chapter Summary Chapter 11: Human Adaptability to Physical Stressors p.201 Limiting Factors, Tolerance and Environmental Physiology Law of Tolerance Environmental Physiology Individual Level Changes: Behavioral Adaptations Individual Level Changes: Physiological Adaptations Individual Level Changes: Acclimatization Individual Level Changes: Developmental Adaptations Population Level Changes: Cultural Adaptations Population Level Changes: Demographic Adjustments Population Level Changes: Genetic Adaptations Human Adaptability The "Single-Stressor" Model Essential and Key Resources Properties of Stressors and Responses Limitations of the Single Stressor Model Adaptation to Cold and Heat Thermoregulation Metabolism Radiation Conduction Convection Evaporation Heat Balance Equation Cold Adaptation Behavioral and Cultural Adaptations to Cold Biological Responses to Cold Exposure Metabolic Adjustments to Cold Exposure Habituation Responses to Moderate Cold Peripheral Cold Exposure Adaptive Consequences of Cold Stress Heat Adaptation Hot-Dry Environments Behavioral and Cultural Adaptations to Dry Heat Biological Responses to Dry Heat Exposure Heat Transfer Vascular Responses Sweating Acclimatization and Individual Differences in Heat Adaptation Warm-Humid Environments Behavioral and Cultural Adaptations to Humid Heat Biological Responses to Humid Heat Exposure Conclusion to Thermoregulation Adaptation to High Altitude Behavioral and Cultural Adaptations to Hypoxia Biological Adaptations to Hypoxia Ventilation Oxygen Movement from Lungs to Blood Circulation Tissue and Cellular Adaptations Population Differences in Adaptability to High Altitude Hypoxia Andean Population Adaptations Tibetan Population Adaptations High Activity Levels The Requirements of Work Behavioral and Cultural Adjustments to High Work Loads Biological Adaptations to High Work Loads Physical Fitness Aerobic Capacity Types of Muscle Fibers Adaptive Consequences of Work Capacity Factors Affecting Work Requirements Impact of Modernization Conclusion Chapter Summary Chapter 12: Human Adaptability to Biological Stressors p.226 Malnutrition Food Versus Nutrients Types of Nutrients Macronutrients Micronutrients Protein-Calorie Malnutrition Protein Deficiency Protein Quality of Foods Global View of Protein Deficiency The Biology of Protein Deficiency Protein-Calorie Malnutrition: Total Undernutrition Energy Reserves Adaptations to PCM: The Cori Cycle Responses to Prolonged Undernutrition Evolution and Adaptations to PCM Micronutrient Deficiencies Vitamin Deficiencies Vitamin A Thiamine (Vitamin B1) Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) Niacin (Vitamin B3) Other B Vitamins Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) Vitamin D Electrolyte and Mineral Deficiencies Electrolytes Iron Iodine Calcium Overnutrition Conclusion: Malnutrition Infectious Diseases Host-Parasite Relationships Evolution and Virulence Considerations in Disease Transmission Vector Borne Diseases Vectors Malaria Malaria Transmission Adaptations to Malaria Schistosomiasis Direct Contact Diseases Conditions for Transfer of Pathogens Ebola Measles Influenza Virgin Soil Epidemics Diseases Due to Intimate Contact Treponemal Diseases HIV/AIDS Poor Sanitation Diseases Ascaris Cholera Balancing Immune Protection and Immune Damage Conclusion: Infectious Diseases General Conclusion: The Impact of Biological Stressors on Human Biology Chapter Summary Chapter 13: Human Biology in the Modern World p.251 Possible Reduced Selective Forces The Accumulation of Minor Genetic Problems Myopia Dental Caries Can Cumulative Minor Effects Lead to Bigger Problems? Reduced Selection Due to Medical Interventions Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Phenylketonuria Cystic Fibrosis Magnitude of the Problem Genetic Engineering General Stress The Nature of General Stress Stress Defined Stress Theories The Systemic General Stress Response The Hypothalamus Pituitary Adrenal (HPA) Axis The Sympathetic Adrenal Medullary (SAM) Axis The Causes of General Stress Stress at the Cellular Level Effects of the General Stress Response Stress and Heart Disease Stress and Hypertension Stress and Other Chronic Diseases Adiposity and Obesity: Are We Eating Ourselves to Death? The Obesity Epidemic The Causes of Increased Adiposity Genes and Environment Proximate Causes of Obesity Development and Obesity Inflammation and Obesity The Effects of Increased Adiposity The Metabolic Syndrome Type 2 Diabetes Cardiovascular Disease Pollution: The Fouling of the Environment Air Pollution Smoke Smog Chemicals in Air Pollution Particulates in Air Pollution The Health Effects of Air Pollution Water Pollution Agricultural Sources of Water Pollution Health Effects of Water Pollution Solid Waste Pollution Pollution and Human Variation Conclusion Chapter Summary Chapter 14: Human Biological Variation: A Look to the Future and Some Final Thoughts on Ethics p.274 Human Biology in the Future An Individual Level View of Future Human Biology The Future of Human Population Variability Genetic Variability in Our Species Population Variability in the Future Space Colonies Human Biobehavioral Variability Final Thoughts on the Ethics of Human Biology Research Prevention of Harm to the Individual Participant Huntington's Disease Confidentiality Job and Insurance Concerns Human Subject Committees and IRBs Prevention of Harm to Communities Anthropology and Ethics Heterogeneity of Culture and of Communities What is Normal? Health as Normality Biological Characteristics and Normality Ethics and Notions of Normality Disability Rights Variation Is Natural Chapter Summary .show more

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