How Languages are Learned

How Languages are Learned

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This book is a comprehensive and readable introduction to how languages are learned. It presents the main theories of first and second language acquisition, and, with the help of activities and questionnaires, discusses their practical implications for language more

Product details

  • Paperback | 208 pages
  • 164 x 242 x 14mm | 381.02g
  • Oxford University Press
  • Oxford, United Kingdom
  • Revised
  • 2nd Revised edition
  • black and white illustrations
  • 0194370003
  • 9780194370004

Table of contents

Acknowledgements; Introduction; 1. Learning a first language; Milestones and patterns in development; Early childhood bilingualism; Developmental sequences; Summary; Theoretical approaches to explaining first language learning; Behaviourism: Say what I say; Activity: Analysing children's speech; Innatism: It's all in your mind; The interactionist position: A little help from my friends; Summary; 2. Theoretical approaches to explaining second language learning; Activity: Learner problems; Behaviourism; Innatism; Universal Grammar; Krashen's 'monitor model'; Recent psychological theories; Information processing; Connectionism; The interactionist position; Summary; 3. Factors affecting second language learning; Activity: Characteristics of the 'good language learner'; Research on learner characteristics; Intelligence; Aptitude; Personality; Motivation and attitudes; Learner preferences; Learner beliefs; Age of acquisition; Activity: Comparing child, adolescent, and adult language learners; Summary; 4. Learner language; The concept of learner language; Activity: The Great Toy Robbery; Developmental sequences; Grammatical morphemes; Negation; Questions; Activity: Learners' questions; Activity: More about questions; Relative clauses; Reference to past; Movement through developmental sequences; New ways of looking at first language influence; Summary; 5. Observing second language teaching; Comparing instructional and natural settings for language learning; Activity: Natural and instructional settings; Activity: Classroom comparisons: teacher-student interactions; Classroom observation schemes; Activity: Observing the kinds of questions you ask your students; Feedback in the classroom; Activity: Analysing classroom interaction; Summary of transcripts; Activity: Observing how you respond to students' errors; Summary; 6. Second language learning in the classroom: Five proposals for classroom teaching; 1 Get it right from the beginning; 2 Say what you mean and mean what you say; 3 Just listen ... and read; 4 Teach what is teachable; 5 Get it right in the end; The implications of classroom research for teaching; Summary; 7. Popular ideas about language learning: Facts and opinions; 1 Languages are learned mainly through imitation; 2 Parents usually correct young children when they make grammatical errors; 3 People with high IQs are good language learners; 4 The most important factor in second language acquisition success is motivation; 5 The earlier a second language is introduced in school programs, the greater the likelihood of success; 6 Most of the mistakes which second language learners make are due to interference from their first language; 7 Teachers should present grammatical rules one at a time; 8 Teachers should teach simple structures before complex ones; 9 Learners' errors should be corrected as soon as they are made in order to prevent bad habits; 10 Teachers should use materials that expose students only to language structures they have already been taught; 11 When learners are allowed to interact freely they learn each others' mistakes; 12 Students learn what they are taught ; CONCLUSION; GLOSSARY; BIBLIOGRAPHY; INDEXshow more

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733 ratings
3.89 out of 5 stars
5 31% (230)
4 37% (268)
3 24% (179)
2 5% (38)
1 2% (18)
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