Part. I. Origins and Rise of Nationalist/Independence Movements in Africa and Asia: 1. Anti-colonialism (opposition to Belgian, British, Dutch, French and Portuguese colonial rule); 2. Nationalism, political ideology, religion; 3. Impact of two world wars and the Cold War; 4. Other factors fostering growth of nationalist and independence movements; Part II. Methods of Achieving Independence in Africa and Asia: 5. Armed struggle; 6. Non-violent movements, elite and mass movements; 7. Role and importance of leaders of nationalist/independence movements; 8. Political organisation; Part III. Challenges to Soviet or Centralised Control in Central and Eastern Europe and the Balkans: 9. Origins and growth of movements challenging Soviet or centralised control; 10. Role and importance of leaders, organisations and institutions; 11. Methods of achieving independence from Soviet or centralised control; Part IV. Formation of, and Challenges to, Post-colonial Governments/New States: 12. Colonial legacy, neo colonialism and Cold War; 13. Conflict with neighbours; 14. Lack of political experience; 15. Economic issues; 16. Social, religious and cultural issues; 17. Ethnic, racial and separatist movements; Part V. For Detailed Study: 18. Nationalist and independence movements in Africa and Asia; i. Movements: Africa - Algeria, Angola, Belgian Congo/Zaire, Ghana, Rhodesia/Zimbabwe, Asia - India and Pakistan, Indochina; ii. Leaders: Ben Bella (Algeria), Ho Chi Min (Vietnam), Jinnah (Pakistan), Ghandi (India), Mugabe (Zimbabwe), Nkrumah (Ghana); 19. Post-1945 nationalist and independence movements in Central and Eastern Europe; i. Movements: Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Yugoslavia and its dissolution and successor states; ii. Leaders: Walesa (Poland), Havel (Czechoslovakia).