A History of the Roman People

A History of the Roman People

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Description

A History of the Roman People offers students a comprehensive, up-to-date, readable introduction to the whole span of Roman history. Richly illustrated, this fully updated volume takes readers through the mists of Roman prehistory and a survey of the peoples of pre-Roman Italy to a balanced, thoughtful account of the complexities of the Roman Republic, its evolution into a full-fledged empire, and its ultimate decline. This latest edition enhances the political narrative with explorations of elements of daily life in the Roman world.


New features in this edition include:








Addition of boxes that expand on interesting elements of Roman culture mentioned only in passing in the main text. The visual arrangement of the text helps students bear in mind what is supplemental to the central narrative







Increased emphasis on the contributions of women to Roman society and in religious matters







Incorporation of recent archaeological finds and current debates





A History of the Roman People is an excellent introduction for those with no background in Roman history. Its clear, accessible language makes it perfect for undergraduate readers in courses on Roman history and Roman culture. More experienced students wanting to expand their knowledge will also find it a rich resource for the full sweep of Roman antiquity.
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Product details

  • Hardback | 756 pages
  • 174 x 246 x 44.45mm | 2,141g
  • ROUTLEDGE
  • London, United Kingdom
  • English
  • New edition
  • 7th New edition
  • 67 Halftones, black and white
  • 1138708895
  • 9781138708891

Table of contents

List of figures


Preface





Chapter 1


Roman History: Its Geographic and Human Foundations


Introduction to Roman History


Geography


The Peoples and Cultures of Pre-Roman Italy


The Peoples of Italy ca. 750 to 400 B.C.E.


The Greater Picture





Chapter 2


Phoenicians, Greeks, and Etruscans in Pre-Roman Italy


The Phoenicians


Tyre and Its Colonies


Greek Colonization


Decline of the Greek Cities in Italy and Sicily


The Etruscans


The Land of the Etruscans


Sources for Etruscan History


Etruscan Economic Life


Etruscan Cities and Their Sociopolitical Organization


Women and the Etruscan Family


Etruscan Culture and Religion


Etruscan Art and Architecture


The Role of the Etruscans in Roman History


The Fate of the Etruscans


Overview





Chapter 3


Early Rome to 500 B.C.E.


The Ancient Literary Tradition and Its Sources


Reconstructing Early Roman History


The Early Roman State


The General Picture





Chapter 4


Early Roman Society, Religion, and Values


The Principle of Hierarchy


The Family


Patrons and Clients


Slaves and Freedmen


Roman Names and the Gens


Classes in Roman Society


The Openness of Early Roman Society to Outsiders


Early Roman Religion


The State, Religion, and War


The Values of Early Roman Society


Overview and Significance





Chapter 5


From Tyrant Kings to Oligarchic Republic, 509 to 287 B.C.E.


Sources of Information for Early Republican History


From Kingship to Republic, ca. 510 to ca. 490 B.C.E.


The Early Form of the Republic


The Priesthoods and Priestly Colleges


The Dynamics of Change, 509 to 287 B.C.E.


Growing Plebeian Identity and Rights, ca. 500 to ca. 400 B.C.E.


A New Period of Reform, 367 to 287 B.C.E.


The Oligarchic Realities of the Roman Republican Constitution after 287 B.C.E.





Chapter 6


The Roman Conquest of Italy and Its Impact, 509 to 264 B.C.E.


Conflicts with Immediate Neighbors


The Gallic Sack of Rome


Up from Defeat


Initial Conquests in Central Italy


The Roman System of Alliances and Citizen Communities


Renewed War and Conquests in Central Italy


The Pyrrhic Wars and the Conquest of Peninsular Italy


The Manipular Army


The Economic, Social, and Cultural Impact of Roman Expansion in Italy by 264 B.C.E.


Rome's Rise Surveyed and Explained





Chapter 7


The First Punic War, Northern Italy, and Illyrian Pirates, 264 to 219 B.C.E.


Sources for Roman History from 264 to 133 B.C.E.


A New Chapter in Rome's Expansion


Carthage


Sicily and the Outbreak of the First Punic War, 264 B.C.E.


Initial Carthaginian Setbacks, 263 and 262 B.C.E.


Expansion of the War


A Titanic Struggle, 260 to 241 B.C.E.


The Truceless War and Roman Trickery, 241 to 238 B.C.E.


Roman Conquests in Northern Italy


The Pirates of Illyria, 229 and 228 B.C.E.


Renewed War with the Gauls, 225 to 220 B.C.E.


Pirates Again, 220 to 219 B.C.E.


Rome's Rise as a Mediterranean Power Surveyed





Chapter 8


War with Hannibal: The Second Punic War, 218 to 201 B.C.E.


Carthaginian Recovery after 238 B.C.E.


The Ebro Treaty


Hannibal and the Outbreak of the Second Punic War


Causes of the Second Punic War


Hannibal's War Strategy


Roman War Plans


Hannibal's March to the Alps


Hannibal's Early Victories, 218 and 217 B.C.E.


Fabius Maximus, Cunctator, 217 B.C.E.


The Battle of Cannae, 216 B.C.E.


Further Carthaginian Successes


The Roman Recovery


The First Macedonian War, 215 to 205 B.C.E.


The War in Spain, 218 to 211 B.C.E.


Scipio Africanus


The Battle at the Metaurus and the Death of Hasdrubal, 207 B.C.E.


The End Approaches


The Battle of Zama (Naraggara), 202 B.C.E.


Peace Terms


Overview and Reasons for Roman Success


Aftermath and the Fate of Hannibal





Chapter 9


Roman Imperialism East and West, 200 to 133 B.C.E.


Provincial Governors


Roman Imperialism in the East


Antiochus III (the Great) of Syria and Philip V of Macedon


The Second Macedonian War, 200 to 196 B.C.E.


The Aggressions of Antiochus III (the Great), 196 to 192 B.C.E.


The War with Antiochus III (the Great), 192 to 188 B.C.E.


The Third Macedonian War, 171 to 168/167 B.C.E.


Rome and the Hellenistic East after Pydna (168 B.C.E.)


Roman Imperialism in the West, 200 to 133 B.C.E.


Northern Italy


Successes and Failures in Spain


The Third Punic War, 149 to 146 B.C.E.


The Viriathic and Numantine Wars in Spain, 151 to 133 B.C.E.E.


Overview and Assessment





Chapter 10


The Transformation of Roman Life, 264 to 133 B.C.E.


The Impact of War and Overseas Expansion on Small Farmers


Coinage and the Monetization of the Economy


The Growth of Trade, Cities, Industry, and Commerce


Social Change and Discontent


Political Developments


Overview and Assessment





Chapter 11


The Great Cultural Synthesis, 264 to 133 B.C.E.


Architecture and Art


Literature


Specialization in Genres


Prose Literature


Philosophy


Law


Religion


Education


Overview and Prospect





Chapter 12


The Gracchi and the Struggle over Reforms, 133 to 121 B.C.E.


Sources for the Period of the Gracchi, 133 to 121 B.C.E.


Mounting Problems


The Tribuneship of Tiberius Gracchus, 133 B.C.E.


Tiberius' Motives


The Land Commission and Its Impact


Rome's Allies and the Death of Scipio


Gaius Gracchus, Tribune of the Plebs, 123 to 122 B.C.E.


The Reforms of Gaius Gracchus


Livius Drusus


The Fall and Death of Gaius Gracchus


The Popularis Political Legacy of the Gracchi





Chapter 13


Destructive Rivalries, Marius, and the Social War, 121 to 88 B.C.E.


Sources for the Period from 121 to 88 B.C.E.


Populares and Optimates


The Senatus Consultum Ultimum


Post-Gracchan Land Legislation


Other Internal Matters


The Imperial Background to Domestic Politics


The Popularis Rise of Gaius Marius (157 to 86 B.C.E.)


The Slave Revolt in Sicily, 104 to 100 B.C.E.


Piracy in the Eastern Mediterranean


The Political Fall of Marius


A Decade of Optimate Domination


The Explosive Reforms of M. Livius Drusus the Younger, 91 B.C.E.


The Italian, or Social, War, 90 to 88 B.C.E.


The Aftermath of the Social War





Chapter 14


Civil War and Sulla's Reactionary Settlement, 88 to 78 B.C.E.


Sources for the Years 88 to 78 B.C.E.


Mithridates VI Eupator (134 to 63 B.C.E.)


The Rise of Sulla (138 to 78 B.C.E.)


Cinna's Consulship, 87 B.C.E.


Marius and His Reign of Terror


The Significance of Marius


Cinna's Time (Cinnanum Tempus)


Sulla and the East, 87 to 84 B.C.E.


Sulla's Return to Italy, 83 to 82 B.C.E.


Sulla's Reign of Terror, 82 B.C.E.


Sulla's Dictatorship and Political Reforms


The Failure of Sulla





Chapter 15


Personal Ambitions: The Failure of Sulla's Optimate Oligarchy, 78 to 60 B.C.E.


Sources for Roman History from 78 to 30 B.C.E.


The Rise of Pompey the Great (106 to 48 B.C.E.), 78 to 71 B.C.E.


The Great (Third) Mithridatic War (74/73 to 63 B.C.E.) and Lucullus' Bid for Glory,
74 to 66 B.C.E.


Crassus Seeks Advantage in the Slave War against Spartacus in Italy, 73 to 71 B.C.E.


The Consulship of Pompey and Crassus, 70 B.C.E.


Cicero Gains Fame in the Trial of Verres, 70 B.C.E.


Tribunes Make Their Marks, and Pompey Takes Control of the East, 67 to 62 B.C.E.


Rome in the Absence of Pompey


After Pompey's Return, 62 to 60 B.C.E.





Chapter 16


Caesar Wins and Is Lost, 60 to 44 B.C.E.


Caesar Partners with Pompey and Crassus, 60 to 58 B.C.E.


Gaul and the Foundation of Caesar's Might, 58 to 56 B.C.E.


Disorder at Rome and a Renewed Partnership, 58 to 56 B.C.E.


Caesar Overcomes Challenges in Gaul, 56 to 52 B.C.E.


Caesar's Partners Strive to Keep Up, 56 to 53 B.C.E.


Rivalry and Civil War between Caesar and Pompey, 53 to 48 B.C.E.


Caesar's Dictatorships and Final Victory, 48 to 45 B.C.E.


Caesar's Work of Reconstruction


The Assassination of Julius Caesar, March 15, 44 B.C.E.


The Question of Monarchy


The Significance of Caesar





Chapter 17


The Last Years of the Republic, 44 to 30 B.C.E.


Marcus Antonius Tries to Take Control, 44 to 43 B.C.E.


The Triumvirate of Octavian, Antonius, and Lepidus, 43 to 36 B.C.E.


Antonius and Cleopatra Rule the East, 37 to 32 B.C.E.


The Approach and Renewal of Civil War, 32 to 30 B.C.E.


The End of the Republic





Chapter 18


Social, Economic, and Cultural Life in the Late Republic, ca. 133 to ca. 30 B.C.E.


Land, Veterans, and Rural Life


Industry and Commerce


The Concentration of Wealth


Life for the Urban Poor


Slaves and Freedmen


Italians and Provincials


Women in the Late Republic


New Waves of Hellenization


Education


Law and the Legal System


The Religious World of the Late Republic


Greek Philosophy and the Roman Elite


Art and Architecture


Late Republican Literature from the Gracchi to Sulla


The Novi Poetae


Catullus (ca. 85 to ca. 54 B.C.E.)


Lucretius (ca. 94 to ca. 55 B.C.E.)


Cicero (106 to 43 B.C.E.)


Sallust (86 to ca. 34 B.C.E.)


Caesar (100 to 44 B.C.E.)


Scholarship and Patriotic Antiquarianism


The Cultural Legacy of the Late Republic





Chapter 19


The Principate of the Early Roman Empire Takes Shape, 29 B.C.E. to 14 C.E.


Sources for the Augustan Principate


Hopes for Peace


Problems to be Faced


Octavian's Advantages


The Evolving Constitutional Arrangements of the Principate


The Nature of the Principate


The Creation of a Central Administration


Social Reforms


Religious Reforms


Overview and Assessment





Chapter 20


Imperial Stabilization under Augustus


Military Reforms


Protection of the Emperor


Fiscal Reforms


Provincial Reforms


Conquests in the West


Solidifying Control of the Balkans, Crete, and Cyrene


Holding the East


Road Building


The Imperial Post (Cursus Publicus)


Colonization


Urbanization of the Provinces


Growth of the Imperial Cult


The Problem of Succession


The Death of Augustus





Chapter 21


The Impact of Augustus on Roman Imperial Life and Culture


The Population and Economic Impact of Rome


Agriculture


Agricultural Wealth and Urbanization


Cities of Italy and the Empire


Nonagricultural Trade and Industry


The Roman Imperial Coinage


Architecture and Art


Literature


Vergil (70 to 19 B.C.E.)


Horace (65 to 8 B.C.E.)


The Latin Elegists


Latin Prose Writers


The Impact of Augustus on Latin Literature


Greek Writers


Scholarly and Technical Writings


Law and Jurisprudence


The Augustan Achievement





Chapter 22


The First Two Julio-Claudian Emperors: Tiberius and Gaius (Caligula), 14 to 41 C.E.


Sources for the Julio-Claudians


Tiberius (14 to 37 c.e.)


Germanicus and Agrippina


Livia


Sejanus


The Law of Treason (Maiestas)


Tiberius and the Senate: The Increasing Power of the Princeps


Tiberius the Administrator


Tiberius' Last Years and the Succession


Gaius Caligula (37 to 41 c.e.)


A Popular Princeps at First


Problems in the Palace


Tensions with the Senate


Caligula's Military Operations


Fiscal Problems


Caligula's Foreign and Provincial Policies


Caligula's Religious Policies


Caligula's Assassination


Overview and Prospect





Chapter 23


Claudius, Nero, and the End of the Julio-Claudians, 41 to 68 c.e.


Claudius (41 to 54 c.e.)


The Political Philosophy and Policies of Claudius


Foreign Policy and Imperial Defense


Colonization, Urbanization, and Romanization in the Provinces


Claudius' Wives


Claudius' Death and the Succession of Nero (54 to 68 c.e.)


Nero Surveyed


The Darker Side of Nero's Early Reign


Nero Asserts Himself


Growing Hostility Toward Nero


Plots against the Throne


Prelude to a Fall


The Jewish Revolt and the Fall of Nero


Afterword





Chapter 24


The Crisis of the Principate and Recovery under the Flavians, 69 to 96 c.e.


Sources


Galba (68 to 69)


Otho (69)


Vitellius (69)


Vespasian (69 to 79)


The Restoration of Peace


Reform of the Army


Provincial Policy


The Near East


Vespasian's Relations with the Senate


The Expansion of Executive Power


Fiscal Administration


Public Expenditures


The Opposition to Vespasian


Vespasian's Death, 79


Titus (79 to 81)


Domitian (81 to 96)


War and Rebellion, 82 to 93


Fear, Purges, and the Murder of Domitian, 89 to 96





Chapter 25


The Five "Good" Emperors of the Second Century, 96 to 180 c.e.


Sources


Nerva (96 to 98)


Trajan (98 to 117)


A Model Emperor


Trajan's Wars


The Death of Trajan, 117


The Empress Plotina


The Effects of Trajan's Wars


Hadrian (117 to 138)


The Early Years of Hadrian's Principate


Hadrian's Travels


The Jewish Revolt


New Directions under Hadrian


The Last Years of Hadrian


Antoninus Pius (138 to 161)


Faustina the Elder


Maintaining the Status Quo


The Legacy of Antoninus


Marcus Aurelius (161 to 180)


Marcus Aurelius as Emperor and Soldier


The Question of Succession


Problems for the Future





Chapter 26


Culture, Society, and Economy in the First Two Centuries c.e.


Post-Augustan Imperial Literature


Poverty of Literature under Tiberius and Caligula


The Blossoming of the Silver Age in Literature under Claudius and Nero


Technical Writing and Scholarship


Science and Medicine


Philology and Literary Scholarship


Lack of Great Literature under the Flavians, 69 to 96 c.e.


Resurgence of Literature under the Five "Good" Emperors


Resurgence of Greek Literature


The Second Sophistic


Christian Writers


Philosophy


General Religious Trends


Judaism


Mystery Cults


Christianity


Roman Architecture in the First Two Centuries c.e.


Architecture in the Provinces 359 Sculpture


Painting


Mosaics, Coins, and Medallions


Social Developments


Economic Trends


Inherent Economic and Fiscal Weakness of the Roman Empire





Chapter 27


Conflicts and Crises under Commodus and the Severi, 180 to 235 c.e.


Sources for Roman History, 180 to 285 c.e.


Commodus (180 to 192)


Pertinax (January 1 to March 28, 193)


Didius Julianus (March 28 to June 1, 193)


The Accession of Septimius Severus (193 to 211)


New Sources of Imperial Authority and Legitimacy


Systematic Reform


Imperial Wars and Defense, 197 to 201/202


Roman Interlude, 203 to 207


The War in Britain, 208 to 211


Caracalla (211 to 217)


Macrinus (217 to 218)


Impressive Syrian Queens


Elagabalus (218 to 222)


Severus Alexander (222 to 235)





Chapter 28


The Third-Century Anarchy, 235 to 285 c.e.


Reasons for the Crisis


The Emperors of Troubled Times


The Nightmare Begins, 235 to 253


The Age of Gallienus, 253 to 268


The Reforms of Gallienus


An Assessment of Gallienus


Initial Recovery under Illyrian Soldier Emperors, 268 to 275


The Nightmare Resumes, 275 to 285





Chapter 29


Changes in Roman Life and Culture during the Third Century


Economic Life


Social Trends


Third-Century Cultural Life


Religion


Science and Philosophy


Education and the World of Letters


Art and Architecture


Summary and Prospect





Chapter 30


Diocletian: Creating the Fourth-Century Empire, 285 to 305 c.e.


Sources for Roman History during the Fourth Century c.e.


The Rise of Diocletian


The Tetrarchy: A New Form of Imperial Rule, 293 to 312


Diocletian's Other Initiatives


The Persecution of Christians


The Abdication


Prisca and Valeria


Problems Left by Diocletian





Chapter 31


Constantine the Great and Christianity, 306 to 337 c.e.


The Rise of Constantine, 306 to 312


A Victory for Christianity


Constantine and Licinius: The Empire Divided, 313 to 324


Constantia and Her Sisters


The Council of Nicaea, 325


Constantine's Secular Policies


The Founding of Constantinople, 324 to 330


The Death of Constantine the Great, 337


Overview





Chapter 32


From Constantine's Dynasty to Theodosius the Great, 337 to 395 c.e.


Murder and Civil War


The Empire under Constantius II


Julian the Apostate Emperor (361 to 363)


Jovian (June 363 to February 364)


Valentinian I (364 to 375) and Valens (364 to 378)


Gratian (375 to 383) and Theodosius the Great (379 to 395)


The Death of Theodosius and the Division of the Empire, 395





Chapter 33


The Evolving World of Late Antiquity in the Fourth Century c.e.


Economic Conditions


Private Life


The Social Context


Overview





Chapter 34


Christianity and Classical Culture in the Fourth Century


Christianity and the Expansion of Classical Culture


The Educated World of Letters


Christian Literature of the Fourth Century


Fourth-Century Art and Architecture





Chapter 35


Germanic Takeover in the West and Imperial Survival in the East, 395 to 518 c.e.


Sources for Roman History from 395 to 518


Western Weaknesses and Eastern Strengths


Stilicho and Alaric, 395 to 410


The Visigothic Migration and Settlement after Alaric


The Vandals, Alans, and Suevi


Galla Placidia, Valentinian III (423 to 455), and Aetius


Attila and the Huns, 443 to 454


The Burgundians


The Franks


Angles, Saxons, and Jutes


The Vandals in Africa


The End of Imperial Power in the West, 454 to 500


Weak Men and Powerful Women: The Theodosian Dynasty in the East, 395 to 450


Persians and Huns, 408 to 450


Christian Controversies and Imperial Politics


German and Isaurian Generals


Pulcheria and Marcian (450 to 457)


Leo I (457 to 474)


Leo II (473 to 474) and Zeno (474 to 491)


Religious Controversies Continued


Anastasius (491 to 518)


Overview and Prospect





Chapter 36


Justin, Justinian, and the Impossible Dream of Universal Empire, 518 to 602 c.e.


Sources for the Period of Justin and Justinian


The Reign of Justin (518 to 527)


Justinian (527 to 565)


Theodora (508 to 548)


Religious Policies of Theodora and Justinian


Legal Reforms


Administrative Reforms


John the Cappadocian


The First Persian War, 527 to 532


The Nika Rebellion of the Blue and Green Circus Factions, 532


The Rebuilding of Constantinople


Reconquest of the North African Provinces, 533 to 534


Italy Is Invaded, 536 to 540


Troubles in North Africa


The Second Persian War, 540 to 562


Resumption of War in Italy, 541 to 543


Troubles Everywhere


Internal Conflicts and Administration


Belisarius Returns to Face Totila in Italy, 544 to 549


The Lazic War, 549 to 557


Peace in the East


Disaster in Italy, 549 to 551


The Recovery of Italy, 552 to 562


Wars on Other Fronts, 544 to 561


Justinian's Legacy and His Successors, 565 to 602


Final Judgment





Chapter 37


The Transformation of the Late Antique Roman World, 395 to 600 c.e.


The Economy


Social and Demographic Changes


Religion


The New Cultural Spirit


Latin Poetry


Latin Prose


Classicizing Greek Poets


The Late Greek Historians


Philosophy


Theology


Art and Architecture





Chapter 38


The Church and the Legacy of Rome


The Rise of Rome


Transmitting the Roman Classical Legacy


The Imperial Church





Bibliography


Index
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Review quote

"This new edition of A History of the Roman People presents a clear, reliable, and accessible survey of the ancient Roman world. The political narrative of the growth and transformation of the Roman Empire is described in fluid and engaging fashion, and social, cultural, and economic topics receive appropriate contextualization. Ancient sources are helpfully introduced at the beginning of chapters, and charming boxes on topics such as poisoning, latrines, and publishing provide colorful detail. This remarkable textbook should be the standard introduction to the Roman world."









- Carolynn Roncaglia, Santa Clara University, USA








"In scope and detail, there is no rival among single-volume textbooks. This makes it an excellent choice for year-long surveys of Roman history"


- Simeon D. Ehrlich, Concordia University, Canada, Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2020
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About Celia E. Schultz

Celia E. Schultz is Professor of Classical Studies at the University of Michigan, USA, where she is currently Director of the Interdepartmental Program in Greek and Roman History.


Allen M. Ward is Emeritus Professor of History at the University of Connecticut, USA.
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Rating details

190 ratings
3.93 out of 5 stars
5 29% (56)
4 41% (77)
3 25% (47)
2 4% (7)
1 2% (3)
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