The Heritage of World Civilizations: Volume 1

The Heritage of World Civilizations: Volume 1

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Written by leading scholars in their respective fields, The Heritage of World Civilizations offers compelling and thorough coverage of the unique heritage of Asian, African, Middle Eastern, European, and American civilizations, while highlighting the role of the world's great religious and philosophical more

Product details

  • Paperback | 616 pages
  • 226.06 x 274.32 x 25.4mm | 1,202.01g
  • Pearson Education (US)
  • Upper Saddle River, United States
  • English
  • Revised
  • 9th Revised edition
  • Illustrations (some col.), col. maps
  • 0205803482
  • 9780205803484
  • 1,907,077

About Albert M. Craig

Albert M. Craig is the Harvard-Yenching Research Professor of History Emeritus at Harvard University, where he has taught since 1959. A graduate of Northwestern University, he received his Ph.D. at Harvard University. He has studied at Strasbourg University and at Kyoto, Keio, and Tokyo universities in Japan. He is the author of Choshu in the Meiji Restoration  (1961), The Heritage of Japanese Civilization (2011), and, with others, of East Asia, Tradition and Transformation (1989). He is the editor of Japan, A Comparative View (1973) and co-editor of Personality in Japanese History (1970), Civilization and Enlightnment: the Early Thought of Fukuzawa Yukichi  (2009). He was the director of the Harvard-Yenching Institute. He has also been a visiting professor at Kyoto and Tokyo universities. He has received Guggenheim, Fulbright, and Japan Foundation Fellowships. In 1988 he was awarded the Order of the Rising Sun by the Japanese government.  William A. Graham is Albertson Professor of Middle Eastern Studies in the Faculty of Arts and Sciences and Oâ Brian Professor of Divinity and Dean in the Faculty of Divinity at Harvard University, where he has taught for thirty-four years. He has directed the Center for Middle Eastern Studies and chaired the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, the Committee on the Study of Religion, and the Core Curriculum Committee on Foreign Cultures. He received his BA in Comparative Literature from University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, an A.M. and Ph.D. in History of Religion from Harvard, and studied also in G�ttingen, T�bingen, Lebanon, and London. He is former chair of the Council on Graduate Studies in Religion (U.S. and Canada). In 2000 he received the quinquennial Award for Excellence in Research in Islamic History and Culture from the Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and Culture (IRCICA) of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference. He has held John Simon Guggenheim and Alexander von Humboldt research fellowships and is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Among his publications are Beyond the Written Word: Oral Aspects of Scripture in the History of Religion (1987); Divine Word and Prophetic Word in Early Islam (1977â ACLS History of Religions Prize, 1978); and Three Faiths, One God (co-authored, 2003). Donald Kagan is Sterling Professor of History and Classics at Yale University, where he has taught since 1969. He received the A.B. degree in history from Brooklyn College, the M.A. in classics from Brown University, and the Ph.D. in history from Ohio State University. During 1958â 1959 he studied at the American School of Classical Studies as a Fulbright Scholar. He has received three awards for undergraduate teaching at Cornell and Yale. He is the author of a history of Greek political thought, The Great Dialogue (1965); a four-volume history of the Peloponnesian war, The Origins of the Peloponnesian War (1969); The Archidamian War (1974); The Peace of Nicias and the Sicilian Expedition (1981); The Fall of the Athenian Empire (1987); a biography of Pericles, Pericles of Athens and the Birth of Democracy (1991); On the Origins of War (1995); and The Peloponnesian War (2003). He is coauthor, with Frederick W. Kagan, of While America Sleeps (2000). With Brian Tierney and L. Pearce Williams, he is the editor of Great Issues in Western Civilization, a collection of readings. He was awarded the National Humanities Medal for 2002 and was chosen by the National Endowment for the Humanities to deliver the Jefferson Lecture in 2004.  Steven Ozment is McLean Professor of Ancient and Modern History at Harvard University. He has taught Western Civilization at Yale, Stanford, and Harvard. He is the author of eleven books. The Age of Reform, 1250â 1550 (1980) won the Schaff Prize and was nominated for the 1981 National Book Award. Five of his books have been selections of the History Book Club: Magdalena and Balthasar: An Intimate Portrait of Life in Sixteenth Century Europe (1986), Three Behaim Boys: Growing Up in Early Modern Germany (1990), Protestants: The Birth of A Revolution (1992), The Burgermeisterâ s Daughter: Scandal in a Sixteenth Century German Town (1996), and Flesh and Spirit: Private Life in Early Modern Germany (1999). His most recent publications are Ancestors: The Loving Family of Old Europe (2001), A Mighty Fortress: A New History of the German People (2004), and â Why We Study Western Civ,â The Public Interest 158 (2005). Frank M. Turner is John Hay Whitney Professor of History at Yale University and Director of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University, where he served as University Provost from 1988 to 1992. He received his B.A. degree at the College of William and Mary and his Ph.D. from Yale. He has received the Yale College Award for Distinguished Undergraduate Teaching. He has directed a National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute. His scholarly research has received the support of fellowships from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Guggenheim Foundation and the Woodrow Wilson Center. He is the author of Between Science and Religion: The Reaction to Scientific Naturalism in Late Victorian England (1974), The Greek Heritage in Victorian Britain  (1981), which received the British Council Prize of the Conference on British Studies and the Yale Press Governors Award,  Contesting Cultural Authority: Essays in Victorian Intellectual Life  (1993), and  John Henry Newman: The Challenge to Evangelical Religion  (2002). He has also contributed numerous articles to journals and has served on the editorial advisory boards of The Journal of Modern History, Isis, and Victorian Studies. He edited The Idea of a University by John Henry Newman (1996), Reflections on the Revolution in France by Edmund Burke (2003), and Apologia Pro Vita Sua and Six Sermons by John Henry Newman (2008). Between l996 and 2006 he served as a Trustee of Connecticut College and between 2004 and 2008 as a member of the Connecticut Humanities Council. In 2003, Professor Turner was appointed Director of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale more

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Table of contents

Documents xixMaps xxiPreface xxiii  Part 1Human Origins and Early Civilizationsto 500 B.C.E. CHAPTER 1The Birth of Civilization 1Early Humans and Their Culture 2The Paleolithic Age 2Global Perspective: Civilizations 2The Neolithic Age 3The Bronze Age and the Birth of Civilization 7Early Civilizations in the Middle Eastto About 1000 B.C.E. 8Mesopotamian Civilization 8A Closer Look: Babylonian World Map 13Egyptian Civilization 14Ancient Near Eastern Empires 20The Hittites 21The Kassites 21The Mitannians 21The Assyrians 21The Second Assyrian Empire 22The Neo-Babylonians 23Early Indian Civilization 23The Indus Civilization 23The Vedic Aryan Civilization 26Early Chinese Civilization 30Neolithic Origins in the Yellow River Valley 30Early Bronze Age: The Shang 31Late Bronze Age: The Western Zhou 32Iron Age: The Eastern Zhou 32The Rise of Civilization in the Americas 35Summary 37Key Terms 38Review Questions 38 CHAPTER 2Four Great Revolutions in Thoughtand Religion 40Comparing the Four Great Revolutions 41Philosophy in China 41Global Perspective: Philosophy and Religion 42Confucianism 43Daoism 46Legalism 49Religion in India 49â Hinduâ and â Indianâ 49Historical Background 49The Upanishadic Worldview 50Mahavira and the Jain Tradition 52The Buddhaâ s Middle Path 54A Closer Look: Statue of Siddhartha Gotamaas Fasting Ascetic (2nd Century C.E.) 55The Religion of the Israelites 56From Hebrew Nomads to the Israelite Nation 57The Monotheistic Revolution 58Greek Philosophy 61Reason and the Scientific Spirit 63Political and Moral Philosophy 65Summary 70Key Terms 70Review Questions 71Religions of the World: Judaism 72  Part 2Empires and Cultures of the Ancient World,1000 B.C.E. to 500 C.E. CHAPTER 3Greek and Hellenistic Civilization 74The Bronze Age on Crete and on the Mainland toca. 1150 B.C.E. 75The Minoans 75The Mycenaeans 76Global Perspective: The Achievement of Greekand Hellenistic Civilization 76Greek â Middle Ageâ to ca. 750 B.C.E. 77The Age of Homer 78The Polis 80Development of the Polis 80The Hoplite Phalanx 81Expansion of the Greek World 82Greek Colonies 82The Tyrants (ca. 700â 500 B.C.E.) 82Life in Archaic Greece 84Society 84Religion 85Poetry 87Major City-States 87Sparta87Athens89The Persian Wars 91Ionian Rebellion 91The War in Greece 92A Closer Look: The Trireme 93Classical Greece 94The Delian League 94The First Peloponnesian War 94The Athenian Empire 96Athenian Democracy 96Women of Athens 97The Great Peloponnesian War 98Struggle for Greek Leadership 100Fifth Century B.C.E. 102Fourth Century B.C.E. 104Emergence of the Hellenistic World 104Macedonian Conquest 104Alexander the Great and His Successors 105Death of Alexander 108Alexanderâ s Successors 108Hellenistic Culture 109Literature 110Architecture and Sculpture 111Mathematics and Science 112Summary 113Key Terms 113Review Questions 113  CHAPTER 4West Asia, Inner Asia, and South Asiato 1000 C.E. 115Global Perspective: Indo-Iranian Rolesin the Eurasian World before Islam 116WEST AND INNER ASIA 118The Ancient Background 118The Elamites 118The Iranian Peoples 119Ancient Iranian Religion 120Zoroaster and the Zoroastrian Tradition 120The First Persian Empire in the Iranian Plateau(550â 330 B.C.E.) 120The Achaemenids 120The Achaemenid State 122The Achaemenid Economy 123The Seleucid Successors to Alexander in the East(ca. 312â 63 B.C.E.) 124The Parthian Arsacid Empire(ca. 247 B.C.E.â 223 C.E.) 124The Indo-Greeks, Sythians, and Kushans 125Sythians and Kushans 126The Sasanid Empire (224â 651 C.E.) 126Society and Economy 128Religion 128Later Sasanid Developments 131SOUTH ASIA TO 1000 C.E. 131The First Indian Empire: The Mauryas(321â 185 B.C.E.) 131Political Background 131The Mauryas 131The Consolidation of Indian Civilization(ca. 200 B.C.E.â 300 C.E.) 134A Closer Look: Lion Capital of Ashokaat Sarnath 135The Economic Base 136High Culture 136Religion and Society 136The Golden Age of the Guptas (ca. 320â 550 C.E.) 137Gupta Rule 137Gupta Culture 138The Development of â Classicalâ Indian Civilization(ca. 300â 1000 C.E.) 138Society 138Religion 140Summary 143Key Terms 144Review Questions 145Religions of the World: Hinduism 146  CHAPTER 5Africa: Early History to 1000 C.E. 148Issues of Interpretation, Sources, and Disciplines 149The Question of â Civilizationâ 149Source Issues 149History and Disciplinary Boundaries 149Physical Description of the Continent 150Global Perspective: â Traditionalâ Peoplesand Nontraditional Histories 150African Peoples 154Africa and Early Human Culture 154Diffusion of Languages and Peoples 154â Raceâ and Physiological Variation 155The Sahara and the Sudan to the Beginningof the Common Era 157Early Saharan Cultures 157Neolithic Sudanic Cultures 157The Early Iron Age and the Nok Culture 158Nilotic Africa and the Ethiopian Highlands 158The Kingdom of Kush 158The Napatan Empire 159The Meroitic Empire 159The Aksumite Empire 161Isolation of Christian Ethiopia 163The Western and Central Sudan 163Agriculture, Trade, and the Rise of Urban Centers 163Formation of Sudanic Kingdoms in the FirstMillennium 165Central, Southern, and East Africa 167Bantu Expansion and Diffusion 167A Closer Look: Four Rock Art Paintings fromTassili n-Ajjer (4000â 2000 B.C.E.) 168The Khoisan and Twa Peoples 170East Africa170Summary 173Key Terms 173Review Questions 174  CHAPTER 6Republican and Imperial Rome 175Prehistoric Italy 176The Etruscans 176Royal Rome 176Global Perspective: Republicanand Imperial Rome 176Government 177Family 177Clientage 177Patricians and Plebeians 178The Republic 178Constitution 178Conquest of Italy 179Rome and Carthage 179A Closer Look: Lictors 180The Republicâ s Conquest of the Hellenistic World 183Civilization in the Early Roman Republic:Greek Influence 183Religion 183Education 184Roman Imperialism 185Aftermath of Conquest 185The Gracchi 186Marius and Sulla 187War against the Italian Allies (90â 88 B.C.E.) 188Sullaâ s Dictatorship 188The Fall of the Republic 188Pompey, Crassus, and Caesar 188The First Triumvirate 188The Dictatorship of Julius Caesar 188The Second Triumvirate and the Emergence of Octavian 189The Augustan Principate 189Administration 190The Army and Defense 190Religion and Morality 191Civilization of the Ciceronian and Augustan Ages 191The Late Republic 191The Age of Augustus 192Peace and Prosperity: Imperial Rome (14â 180 C.E.) 193Administration of the Empire 195Culture of the Early Empire 197Life in Imperial Rome: The Apartment House 198The Rise of Christianity 198Jesus of Nazareth 199Paul of Tarsus 199Organization 200Persecution of Christians 201Emergence of Catholicism 201Rome as a Center of the Early Church 202The Crisis of the Third Century 202Barbarian Invasions 202Economic Difficulties 202The Social Order 202Civil Disorder 203The Late Empire 203The Fourth Century and Imperial Reorganization 203Diocletian 203Constantine204Triumph of Christianity 205Arts and Letters in the Late Empire 207Preservation of Classical Culture 207Christian Writers 207The Problem of the Decline and Fall of the Empire inthe West 208Summary 208Key Terms 210Review Questions 210  CHAPTER 7Chinaâ s First Empire, 221 B.C.E.â 589 C.E. 212Qin Unification of China 213Global Perspective: Chinaâ s First Empire 214Former Han Dynasty (206 B.C.E.â 8 C.E.) 215The Dynastic Cycle 215Early Years of the Former Han Dynasty 215Han Wudi 216The Xiongnu 216A Closer Look: The Terra-Cotta Army of the FirstQin Emperor 217Government during the Former Han 218The Silk Road 220Decline and Usurpation 221Later Han (25â 220 C.E.) and Its Aftermath 222First Century 222Decline during the Second Century 222Aftermath of Empire 222Han Thought and Religion 224Han Confucianism 224History 225Neo-Daoism 225Buddhism 227Summary 230Key Terms 230Review Questions 230  Part 3Consolidation and Interaction of WorldCivilizations, 500 C.E. to 1500 C.E. CHAPTER 8Imperial China, 589â 1368 232Reestablishment of Empire: Sui (589â 618) and Tang(618â 907) Dynasties 233The Sui Dynasty 233The Tang Dynasty 233Global Perspective: Imperial China 234A Closer Look: A Tang Paintingof the Goddess of Mercy 242Transition to Late Imperial China: The Song Dynasty(960â 1279) 244Agricultural Revolution of the Song: From Serfs to FreeFarmers 244Commercial Revolution of the Song 245Government: From Aristocracy to Autocracy 247Song Culture 249China in the Mongol World Empire: The Yuan Dynasty(1279â 1368) 252Rise of the Mongol Empire 252Mongol Rule in China 253Foreign Contacts and Chinese Culture 255Last Years of the Yuan 258Summary 258Key Terms 258Review Questions 259  CHAPTER 9Early Japanese History 260Japanese Origins 261The Jo-mon, Japanâ s Old Stone Age 261The Yayoi Revolution 262Global Perspective: East Asia 262Tomb Culture, the Yamato State, and Korea 263Religion in Early Japan 265Nara and Heian Japan 267Court Government 267People, Land, and Taxes 269Rise of the Samurai 270Aristocratic Culture and Buddhism 270Chinese Tradition in Japan 271The Birth of Japanese Literature 273Nara and Heian Buddhism 274Japanâ s Early Feudal Age 276The Kamakura Era 276A Closer Look: The East Meets the East 278The Question of Feudalism 279The Ashikaga Era 280Women in Warrior Society 281Agriculture, Commerce, and Medieval Guilds 281Buddhism and Medieval Culture 282Japanese Pietism: Pure Landand Nichiren Buddhism 282Zen Buddhism 283No- Plays 285Summary 285Key Terms 286Review Questions 286Religions of the World: Buddhism 288  CHAPTER 10The Formation of Islamic Civilization,622â 1000 290Origins and Early Development 291The Setting 291Muhammad and the Qurâ an 292Global Perspective: The Early Islamic Worldsof Arab and Persian Cultures 292Women in Early Islamic Society 295Early Islamic Conquests 297Course of Conquest 297Factors of Success 297The New Islamic World Order 298A Closer Look: The Dome of the Rock,Jerusalem (Interior) 300The Caliphate 301The Ulama 302The Umma 303The High Caliphate 306The Abbasid State 306Society 306Decline 306Islamic Culture in the Classical Era 307Intellectual Traditions 308Language and Literature 309Art and Architecture 309Summary 311Key Terms 311Review Questions 311  CHAPTER 11The Byzantine Empire and WesternEurope to 1000 313The End of the Western Roman Empire 314Global Perspective: The Early Middle Ages 314The Byzantine Empire 316The Reign of Justinian 317The Impact of Islam on East and West 325Byzantiumâ s Contribution to Islamic Civilization 326The Western Debt to Islam 326The Developing Roman Church 327Monastic Culture 328The Doctrine of Papal Primacy 329Division of Christendom 330The Kingdom of the Franks 331Merovingians and Carolingians: From Clovis toCharlemagne 331Reign of Charlemagne (768â 814) 332A Closer Look: A Multicultural Book Cover 337Breakup of the Carolingian Kingdom 338Feudal Society 339Origins 340Vassalage and the Fief 341Fragmentation and Divided Loyalty 342Summary 342Key Terms 343Review Questions 343  CHAPTER 12The Islamic World, 1000â 1500 345THE ISLAMIC HEARTLANDS 346Religion and Society 346Consolidation of a Sunni Orthopraxy 346Global Perspective: The Expansion of IslamicCivilization, 1000â 1500 346Sufi Piety and Organization 350Consolidation of Shiâ ite Traditions 351Regional Developments 351Spain, North Africa, and the Western MediterraneanIslamic World 351Egypt and the Eastern Mediterranean Islamic World 352The Islamic East: Asia before the Mongol Conquests 355Islamic Asia in the Mongol Age 356A Closer Look: Al-Hariri, Assemblies(Maqamat) 358The Spread of Islam beyond the Heartlands 360ISLAMIC INDIA AND SOUTHEAST ASIA 360The Spread of Islam to South Asia 360Muslimâ Hindu Encounter 362Islamic States and Dynasties 363Southeast Asia363Religious and Cultural Accommodation 364Hindu and Other Indian Traditions 366Summary 366Key Terms 367Review Questions 367  CHAPTER 13Ancient Civilizations of the Americas 369Global Perspective: Ancient Civilizationsof the Americas 370Problems in Reconstructing the Historyof Native American Civilization 371Mesoamerica 372Mesoamerican Ball Games 373The Formative Period and the Emergenceof Mesoamerican Civilization 374The Olmec 375The Valley of Oaxaca and the Rise of Monte Alban 376The Emergence of Writing and the MesoamericanCalendar 376The Classic Period in Mesoamerica 376Teotihuac�n 377A Closer Look: The Pyramid of the Sunin Teotihuac�n 378The Maya 379The Post-Classic Period 383The Toltecs 384The Aztecs 384Andean South America 390The Preceramic and the Initial Periods 391Chav�n de Huantar and the Early Horizon 392The Early Intermediate Period 392Nazca 392Moche 393The Middle Horizon through the LateIntermediate Period 394Tiwanaku and Huari 394The Chimu Empire 395The Inca Empire 395Summary 398Key Terms 399Review Questions 399  CHAPTER 14Africa ca. 1000â 1700 401North Africa and Egypt 402The Spread of Islam South of the Sahara 402Global Perspective: Africa, 1000â 1700 402Sahelian Empires of the Western and Central Sudan 404Ghana404Mali405Songhai408Kanem and Kanem-Bornu 410The Eastern Sudan 412The Forestlandsâ Coastal West andCentral Africa 412West African Forest Kingdoms: The Exampleof Benin 412A Closer Look: Benin Bronze Plaque with Chiefand Two Attendants 413European Arrivals on the Coastlands 414Central Africa415East Africa 417Swahili Culture and Commerce 417The Portuguese and the Omanis of Zanzibar 419Southern Africa 419Southeastern Africa: â Great Zimbabweâ 419The Portuguese in Southeastern Africa 420South Africa: The Cape Colony 421Summary 422Key Terms 422Review Questions 422  CHAPTER 15Europe to the Early 1500s: Revival, Decline,and Renaissance 424Revival of Empire, Church, and Towns 425Otto I and the Revival of the Empire 425The Reviving Catholic Church 425The Crusades 426Global Perspective: The High Middle Agesin Western Europe 426A Closer Look: European Embraceof a Black Saint 431Towns and Townspeople 432Society 436The Order of Life 436Medieval Women 439Growth of National Monarchies 440England and France: Hastings (1066) to Bouvines(1214) 440France in the Thirteenth Century: Reign of Louis IX 441The Hohenstaufen Empire (1152â 1272) 442Political and Social Breakdown 444Hundred Yearsâ War 444The Black Death 444New Conflicts and Opportunities 447Ecclesiastical Breakdown and Revival:The Late Medieval Church 447Boniface VIII and Philip the Fair 447The Great Schism (1378â 1417) and the ConciliarMovement to 1449 448The Renaissance in Italy (1375â 1527) 448The Italian City-State: Social Conflict and Despotism 449Humanism 449Renaissance Art in and beyond Italy 451Italyâ s Political Decline: The French Invasions(1494â 1527) 452Niccol� Machiavelli 453Revival of Monarchy: Nation Buildingin the Fifteenth Century 454Medieval Russia 455France455Spain455England457Summary 457Key Terms 458Review Questions 458   Part 4The World in Transition, 1500 to 1850 CHAPTER 16Europe, 1500â 1650: Expansion, Reformation,and Religious Wars 460The Discovery of a New World 461The Portuguese Chart the Course 461The Spanish Voyages of Christopher Columbus 462Global Perspective: European Expansion 462Impact on Europe and America 463The Reformation 463Religion and Society 465Popular Movements and Criticism of the Church 465Secular Control over Religious Life 466The Northern Renaissance 466Martin Luther and German Reformation to 1525 467Zwingli and the Swiss Reformation 472Anabaptists and Radical Protestants 472John Calvin and the Genevan Reformation 472Political Consolidation of the Lutheran Reformation 473The English Reformation to 1553 474Catholic Reform and Counter-Reformation 475The Reformationâ s Achievements 476Religion in Fifteenth-Century Life 477Religion in Sixteenth-Century Life 478Family Life in Early Modern Europe 478A Closer Look: A Contemporary Commentaryon the Sexes 479The Wars of Religion 480French Wars of Religion (1562â 1598) 481Imperial Spain and the Reign of Philip II(1556â 1598) 483England and Spain (1558â 1603) 484The Thirty Yearsâ War (1618â 1648) 485Superstition and Enlightenment: The Battle Within 487Witch Hunts and Panic 487Writers and Philosophers 488Summary 492Key Terms 492Review Questions 492Religions of the World: Christianity 494  CHAPTER 17Conquest and Exploitation: The Developmentof the Transatlantic Economy 496Periods of European Overseas Expansion 497Mercantilist Theory of Economic Exploitation 498Global Perspective: The Atlantic World 498Establishment of the Spanish Empire in America 500Conquest of the Aztecs and the Incas 500The Roman Catholic Church in Spanish America 501Economies of Exploitation in the Spanish Empire 503Varieties of Economic Activity 503Commercial Regulation and the Flota System 505Colonial Brazil 507French and British Colonies in North America 509The Columbian Exchange: Disease, Animals, andAgriculture 510Diseases Enter the Americas 511Animals and Agriculture 513Slavery in the Americas 515The Background of Slavery 515Establishment of Slavery 516The Plantation Economy and Transatlantic Trade 517Slavery on the Plantations 517Africa and the Transatlantic Slave Trade 518Slavery and Slaving in Africa 519The African Side of the Transatlantic Trade 520The Extent of the Slave Trade 522Consequences of the Slave Trade for Africa 522A Closer Look: The Slave Ship Brookes 525Summary 526Key Terms 527Review Questions 527  GLOSSARY G-1SUGGESTED READINGS S-1CREDITS C-1INDEX I-1 show more