The Heritage of World Civilizations: Volume 2

The Heritage of World Civilizations: Volume 2

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Written by leading scholars in their respective fields, The Heritage of World Civilizations offers compelling and thorough coverage of the unique heritage of Asian, African, Middle Eastern, European, and American civilizations, while highlighting the role of the world's great religious and philosophical more

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  • Paperback | 744 pages
  • 228.6 x 269.24 x 25.4mm | 1,360.77g
  • Pearson Education (US)
  • Upper Saddle River, United States
  • English
  • Revised
  • 9th Revised edition
  • black & white illustrations, colour illustrations, black & white line drawings, colour line drawings, maps
  • 0205803474
  • 9780205803477
  • 1,905,166

About Albert M. Craig

Albert M. Craig is the Harvard-Yenching Research Professor of History Emeritus at Harvard University, where he has taught since 1959. A graduate of Northwestern University, he received his Ph.D. at Harvard University. He has studied at Strasbourg University and at Kyoto, Keio, and Tokyo universities in Japan. He is the author of Choshu in the Meiji Restoration  (1961), The Heritage of Japanese Civilization (2011), and, with others, of East Asia, Tradition and Transformation (1989). He is the editor of Japan, A Comparative View (1973) and co-editor of Personality in Japanese History (1970), Civilization and Enlightnment: the Early Thought of Fukuzawa Yukichi  (2009). He was the director of the Harvard-Yenching Institute. He has also been a visiting professor at Kyoto and Tokyo universities. He has received Guggenheim, Fulbright, and Japan Foundation Fellowships. In 1988 he was awarded the Order of the Rising Sun by the Japanese government.   William A. Graham is Albertson Professor of Middle Eastern Studies in the Faculty of Arts and Sciences and Oâ Brian Professor of Divinity and Dean in the Faculty of Divinity at Harvard University, where he has taught for thirty-four years. He has directed the Center for Middle Eastern Studies and chaired the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, the Committee on the Study of Religion, and the Core Curriculum Committee on Foreign Cultures. He received his BA in Comparative Literature from University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, an A.M. and Ph.D. in History of Religion from Harvard, and studied also in G�ttingen, T�bingen, Lebanon, and London. He is former chair of the Council on Graduate Studies in Religion (U.S. and Canada). In 2000 he received the quinquennial Award for Excellence in Research in Islamic History and Culture from the Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and Culture (IRCICA) of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference. He has held John Simon Guggenheim and Alexander von Humboldt research fellowships and is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Among his publications are Beyond the Written Word: Oral Aspects of Scripture in the History of Religion (1987); Divine Word and Prophetic Word in Early Islam (1977â ACLS History of Religions Prize, 1978); and Three Faiths, One God (co-authored, 2003). Donald Kagan is Sterling Professor of History and Classics at Yale University, where he has taught since 1969. He received the A.B. degree in history from Brooklyn College, the M.A. in classics from Brown University, and the Ph.D. in history from Ohio State University. During 1958â 1959 he studied at the American School of Classical Studies as a Fulbright Scholar. He has received three awards for undergraduate teaching at Cornell and Yale. He is the author of a history of Greek political thought, The Great Dialogue (1965); a four-volume history of the Peloponnesian war, The Origins of the Peloponnesian War (1969); The Archidamian War (1974); The Peace of Nicias and the Sicilian Expedition (1981); The Fall of the Athenian Empire (1987); a biography of Pericles, Pericles of Athens and the Birth of Democracy (1991); On the Origins of War (1995); and The Peloponnesian War (2003). He is coauthor, with Frederick W. Kagan, of While America Sleeps (2000). With Brian Tierney and L. Pearce Williams, he is the editor of Great Issues in Western Civilization, a collection of readings. He was awarded the National Humanities Medal for 2002 and was chosen by the National Endowment for the Humanities to deliver the Jefferson Lecture in 2004.  Steven Ozment is McLean Professor of Ancient and Modern History at Harvard University. He has taught Western Civilization at Yale, Stanford, and Harvard. He is the author of eleven books. The Age of Reform, 1250â 1550 (1980) won the Schaff Prize and was nominated for the 1981 National Book Award. Five of his books have been selections of the History Book Club: Magdalena and Balthasar: An Intimate Portrait of Life in Sixteenth Century Europe (1986), Three Behaim Boys: Growing Up in Early Modern Germany (1990), Protestants: The Birth of A Revolution (1992), The Burgermeisterâ s Daughter: Scandal in a Sixteenth Century German Town (1996), and Flesh and Spirit: Private Life in Early Modern Germany (1999). His most recent publications are Ancestors: The Loving Family of Old Europe (2001), A Mighty Fortress: A New History of the German People (2004), and â Why We Study Western Civ,â The Public Interest 158 (2005). Frank M. Turner is John Hay Whitney Professor of History at Yale University and Director of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University, where he served as University Provost from 1988 to 1992. He received his B.A. degree at the College of William and Mary and his Ph.D. from Yale. He has received the Yale College Award for Distinguished Undergraduate Teaching. He has directed a National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute. His scholarly research has received the support of fellowships from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Guggenheim Foundation and the Woodrow Wilson Center. He is the author of Between Science and Religion: The Reaction to Scientific Naturalism in Late Victorian England (1974), The Greek Heritage in Victorian Britain  (1981), which received the British Council Prize of the Conference on British Studies and the Yale Press Governors Award,  Contesting Cultural Authority: Essays in Victorian Intellectual Life  (1993), and  John Henry Newman: The Challenge to Evangelical Religion  (2002). He has also contributed numerous articles to journals and has served on the editorial advisory boards of The Journal of Modern History, Isis, and Victorian Studies. He edited The Idea of a University by John Henry Newman (1996), Reflections on the Revolution in France by Edmund Burke (2003), and Apologia Pro Vita Sua and Six Sermons by John Henry Newman (2008). Between l996 and 2006 he served as a Trustee of Connecticut College and between 2004 and 2008 as a member of the Connecticut Humanities Council. In 2003, Professor Turner was appointed Director of the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale more

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Table of contents

Documents xixMaps xxiPreface xxiii  Part 3Consolidation and Interaction of WorldCivilizations, 500 C.E. to 1500 C.E.  CHAPTER 14Africa ca. 1000â 1700 401North Africa and Egypt 402The Spread of Islam South of the Sahara 402Global Perspective: Africa, 1000â 1700 402Sahelian Empires of the Western and Central Sudan 404Ghana404Mali405Songhai408Kanem and Kanem-Bornu 410The Eastern Sudan 412The Forestlandsâ Coastal West andCentral Africa 412West African Forest Kingdoms: The Exampleof Benin 412A Closer Look: Benin Bronze Plaque with Chiefand Two Attendants 413European Arrivals on the Coastlands 414Central Africa415East Africa 417Swahili Culture and Commerce 417The Portuguese and the Omanis of Zanzibar 419Southern Africa 419Southeastern Africa: â Great Zimbabweâ 419The Portuguese in Southeastern Africa 420South Africa: The Cape Colony 421Summary 422Key Terms 422Review Questions 422  CHAPTER 15Europe to the Early 1500s: Revival, Decline,and Renaissance 424Revival of Empire, Church, and Towns 425Otto I and the Revival of the Empire 425The Reviving Catholic Church 425The Crusades 426Global Perspective: The High Middle Agesin Western Europe 426A Closer Look: European Embraceof a Black Saint 431Towns and Townspeople 432Society 436The Order of Life 436Medieval Women 439Growth of National Monarchies 440England and France: Hastings (1066) to Bouvines(1214) 440France in the Thirteenth Century: Reign of Louis IX 441The Hohenstaufen Empire (1152â 1272) 442Political and Social Breakdown 444Hundred Yearsâ War 444The Black Death 444New Conflicts and Opportunities 447Ecclesiastical Breakdown and Revival:The Late Medieval Church 447Boniface VIII and Philip the Fair 447The Great Schism (1378â 1417) and the ConciliarMovement to 1449 448The Renaissance in Italy (1375â 1527) 448The Italian City-State: Social Conflict and Despotism 449Humanism 449Renaissance Art in and beyond Italy 451Italyâ s Political Decline: The French Invasions(1494â 1527) 452Niccol� Machiavelli 453Revival of Monarchy: Nation Buildingin the Fifteenth Century 454Medieval Russia 455France455Spain455England457Summary 457Key Terms 458Review Questions 458   Part 4The World in Transition, 1500 to 1850 CHAPTER 16Europe, 1500â 1650: Expansion, Reformation,and Religious Wars 460The Discovery of a New World 461The Portuguese Chart the Course 461The Spanish Voyages of Christopher Columbus 462Global Perspective: European Expansion 462Impact on Europe and America 463The Reformation 463Religion and Society 465Popular Movements and Criticism of the Church 465Secular Control over Religious Life 466The Northern Renaissance 466Martin Luther and German Reformation to 1525 467Zwingli and the Swiss Reformation 472Anabaptists and Radical Protestants 472John Calvin and the Genevan Reformation 472Political Consolidation of the Lutheran Reformation 473The English Reformation to 1553 474Catholic Reform and Counter-Reformation 475The Reformationâ s Achievements 476Religion in Fifteenth-Century Life 477Religion in Sixteenth-Century Life 478Family Life in Early Modern Europe 478A Closer Look: A Contemporary Commentaryon the Sexes 479The Wars of Religion 480French Wars of Religion (1562â 1598) 481Imperial Spain and the Reign of Philip II(1556â 1598) 483England and Spain (1558â 1603) 484The Thirty Yearsâ War (1618â 1648) 485Superstition and Enlightenment: The Battle Within 487Witch Hunts and Panic 487Writers and Philosophers 488Summary 492Key Terms 492Review Questions 492Religions of the World: Christianity 494  CHAPTER 17Conquest and Exploitation: The Developmentof the Transatlantic Economy 496Periods of European Overseas Expansion 497Mercantilist Theory of Economic Exploitation 498Global Perspective: The Atlantic World 498Establishment of the Spanish Empire in America 500Conquest of the Aztecs and the Incas 500The Roman Catholic Church in Spanish America 501Economies of Exploitation in the Spanish Empire 503Varieties of Economic Activity 503Commercial Regulation and the Flota System 505Colonial Brazil 507French and British Colonies in North America 509The Columbian Exchange: Disease, Animals, andAgriculture 510Diseases Enter the Americas 511Animals and Agriculture 513Slavery in the Americas 515The Background of Slavery 515Establishment of Slavery 516The Plantation Economy and Transatlantic Trade 517Slavery on the Plantations 517Africa and the Transatlantic Slave Trade 518Slavery and Slaving in Africa 519The African Side of the Transatlantic Trade 520The Extent of the Slave Trade 522Consequences of the Slave Trade for Africa 522A Closer Look: The Slave Ship Brookes 525Summary 526Key Terms 527Review Questions 527  CHAPTER 18East Asia in the Late Traditional Era 529Global Perspective: East Asia in the LateTraditional Era 530LATE IMPERIAL CHINA 531Ming (1368â 1644) and Qing (1644â 1911) Dynasties 531Land and People 531Chinaâ s Third Commercial Revolution 532Political System 534Mingâ Qing Foreign Relations 540Mingâ Qing Culture 544JAPAN 547Warring States Era (1467â 1600) 547War of All against All 547Foot Soldier Revolution 547Foreign Relations and Trade 549Tokugawa Era (1600â 1868) 550Political Engineering and Economic Growth during theSeventeenth Century 550Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries 555A Closer Look: Bridal Procession 558Languages of East Asia 559Tokugawa Culture 559KOREA AND VIETNAM 564Korea 565Early History 565Choson Dynasty 567Vietnam 569Vietnam in Southeast Asia 569Vietnamese Origins 569A Millennium of Chinese Rule: 111 B.C.E.â 939 C.E. 570An Independent Vietnam 571The March South 571Summary 573Key Terms 573Review Questions 573  CHAPTER 19State Building and Society in Early ModernEurope 575European Political Consolidation 576Two Models of European Political Development 576Global Perspective: Early Modern Europe 576Toward Parliamentary Government in England 577The â Glorious Revolutionâ 578Rise of Absolute Monarchy in France: The Worldof Louis XIV 580Years of Personal Rule 581A Closer Look: Versailles 582Russia Enters the European Political Arena 583Birth of the Romanov Dynasty 583Peter the Great 583The Habsburg Empire and the Pragmatic Sanction 586The Rise of Prussia 587European Warfare: From Continental to WorldConflict 588The Wars of Louis XIV 588The Eighteenth-Century Colonial Arena 590War of Jenkinsâ s Ear 590The War of the Austrian Succession (1740â 1748) 590The Seven Yearsâ War (1756â 1763) 591The Old Regime 592Hierarchy and Privilege 592Aristocracy 592The Land and Its Tillers 594Peasants and Serfs 594Family Structures and the Family Economy 595The Family Economy 595Women and the Family Economy 597The Revolution in Agriculture 597New Crops and New Methods 599Population Expansion 600The Eighteenth-Century Industrial Revolution: An Eventin World History 601Industrial Leadership of Great Britain 602European Cities 605Patterns of Preindustrial Urbanization 605Urban Classes 605The Jewish Population: Age of the Ghetto 607Summary 608Key Terms 609Review Questions 610  CHAPTER 20The Last Great Islamic Empires, 1500â 1800 612The Ottoman Empire and the Eastern MediterraneanWorld 614Origins and Development of the OttomanState before 1600 614Global Perspective: The Last GreatIslamic Empires 614The â Classicalâ Ottoman Order 616After S�leyman: Challenges and Change 618The Decline of Ottoman Military and Political Power 621The Safavid Empire and the West Asian World 622Origins 622Shah Abbas I 623Safavid Decline 624Culture and Learning 625The Mughals 626Origins 626Akbarâ s Reign 626The Last Great Mughals 626Sikhs and Marathas 627Political Decline 627A Closer Look: The Mughal Emperor JahangirHonoring a Muslim Saint over Kingsand Emperors 628Religious Developments 629Central Asia: Islamization in the Post-Timur Era 630Uzbeks and Chaghatays 630Consequences of the Shiâ ite Rift 630Power Shifts in the Southern Oceans 632Southern-Oceans Trade 632Control of the Southern Seas 632The East Indies: Acheh 634Summary 635Key Terms 635Review Questions 635  Part 5Enlightenment and Revolutionin the Atlantic World, 1700â 1850 CHAPTER 21The Age of European Enlightenment 637The Scientific Revolution 638Global Perspective: The EuropeanEnlightenment 638Nicolaus Copernicus Rejects an Earth-CenteredUniverse 639Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler 640Galileo Galilei 641Francis Bacon: The Empirical Method 642Isaac Newton Discovers the Laws of Gravitation 643Women in the World of the Scientific Revolution 644John Locke 645The Enlightenment 646Voltaire 647The Encyclopedia 647The Enlightenment and Religion 649Deism 649Toleration 650Islam in Enlightenment Thought 651The Enlightenment and Society 653Montesquieu and the Spirit of the Laws 653Adam Smith on Economic Growth and Social Progress 654Rousseau 654Enlightened Critics of European Empire 655Women in the Thought and Practice of theEnlightenment 657Enlightened Absolutism 659Joseph II of Austria 659A Closer Look: An Eighteenth-Century ArtistAppeals to the Ancient World 661Catherine the Great of Russia 662The Partition of Poland 664Summary 664Key Terms 665Review Questions 665  CHAPTER 22Revolutions in the Transatlantic World 667Revolution in the British Colonies inNorth America 668Resistance to the Imperial Search for Revenue 668Global Perspective: The TransatlanticRevolutions 668American Political Ideas 669Crisis and Independence 669Revolution in France 672Revolutions of 1789 672A Closer Look: Challenging the FrenchPolitical Order 674Reconstruction of France 675A Second Revolution 678The Reign of Terror and Its Aftermath 679The Napoleonic Era 682The Congress of Vienna and the European Settlement 686Wars of Independence in Latin America 689Eighteenth-Century Developments 689Revolution in Haiti 689First Movements towards Independence on the SouthAmerican Continent 690Eighteenth-Century Developments in the SpanishEmpire 690San Mart�n in R�o de la Plata 691Sim�n Bol�varâ s Liberation of Venezuela 691Independence in New Spain 692Brazilian Independence 693Toward the Abolition of Slavery in the TransatlanticEconomy 693Summary 696Key Terms 697Review Questions 697  CHAPTER 23Political Consolidation in Nineteenth-CenturyEurope and North America 699The Emergence of Nationalism in Europe 700Global Perspective: European and North AmericanPolitical Consolidation 700Creating Nations 701Meaning of Nationhood 701Regions of Nationalistic Pressure in Europe 703Early Nineteenth-Century Political Liberalism 704Politics 704Economics 704Relationship of Nationalism and Liberalism 705Liberalism and Nationalism in ModernWorld History 705Efforts to Liberalize Early Nineteenth-Century EuropeanPolitical Structures 705Russia: The Decembrist Revolt of 1825 and the Autocracyof Nicholas I 705Revolution in France (1830) 706The Great Reform Bill in Britain (1832) 7081848: Year of Revolutions in Europe 709Testing the New American Republic 711Toward Sectional Conflict 711The Abolitionist Movement 714The Canadian Experience 717Road to Self-Government 717Keeping a Distinctive Culture 718Midcentury Political Consolidation in Europe 718The Crimean War 718Italian Unification 718A Closer Look: The Crimean War Recalled 720German Unification 722The Franco-Prussian War and the German Empire 722Unrest of Nationalities in Eastern Europe 723Racial Theory and Anti-Semitism 725Anti-Semitism and the Birth of Zionism 726Summary 728Key Terms 729Review Questions 729  Part 6Into the Modern World, 1815â 1949 CHAPTER 24Northern Transatlantic Economy and Society,1815â 1914 731Global Perspective: The Building of NorthernTransatlantic Supremacy 732European Factory Workers and Urban Artisans 733Nineteenth-Century European Women 735Women in the Early Industrial Revolution 735Social Disabilities Confronted by All Women 736New Employment Patterns for Women 738Late Nineteenth-Century Working-Class Women 739The Rise of Political Feminism 740Jewish Emancipation 742Early Steps to Equal Citizenship 742Broadened Opportunities 742European Labor, Socialism, and Politics to WorldWar I 743The Working Classes in the LateNineteenth Century 743Marxist Critique of the Industrial Order 744Germany: Social Democrats and Revisionism 745Great Britain: The Labour Party and Fabianism 747Russia: Industrial Development and the Birthof Bolshevism 748A Closer Look: Bloody Sunday, SaintPetersburg 1905 750European Socialism in World History 751North America and the New Industrial Economy 751European Immigration to the United States 752Unions: Organization of Labor 754The Progressives 755Social Reform 755The Progressive Presidency 756The Emergence of Modern European Thought 758Darwinâ s Theory of Natural Selection 758The Revolution in Physics 760Friedrich Nietzsche and the Revolt against Reason 761The Birth of Psychoanalysis 761Islam and Late Nineteenth-Century EuropeanThought 763Summary 763Key Terms 764Review Questions 764  CHAPTER 25Latin America from Independence to the1940s 766Independence without Revolution 767Immediate Consequences of Latin AmericanIndependence767Absence of Social Change 767Control of the Land 767Global Perspective: Latin American History 768Submissive Political Philosophies 769Economy of Dependence 773New Exploitation of Resources 773Increased Foreign Ownership and Influence 774Economic Crises and New Directions 775Search for Political Stability 775Three National Histories 776Argentina776Mexico779A Closer Look: Benito Ju�rez 781Brazil785Summary 789Key Terms 790Review Questions 790  CHAPTER 26India, the Islamic Heartlands, and Africa,1800â 1945 792THE INDIAN EXPERIENCE 793British Dominance and Colonial Rule 793Building the Empire: The First Half of the NineteenthCentury 793Global Perspective: The Challenge of Modernity:India, Islam, and Africa 794British-Indian Relations 795From British Crown Raj to Independence 798The Burden of Crown Rule 798Indian Resistance 798Hindu-Muslim Friction on the Road to Independence 800A Closer Look: Gandhi and His Spinning Wheel 801The Islamic Experience 802Islamic Responses to Declining Power andIndependence 802Western Political and Economic Encroachment 803The Western Impact 805Islamic Responses to Foreign Encroachment 805Emulation of the West 805Integration of Western and Islamic Ideas 807Women and Reform in the Middle East 808Purification and Revival of Islam 808Nationalism 809THE AFRICAN EXPERIENCE 810New States and Power Centers 810Southern Africa810East and Central Africa 811West Africa811Islamic Reform Movements 811Increasing European Involvement: Explorationand Colonization 813Explorers 814Christian Missions 814The Colonial â Scramble for Africaâ 814Patterns in European Colonial Rule and AfricanResistance 817The Rise of African Nationalism 818Summary 819Key Terms 820Review Questions 820Religions of the World: Islam 822  CHAPTER 27Modern East Asia 824Global Perspective: Modern East Asia 826MODERN JAPAN (1853â 1945) 825Overthrow of the Tokugawa Bakufu (1853â 1868) 825A Closer Look: East Meets the West 828Building the Meiji State (1868â 1890) 827Centralization of Power 829Political Parties 831The Constitution 831Growth of a Modern Economy 832First Phase: Model Industries 833Second Phase: 1880sâ 1890s 833Third Phase: 1905â 1929 834Fourth Phase: Depression and Recovery 836The Politics of Imperial Japan (1890â 1945) 836From Confrontation to the Founding of the Seiyuâ kai(1890â 1900) 836The Golden Years of Meiji 837Rise of the Parties to Power 838Militarism and War (1927â 1945) 840Japanese Militarism and German Nazism 843MODERN CHINA (1839â 1949) 844Close of Manchu Rule 844The Opium War 844Rebellions against the Manchu 846Self-Strengthening and Decline (1874â 1895) 848The Borderlands: The Northwest, Vietnam, and Korea 850From Dynasty to Warlordism (1895â 1926) 852Cultural and Ideological Ferment: The May FourthMovement 854Nationalist China 855Guomindang Unification of China and the Nanjing Decade(1927â 1937) 855War and Revolution (1937â 1949) 858Summary 860Key Terms 861Review Questions 861  Part 7Global Conflict and Change, 1900â Present CHAPTER 28Imperialism and World War I 863Expansion of European Power and theâ New Imperialismâ 864Global Perspective: Imperialism and theGreat War 864The New Imperialism 865Motives for the New Imperialism 865The â Scramble for Africaâ 867Emergence of the German Empire 872Formation of the Triple Alliance (1873â 1890) 872Bismarckâ s Leadership (1873â 1890) 873Forging the Triple Entente (1890â 1907) 874World War I 877The Road to War (1908â 1914) 877Sarajevo and the Outbreak of War(Juneâ August 1914) 878Strategies and Stalemate (1914â 1917) 00A Closer Look: The Development of theArmored Tank 882The Russian Revolution 884End of World War I 886Military Resolution 886Settlement at Paris 887Evaluation of the Peace 891Summary 892Key Terms 893Review Questions 893  CHAPTER 29Depression, European Dictators, and theAmerican New Deal 895After Versailles: Demands for Revision andEnforcement 896Toward the Great Depression in Europe 896Global Perspective: The Interwar Period in Europeand the United States 896Problems in Agricultural Commodities 897The Soviet Experiment 898War Communism 899The New Economic Policy 899Stalin versus Trotsky 900Decision for Rapid Industrialization 900The Purges 903The Fascist Experiment in Italy 904Rise of Mussolini 905The Fascists in Power 906German Democracy and Dictatorship 907The Weimar Republic 907Depression and Political Deadlock 912Hitler Comes to Power 912Hitlerâ s Consolidation of Power 913The Police State 914Women in Nazi Germany 915A Closer Look: The Nazi Party Rally 917The Great Depression and the New Dealin the United States 916Economic Collapse 918New Role for Government 919Summary 920Key Terms 921Review Questions 921  CHAPTER 30World War II 923Again the Road to War (1933â 1939) 924Hitlerâ s Goals 924Destruction of Versailles 924Global Perspective: World War II 924Italy Attacks Ethiopia 925Remilitarization of the Rhineland 925The Spanish Civil War 926Austria and Czechoslovakia 928Munich928The Naziâ Soviet Pact 930World War II (1939â 1945) 931German Conquest of Europe 931Battle of Britain 932German Attack on Russia 933Hitlerâ s Europe 934Racism and the Holocaust 934The Road to Pearl Harbor 935Americaâ s Entry into the War 937The Tide Turns 937Defeat of Nazi Germany 939Fall of the Japanese Empire 940The Cost of War 941The Domestic Fronts 941Germany: From Apparent Victory to Defeat 941France: Defeat, Collaboration, and Resistance 943Great Britain: Organization for Victory 943The United States: American Women and African Americansin the War Effort 944The Soviet Union: â The Great Patriotic Warâ 944A Closer Look: The Vichy Regime in France 945Preparations for Peace 946The Atlantic Charter 947Tehran947Yalta947Potsdam948Summary 949Key Terms 949Review Questions 949  CHAPTER 31The West since World War II 951The Cold War Era 951Areas of Early Cold War Conflict 951Global Perspective: The West since 1945 951NATO and the Warsaw Pact 955Crises of 1956 956The Cold War Intensified 957D�tente and Afterward 958Toward Western European Unification 959European Society in the Second Half of the TwentiethCentury and Beyond 961Toward a Welfare State Society 961Resistance to the Expansion of the Welfare State 962The Movement of Peoples 963The New Muslim Population 966New Patterns in the Work and Expectations of Women 967American Domestic Scene since World War II 968Truman and Eisenhower Administrations 968Civil Rights 969New Social Programs 970The Vietnam War and Domestic Turmoil 970The Watergate Scandal 970The Triumph of Political Conservatism 971The Soviet Union to 1989 972The Khrushchev Years 972Brezhnev 973Communism and Solidarity in Poland 973Gorbachev Attempts to Redirect the Soviet Union 9741989: Year of Revolutions in Eastern Europe 974Solidarity Reemerges in Poland 975Hungary Moves toward Independence 975The Breach of the Berlin Wall and German Reunification 975The Velvet Revolution in Czechoslovakia 975A Closer Look: Collapse of the Berlin Wall 976Violent Revolution in Romania 977The Collapse of the Soviet Union 977Renunciation of Communist Political Monopoly 977The August 1991 Coup 978The Yeltsin Years 979The Collapse of Yugoslavia and Civil War 981Challenges to the Atlantic AllianceChallenges on the International Security Front 983Strains over Environmental Policy 984Summary 986Key Terms 987Review Questions 987  CHAPTER 32East Asia: The Recent Decades 989Japan 990Global Perspective: Modern East Asia 990The Occupation 991Parliamentary Politics 993Economic Growth 996Society and Culture 998Japan and the World 1000China 1000Soviet Period (1950â 1960) 1001A Closer Look: Trial of a Landlord 1002The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (1965â 1976) 1003China after Mao 1004Taiwan 1008Korea 1010Korea as a Japanese Colony 1010North and South 1010The Korean War and U.S. Involvement 1011South Korea: Growth and Democracy 1012North Korea1013Vietnam 1013The Colonial Backdrop 1013The Anticolonial War 1014The Vietnam War 1014War with Cambodia 1015Recent Developments 1016Summary 1017Key Terms 1017Review Questions 1017  CHAPTER 33Postcolonialism and Beyond: Latin America,Africa, Asia, and the Middle East 1019Beyond the Postcolonial Era 1020Global Perspective: Democratization, Globalization,and Terrorism 1020Latin America since 1945 1023Revolutionary Challenges 1026Pursuit of Stability under the Threat of Revolution 1028Continuity and Change in Recent Latin AmericanHistory 1030A Closer Look: Mexican Farmers Protestthe North American Free Trade Agreement 1031Postcolonial Africa 1030The Transition to Independence 1032The African Future 1036Trade and Development 1038The Islamic Heartlands, from North Africa toIndonesia 1038Turkey1039Iran and Its Islamic Revolution 1040Afghanistan and the Former Soviet Republics 1041India1042Pakistan and Bangladesh 1043Indonesia and Malaysia 1044The Postcolonial Middle East 1044Postcolonial Nations in the Middle East 1044The Arab-Israeli Conflict 1046Middle Eastern Oil 1050The Rise of Militant Islamism 1050The Modern Middle Eastern Background 1051Iraq: Intervention and Occupation 1052Summary 1054Key Terms 1055Review Questions 1055  GLOSSARY G-1SUGGESTED READINGS S-1CREDITS C-1INDEX I-1 show more