Handbook of Psychopharmacology

Handbook of Psychopharmacology : Volume 19 New Directions in Behavioral Pharmacology

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Volumes 7 and 8 of the Handbook were published in 1977. In Volume 7 methods for studying unconditioned and conditioned behavior were reviewed. Attention was given to both ethological methods and operant conditioning techniques as applied to some selected aspects of behavior. Genetic, developmental, and environmental factors influencing behavior were also discussed. In Volume 8, neurotransmitter systems, and in par- ticular brain circuits, were discussed in relation to behavior and to the effects of psychoactive drugs on behavior. The coverage was not exhaus- tive because of space limitations. The topics selected for review were, at the time, the focus of considerable experimental effort; they included homeostasis-motivated behaviors: sleep, locomotion, feeding, drinking, and sexual behavior. Brain dopamine systems were therefore discussed in depth, since they were already known to be centrally involved in motivated behaviors. Learning mechanisms and emotion were reviewed in the remaining chapters. In 1984 we initiated an update of behavioral pharmacology to review areas of progress within the same scope as the earlier volumes. This update continues in Volume 19. Among the contributions are several that represent important advances in analyzing behavior and the use of more sophisticated methods to define the effect of drugs on particular aspects of behavior. The chapters by Blundell on feeding and Miczek on aggres- sion illustrate the sophistication of modern ethopharmacology.
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Product details

  • Paperback | 642 pages
  • 178 x 254 x 33.78mm | 1,237g
  • New York, NY, United States
  • English
  • 1987 ed.
  • 37 Illustrations, black and white; XVI, 642 p. 37 illus.
  • 1461290171
  • 9781461290179

Table of contents

1 Conditioned Drug Effects.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Terminology.- 1.2. Basic Procedures and Designs.- 1.3. Tests for Conditioning.- 1.4. Optimal Conditions for Conditioning.- 1.5. Confounding Factors.- 2. Conditioned Drug Effects: Evidence and Explanations.- 2.1. Conditioning of Drug-Induced Physiological Responses.- 2.2. Conditioning Factors in the Changing Effectiveness of Drugs.- 2.3. Conditioning of Affective Changes.- 3. Implications.- 3.1. Drug Self-Administration.- 3.2. Treatment of Addictions.- 4. References.- 2 Developmental Neuropharmacology: Clinical and Neurochemical Perspectives on the Regulation of Attention, Learning, and Movement.- 1. Clinical Phenomena and Research Design.- 1.1. Developmental Influences.- 1.2. Methodological Issues in Pediatric Psychopharmacological Research.- 2. Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity.- 2.1. Component Symptoms.- 2.2. Clinical Effects of Stimulants.- 2.3. Cellular and Molecular Effects of Stimulants.- 2.4. Neurochemistry: Animal Studies.- 2.5. Neurochemistry: Clinical Studies.- 3. Learning Disorders.- 3.1. General Considerations.- 3.2. Stimulants.- 3.3. Piracetam.- 4. Tourette's Syndrome of Chronic, Multiple Tics.- 4.1. Clinical Features.- 4.2. Neurobiological and Genetic Basis.- 4.3. Clinical Neurochemical Research.- 4.4. Treatment.- 5. Overview.- 6. References.- 3 Structure, Process, and Mechanism: Case Studies in the Psychopharmacology of Feeding.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Control of Feeding: A First Look.- 3. Drugs and Food Intake.- 3.1. Suppression of Food Intake.- 3.2. Enhancement of Food Intake.- 4. Interpretation of Pharmacological Action.- 5. Contextual and Temporal Dimensions of Behavior.- 6. Structure, Process, and Mechanism.- 7. Methodological Developments.- 7.1. Free-Feeding Animals.- 7.2. Microanalysis of the Structure of Feeding Behavior.- 7.3. Macroanalysis of Feeding Patterns.- 7.4. Variety and Palatability of Food.- 7.5. Motivation Measured by Instrumental Performance.- 7.6. Nutritional Aspects of Eating.- 8. Case Studies in the Pharmacological Analysis of Feeding.- 8.1. Serotonin Manipulations and the Structure of Feeding Behavior.- 8.2. Behavioral Analysis of the Effects of Opioid Antagonists on Feeding.- 8.3. Behavioral Calibration of Natural and Abnormal Anorexia.- 9. Control of Feeding: A Second Look.- 9.1. Impact of Pharmacological Studies.- 9.2. A Paradox: The Orexic and Anorexic Effects of Amphetamine.- 9.3. Models of Feeding Control.- 10. References.- 4 The Psychopharmacology of Aggression.- 1. Recent History of Psychopharmacological Aggression Research.- 1.1. Psychiatric Research Questions.- 1.2. Origins of Behavioral Methodology.- 1.3. Emerging Neuroscientific Objectives.- 2. Framework for the Behavioral Analysis of Aggression.- 2.1. Experimental-Psychological Approach.- 2.2. Neurological Approach.- 2.3. Ethological Approach.- 3. Preclinical and Clinical Aggression Research.- 3.1. Antiaggressive Drug Treatments.- 3.2. Drugs of Abuse and Aggression.- 4. References.- 5 The Electrophysiological and Biochemical Pharmacology of the Mesolimbic and Mesocortical Dopamine Neurons.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Anatomy of Midbrain Dopamine Systems.- 2.1. The Nigrostriatal DA System.- 2.2. Mesolimbic and Mesocortical DA Systems.- 3. Distinguishing between A9 and A10 Dopamine Systems.- 3.1. Behavioral Studies.- 3.2. Anatomical Considerations.- 4. Identification and Characterization.- 5. Dopamine Neuron Function Regulation.- 5.1. Effects of DA Agonists on A10 DA Neuron Activity.- 5.2. DA Receptor Antagonist Actions.- 6. Effects of Neurotransmitters on A10 Dopamine Neuron Activity.- 6.1. The Influence of GABA on A10 DA Neurons.- 6.2. The Effects of Serotonin on A10 DA Neurons.- 6.3. The Effects of Noradrenergic Agonists and Antagonists on A10 DA Neurons.- 6.4. The Effects of Substance P on A10 DA Neurons.- 7. Summary.- 8. References.- 6 Psychopharmacology of Repeated Seizures: Possible Relevance to the Mechanism of Action of Electroconvulsive Therapy.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Functional Changes after Seizures.- 2.1. 5-Hydroxytryptamine.- 2.2. Dopamine.- 2.3. Noradrenaline.- 2.4. GABA.- 2.5. Acetylcholine.- 2.6. Opioids.- 2.7. Histamine.- 3. Biochemical Consequences of Seizures.- 3.1. 5-Hydroxytryptamine.- 3.2. Dopamine.- 3.3. Noradrenaline.- 3.4. GABA.- 3.5. Opioid Peptides.- 3.6. Acetylcholine.- 3.7. Adenosine and Cyclic Nucleotides.- 3.8. Peptides.- 3.9. Calcium.- 4. Neuroendocrine Markers of Neurotransmitter Changes Following Electroconvulsive Shock.- 5. Are Any Biochemical and Functional Changes Associated?.- 5.1. 5-Hydroxytryptamine.- 5.2. Dopamine.- 5.3. Noradrenaline.- 5.4. GABA.- 5.5. Acetylcholine.- 5.6. Opioid Peptides.- 6. Can Biochemical or Behavioral Changes Be Associated with Antidepressant Action of Electroconvulsive Shock?.- 7. References.- 7 Psychopharmacology of Nicotine: Stimulus Effects and Receptor Mechanisms.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Historical Background.- 1.2. Behavioral Background.- 1.3. Neurochemical Background.- 2. Nicotine as a Positive Reinforcer.- 2.1. Introduction.- 2.2. Studies in Animals.- 2.3. Studies in Human Subjects.- 2.4. Conclusions.- 3. Nicotine as an Aversive Stimulus.- 3.1. Introduction.- 3.2. Nicotine as a Punisher.- 3.3. Nicotine as a Negative Reinforcer.- 3.4. Conditioned Taste Aversions.- 3.5. Conclusions.- 4. Discriminative Stimulus of Nicotine.- 4.1. Introduction.- 4.2. Generalization Tests: Nicotinic Agonists.- 4.3. Generalization Tests: Nonnicotinic Drugs.- 4.4. Pretreatment Experiments.- 4.5. Conclusions.- 5. Nicotine and Brain Mechanisms of Reward.- 5.1. Introduction.- 5.2. Studies of Intracranial Self-Stimulation.- 5.3. Intake of Palatable Substances.- 5.4. Conditioned Place Preferences.- 5.5. Neuropharmacological Observations.- 5.6. Evidence from Nicotine Self-Administration.- 6. General Conclusions.- 6.1. Integration of Different Approaches.- 6.2. Models of the CNS Nicotinic Receptor.- 7. References.- 8 The Behavioral Effects of Opiates.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. Historical Perspective.- 1.2. Methodological Considerations.- 2. The Effects of Opiates on Pain.- 2.1. The Neurobiology of Afferent Pain Transmission.- 2.2. The Effects of Opiates on Pain Transmission.- 2.3. Environmental Activation of Endogenous Analgesia Systems.- 3. The Effects of Opiates on Reward.- 3.1. The Neural Substrate of Opiate Reward.- 3.2. The Opiate Reward and Other Forms of Reward.- 4. The Effects of Opiates on Cardiovascular Function.- 4.1. The Cardiovascular Effects of Exogenously Administered Opiates.- 4.2. Endogenous Opioids and Environmentally Produced Cardiovascular Effects.- 5. Other Effects of Opiates on Behavior.- 6. References.- 9 Neuropeptides and Memory.- 1. Neuropeptides.- 2. Conceptual and Methodological Considerations.- 2.1. Conceptual Model.- 2.2. Animal Tests.- 3. Hypophyseal Peptides and Memory.- 3.1. Vasopressin.- 3.2. Oxytocin.- 3.3. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone.- 3.4. Endorphins.- 3.5. Somatostatin.- 4. Nonhypophyseal Peptides and Memory.- 4.1. Neurotensin.- 4.2. Angiotensin.- 4.3. Cholecystokinin.- 4.4. Substance P.- 5. Synthesis.- 5.1. Hypophyseal Peptides-Summary.- 5.2. Nonhypophyseal Peptides-Summary.- 5.3. Site and Mechanism of Action.- 5.4. U-Shaped Dose-Effect Functions.- 5.5. Blood-Brain Barrier.- 5.6. Is It Memory?.- 5.7. James-Lange Theory of Memory.- 5.8. State Dependency.- 5.9. Homology of Function.- 6. References.- 10 The Actions of Neuroleptic Drugs on Appetitive Instrumental Behaviors.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Hypotheses on the Behavioral Actions of Neuroleptics.- 2.1. Behavioral Profile of Neuroleptic Effects.- 2.2. Early Motor Hypotheses.- 2.3. Anhedonia and the Link between Dopamine and Reinforcement.- 3. Evaluation of Experiments on Dopaminergic Involvement in Reinforcement.- 3.1. On the Proposed Similarity between Neuroleptics and Extinction.- 3.2. The Response Capacity Argument.- 3.3. The Use of Paradigms Purported to Dissociate Reinforcement from Performance.- 3.4. Conclusions.- 4. Incentive Explanation of Neuroleptic Actions.- 5. An Alternative Explanation of Dopamine Antagonist Effects on Operant Behavior.- 5.1. A Multiprocess Model for Describing Control of Operant Response Output.- 5.2. On the Role of Brain Dopamine Systems in Appetitive Instrumental Behavior.- 6. References.- 11 Second-Generation Antidepressants.- 1. Introduction.- 2. General Properties of Second-Generation Antidepressants.- 3. Methodological Approaches.- 3.1. Neurochemical Assays.- 3.2. Behavioral Assays.- 4. Summary and Conclusions.- 5. References.
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