Ground and Surface Water Hydrology
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Ground and Surface Water Hydrology

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Larry Mays' Hydrology is a comprehensive text stressing fundamentals of hydrologic process for both surface water hydrology and groundwater hydrology. The text makes use of internet resources, such as free modeling tools, to help solve more complicated and real-world problems more quickly, and motivate interest in the topics. The book focuses on Water Resources Engineering as a subset of Hydrology and Water Resources Engineering covering sources of water that are useful to humans. Hydrology includes both water resources engineering, and more in-depth coverage of the hydrologic cycle (the continuous circulation of water in the atmosphere, land, surface water, and groundwater). The hydrologic effects of climate change is covered, as well as newer topics in hydrology including use of GIS, remote sensing, NEXRAD and other topics. Emphasis is given to the hydrologic processes and practice in the different climates: humid climate, cold climate, temperate climate, and arid and semi-arid climate.
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Product details

  • Hardback | 640 pages
  • 211 x 255 x 27mm | 1,178g
  • New York, United States
  • English
  • 1. Auflage
  • 0470169877
  • 9780470169872

Table of contents

About the Author v Preface vii Chapter 1 Hydrology, Climate Change, and Sustainability 1 1.1 Introduction to Hydrologic Processes 1 1.1.1 What is Hydrology? 1 1.1.2 Why Study Hydrology? 1 1.1.3 The Hydrologic Cycle 3 1.1.4 Hydrologic Systems 4 1.1.5 Surface Water in the Hydrologic Cycle 5 1.1.6 Groundwater in the Hydrologic Cycle 5 1.1.7 Control Volume Approach for Hydrologic Processes 7 1.2 Climate Change Effects and the Hydrologic Cycle 8 1.2.1 The Climate System 8 1.2.2 What is Climate Change? 10 1.2.3 Climate Change Prediction 11 1.2.4 Hydrologic Effects of Climate Change 12 1.3 Anthropogenic Effects on the Hydrologic Cycle 16 1.3.1 Urbanization 16 1.3.2 Land and Water Management Effects on the Hydrologic Cycle 17 1.4 Water Resources Sustainability 18 1.5 Hydrologic Budgets 19 1.6 Hydrologic Data and Publication Sources 21 1.7 U.S. Geological Survey Publications 22 Problems 25 References 25 Chapter 2 Occurrence of Groundwater 27 2.1 Origin of Groundwater 27 2.2 Rock Properties Affecting Groundwater 27 2.2.1 Aquifers 27 2.2.2 Porosity 28 2.2.3 Soil Classification 31 2.2.4 Porosity and Representative Elementary Volume 33 2.2.5 Specific Surface 33 2.3 Vertical Distribution of Groundwater 36 2.4 Zone of Aeration 37 2.4.1 Soil Water Zone 37 2.4.2 Intermediate Vadose Zone 38 2.4.3 Capillary Zone 38 2.4.4 Measurement of Water Content 40 2.4.5 Available Water 40 2.5 Zone of Saturation 41 2.5.1 Specific Retention 41 2.5.2 Specific Yield 41 2.6 Geologic Formations as Aquifers 42 2.6.1 Alluvial Deposits 43 2.6.2 Limestone 43 2.6.3 Volcanic Rock 44 2.6.4 Sandstone 46 2.6.5 Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks 46 2.6.6 Clay 46 2.7 Types of Aquifers 46 2.7.1 Unconfined Aquifer 46 2.7.2 Confined Aquifers 46 2.7.3 Leaky Aquifer 48 2.7.4 Idealized Aquifer 48 2.8 Storage Coefficient 48 2.9 Groundwater Basins/Regional Groundwater Flow Systems 50 2.9.1 High Plains Aquifer 52 2.9.2 Gulf Coastal Plain Aquifer System 54 2.10 Springs 54 2.10.1 What Are Springs? 54 2.10.2 Edwards Aquifer Discharge of Springs 61 2.11 Groundwater in the United States 63 Problems 70 References 71 Chapter 3 Groundwater Movement 75 3.1 Darcy s Law 75 3.1.1 Experimental Verification 75 3.1.2 Darcy Velocity 78 3.1.3 Validity of Darcy s Law 78 3.2 Permeability 79 3.2.1 Intrinsic Permeability 79 3.2.2 Hydraulic Conductivity 80 3.2.3 Transmissivity 80 3.2.4 Hydraulic Conductivity of Geologic Materials 81 3.3 Determination of Hydraulic Conductivity 82 3.3.1 Formulas 82 3.3.2 Laboratory Methods 83 3.3.3 Tracer Tests 85 3.3.4 Auger Hole Tests 87 3.3.5 Pumping Tests of Wells 88 3.4 Anisotropic Aquifers 89 3.5 Groundwater Flow Rates 91 3.6 General Flow Equations 93 3.7 Unsaturated Flow 95 3.7.1 Flow Through Unsaturated Soils 96 3.7.2 Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity 99 3.7.3 Vertical and Horizontal Flows 103 Problems 104 References 105 Chapter 4 Groundwater and Well Hydraulics 109 4.1 Steady Unidirectional Flow 109 4.1.1 Confined Aquifer 109 4.1.2 Unconfined Aquifer 110 4.1.3 Base Flow to a Stream 112 4.2 Steady Radial Flow to a Well 115 4.2.1 Confined Aquifer 115 4.2.2 Unconfined Aquifer 120 4.2.3 Unconfined Aquifer with Uniform Recharge 122 4.3 Well in a Uniform Flow 124 4.4 Unsteady Radial Flow in a Confined Aquifer 126 4.4.1 Nonequilibrium Well Pumping Equation 126 4.4.2 Theis Method of Solution 127 4.4.3 Cooper Jacob Method of Solution 129 4.4.4 Chow Method of Solution 132 4.4.5 Recovery Test 132 4.5 Unsteady Radial Flow in an Unconfined Aquifer 135 4.6 Unsteady Radial Flow in a Leaky Aquifer 140 4.7 Well Flow Near Aquifer Boundaries 143 4.7.1 Well Flow Near a Stream 143 4.7.2 Well Flow Near an Impermeable Boundary 148 4.7.3 Well Flow Near Other Boundaries 151 4.7.4 Location of Aquifer Boundary 153 4.8 Multiple Well Systems 154 4.9 Partially Penetrating Wells 158 4.10 Well Flow for Special Conditions 160 4.11 Slug Tests 161 4.11.1 Definition 161 4.11.2 Design Guidelines 161 4.11.3 Performance of Slug Tests 162 4.11.4 Methods for Analyzing Slug-Test Data 164 4.12 Slug Tests for Confined Formations 166 4.12.1 Cooper, Bredehoeft, and Papadopulos Method 166 4.12.2 Hvorslev Method 170 4.13 Slug Tests for Unconfined Formations 172 4.13.1 Bouwer and Rice Method 173 4.13.2 Dagan Method 179 Problems 182 References 189 Chapter 5 Artificial Recharge, Stormwater Infiltration, and Saltwater Intrusion Prevention 193 5.1 Artificial Recharge 193 5.1.1 Recharge Systems 193 5.1.2 Recharge Mounds 195 5.2 Stormwater Infiltration Basin Mound Development 203 5.2.1 Potential Flow Model for a Trench 204 5.2.2 Potential Flow Model for Circular Basin 205 5.2.3 Mound Growth 208 5.2.4 Mound Recession 209 5.3 Saline Water Intrusion in Aquifers 210 5.3.1 Occurrence of Saline Water Intrusion 210 5.3.2 Ghyben Herzberg Relation Between Freshwater and Saline Water 211 5.3.3 Shape of the Freshwater Saltwater Interface 213 5.3.4 Structure of the Freshwater Saltwater Interface 216 5.3.5 Effect of Wells on Seawater Intrusion 219 5.3.6 Upconing of Saline Water 221 5.3.7 Control of Saline Water Intrusion 225 Problems 227 References 228 Chapter 6 Groundwater Flow Modeling 231 6.1 Introduction 231 6.1.1 Why Develop Groundwater Models? 231 6.1.2 Types of Groundwater Models 232 6.1.3 Steps in the Development of a Groundwater Model 232 6.2 Three-Dimensional Groundwater Flow Model 233 6.2.1 Derivation of Finite Difference Equations 233 6.2.2 Simulation of Boundaries 239 6.2.3 Vertical Discretization 239 6.2.4 Hydraulic Conductance Equations 240 6.3 MODFLOW-2005 Description 243 6.3.1 Model Introduction 243 6.3.2 Space and Time Discretization 245 6.3.3 External Sources and Stresses 246 6.3.4 Hydraulic Conductance Layer-Property Flow (LPF) Package 248 6.3.5 Solver Packages 251 6.3.6 Telescopic Mesh Refinement 252 6.4 Case Study: Using MODFLOW: Lake Five-O, Florida 256 6.4.1 Finite Difference Grid and Boundary Conditions 256 6.4.2 Model Calibration and Sensitivity Analysis 256 6.4.3 Model Results 260 6.5 Example Applications and Input of MODFLOW 261 Problems 270 References 271 Chapter 7 Hydrologic Processes 273 7.1 Introduction to Surface Water Hydrology 273 7.1.1 What is Surface Water Hydrology? 273 7.1.2 The Hydrologic Cycle 273 7.1.3 Hydrologic Systems 273 7.1.4 Atmospheric and Ocean Circulation 278 7.1.5 Hydrologic Budget 280 7.2 Precipitation (Rainfall) 281 7.2.1 Precipitation Formation and Types 281 7.2.2 Rainfall Variability 282 7.2.3 Disposal of Rainfall on a Watershed 283 7.2.4 Design Storms 286 7.2.5 Estimated Limiting Storms 301 7.3 Evaporation 304 7.3.1 Energy Balance Method 304 7.3.2 Aerodynamic Method 307 7.3.3 Combined Method 309 7.4 Infiltration 310 7.4.1 Unsaturated Flow 310 7.4.2 Green Ampt Method 313 7.4.3 Other Infiltration Methods 319 Problems 321 References 324 Chapter 8 Surface Runoff 327 8.1 Drainage Basins and Storm Hydrographs 327 8.1.1 Drainage Basins and Runoff 327 8.2 Hydrologic Losses, Rainfall Excess, and Hydrograph Components 331 8.2.1 Hydrograph Components 333 8.2.2 F-Index Method 333 8.2.3 Rainfall-Runoff Analysis 335 8.3 Rainfall-Runoff Analysis Using Unit Hydrograph Approach 335 8.4 Synthetic Unit Hydrographs 338 8.4.1 Snyder s Synthetic Unit Hydrograph 338 8.4.2 Clark Unit Hydrograph 339 8.5 S-Hydrographs 343 8.6 NRCS (SCS) Rainfall-Runoff Relation 345 8.7 Curve Number Estimation and Abstractions 347 8.7.1 Antecedent Moisture Conditions 347 8.7.2 Soil Group Classification 348 8.7.3 Curve Numbers 351 8.8 NRCS (SCS) Unit Hydrograph Procedure 354 8.8.1 Time of Concentration 355 8.8.2 Time to Peak 357 8.8.3 Peak Discharge 357 8.9 Kinematic Wave Overland Flow Runoff Model 358 8.10 Computer Models for Rainfall-Runoff Analysis 363 Problems 365 References 372 Chapter 9 Reservoir and Streamflow Routing 375 9.1 Routing 375 9.2 Hydrologic Reservoir Routing 376 9.3 Hydrologic River Routing 380 9.4 Hydraulic (Distributed) Routing 384 9.4.1 Unsteady Flow Equations: Continuity Equation 385 9.4.2 Momentum Equation 387 9.5 Kinematic Wave Model for Channels 390 9.5.1 Kinematic Wave Equations 390 9.5.2 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Kinematic Wave Model for Overland Flow and Channel Routing 392 9.5.3 KINEROS2 Channel Flow Routing Model 393 9.5.4 Kinematic Wave Celerity 394 9.6 Muskingum Cunge Model 395 9.7 Implicit Dynamic Wave Model 396 9.8 Distributed Routing in U.S. Army Corps of Engineers HEC-RAS 398 Problems 401 References 406 Chapter 10 Probability, Risk, and Uncertainty Analysis for Hydrologic and Hydraulic Design 407 10.1 Probability Concepts 407 10.2 Commonly Used Probability Distributions 410 10.2.1 Normal Distribution 410 10.2.2 Log-Normal Distribution 410 10.2.3 Gumbel (Extreme Value Type I) Distribution 413 10.3 Hydrologic Design for Water Excess Management 414 10.3.1 Hydrologic Design Scale 414 10.3.2 Hydrologic Design Level (Return Period) 416 10.3.3 Hydrologic Risk 416 10.3.4 Hydrologic Data Series 417 10.4 Hydrologic Frequency Analysis 419 10.4.1 Frequency Factor Equation 419 10.4.2 Application of Log-Pearson III Distribution 420 10.4.3 Extreme Value Distribution 425 10.5 U.S. Water Resources Council Guidelines for Flood Flow Frequency Analysis 425 10.5.1 Procedure 426 10.5.2 Testing for Outliers 427 10.6 Analysis of Uncertainties 430 10.7 Risk Analysis: Composite Hydrologic and Hydraulic Risk 433 10.7.1 Reliability Computation by Direct Integration 434 10.7.2 Reliability Computation Using Safety Margin/Safety Factor 435 10.8 Computer Models for Flood-Flow Frequency Analysis 437 Problems 438 References 441 Chapter 11 Hydrologic Design and Floodplain Analysis 443 11.1 Hydrologic Design for Stormwater Management: Storm Sewers Design 443 11.1.1 Rational Method Design 443 11.1.2 Risk-Based Design of Storm Sewers 451 11.2 Hydrologic Design of Stormwater Detention 453 11.2.1 Why Detention? Effects of Urbanization 453 11.2.2 Sizing Detention 454 11.2.3 Detention Basin Routing 455 11.2.4 Preliminary Sizing of Detention: Modified Rational Method 456 11.2.5 Infiltration Basin Design 460 11.3 Floodplain Analysis 461 11.3.1 Floodplain Analysis Components 461 11.3.2 Floodplain Hydraulics 464 11.3.3 Water Surface Profile Computation 468 11.4 Flood-Control Alternatives 472 11.4.1 Structural Alternatives 473 11.4.2 Nonstructural Alternatives 477 11.4.3 Flood Damage and Net Benefit Estimation 478 11.5 Urban Flood Management: A Matter of Water Resources Sustainability 480 11.5.1 Urban Flood Management and Sustainability 480 11.5.2 Climate Change, Urbanization, and Integrated Management 481 11.5.3 Developing Countries and Flood Management 482 11.5.4 Developed Countries and Flood Disasters 482 11.6 Water Supply for Crop Water Requirements: Evapotranspiration Calculations 483 11.6.1 Combination Equation 483 11.6.2 FAO-56 Penman Monteith Equation 484 11.6.3 Meteorological Data and Factors 485 11.6.4 Radiation Calculations 489 11.6.5 ASCE-EWRI Standardized Penman-Monteith Equation 493 11.7 Hydrologic Design for Water Supply 494 11.7.1 Surface Water Reservoir Systems 494 11.7.2 Storage Firm Yield Analysis forWater Supply 495 11.7.3 Reservoir Simulation 503 Problems 505 References 508 Chapter 12 Hydrologic Measurement 511 12.1 Atmosphere-Land Interface 511 12.1.1 Wind, Humidity, and Solar Radiation 512 12.1.2 Precipitation 515 12.1.3 Evaporation 519 12.1.4 Weather/Climate Stations 521 12.1.5 Infiltration 522 12.2 Discharge Measurement 523 12.2.1 Weir 523 12.2.2 Flumes 527 12.3 Streamflow Measurement 528 12.3.1 Measuring Stage 528 12.3.2 Velocity-Area-Integration Method 531 12.3.3 Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler 533 12.4 Groundwater Measurement 534 12.5 Automated Data Acquisition and Transmission Systems 536 12.6 Hydrologic Monitoring Systems 538 12.6.1 Urban Stormwater Systems 538 12.6.2 Flood Early-Warning Systems 541 Problems 541 References 542 Chapter 13 Hydrology of Specific Climates 543 13.1 Hydrology of Arid and Semiarid Climates 543 13.1.1 Physical Features 543 13.1.2 Hydrologic Processes 545 13.1.3 Rainfall Hyetographs for Arabian Gulf States 548 13.1.4 Design Rainfall Patterns for Arizona 549 13.1.5 Hydrology of Alluvial Fan Flooding 549 13.2 Hydrology of Cold Climates 555 13.2.1 Snowpack, Snow Water Equivalent, and Snowmelt Runoff 556 13.2.2 Snowmelt Energy Budget Solutions 558 13.2.3 Snowmelt Temperature Index Solutions 561 13.2.4 Models for Snowmelt Runoff 562 13.3 Hydrology of Humid Tropical Climates 562 13.3.1 ENSO: El Ni~no-Southern Oscillation 563 13.3.2 Rainfall for Drainage Design 565 13.3.3 Rainfall Interception Vegetation Canopy 567 13.4 Introduction to Watershed Hydrology Models 569 13.4.1 What are Watershed Models? 570 13.4.2 Classification of Watershed Models 571 13.4.3 Distributed Model Spatial Configurations 572 13.4.4 Discussion of Selected Models 573 References 574 Appendix A Control Volume Approach for Hydrosystems 577 Continuity 580 Energy 581 Momentum 583 Appendix B NWS Precipitation Frequency Documents 585 Appendix C U.S. Army Corps of Engineers HEC-HMS 589 Watershed and Meteorological Description 589 Example Application 591 References 597 Appendix D U.S. Army Corps of Engineers HEC-RAS 599 HEC-RAS Model Features 599 Cross-Sections 599 Cross-Section Description for Conveyance Calculation 600 Cross-Section Interpolation 600 Cross-Sections at Junctions 601 Bridge Description 601 Encroachment Methods Floodplain Analysis 602 Reference 606 Index
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About Larry W. Mays

Larry W. Mays has been a Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Arizona State University since August 1989. He served as Chair of the Department from August 1989 until July 1996. Prior to that he was Director of the Center for Research in Water Resources and holder of an Engineering Foundation Endowed Professorship at The University of Texas at Austin, where he was on the faculty since 1976. Prior to that, he was a graduate research assistant and then a Visiting Research Assistant Professor at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, where he received the Ph.D. in January 1976. He received the B.S. (1970) and M.S. (1971) degrees in civil engineering from the University of Missouri at Rolla, after which he served in the U.S. Army, (1970-1973) stationed at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in California.
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