General Chemistry

General Chemistry

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For courses in General Chemistry. General Chemistry, Fourth Edition presents chemistry to match how students learn - visually (by seeing) and through practice (by doing). Its problem-solving pedagogy is the most supportive available, providing an array of resources to assist students as they learn to solve problems and as they actively assess their progress. Its visuals are designed to help students "see" unseen chemical processes and it relates chemistry to other disciplines and to students better than any other more

Product details

  • Mixed media product | 1200 pages
  • 216 x 276 x 38mm | 2,400g
  • Pearson Education (US)
  • Pearson
  • United States
  • 4th Revised edition
  • Illustrations (some col.), ports. (some col.)
  • 0131271806
  • 9780131271807

Table of contents

1. Chemistry: Matter and Measurement 1.1 Chemistry: Principles and Applications. 1.2 Getting Started: Some Key Terms. 1.3 Scientific Measurements. 1.4 Precision and Accuracy in Measurements. 1.5 A Problem-Solving Method. 1.6 Further Remarks on Problem Solving. 2. Atoms, Molecules, and Ions 2.1 Laws of Chemical Combination. 2.2 John Dalton and the Atomic Theory of Matter. 2.3 The Divisible Atom. 2.4 Atomic Masses. 2.5 The Periodic Table: Elements Organized. 2.6 Molecules and Molecular Compounds. 2.7 Ions and Ionic Compounds. 2.8 Acids, Bases, and Salts. 2.9 Organic Compounds. 3. Stoichiometry: Chemical Calculations. 3.1 Molecular Masses and Formula Masses. 3.2 The Mole and Avogadro's Number. 3.3 The Mole and Molar Mass. 3.4 Mass Percent Composition from Chemical Formulas. 3.5 Chemical Formulas from Mass Percent Composition. 3.6 Elemental Analysis: Experimental Determination of Mass Percent Composition. 3.7 Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations. 3.8 Reaction Stoichiometry. 3.9 Limiting Reactants. 3.10 Yields of Chemical Reactions. 3.11 Solutions and Solution Stoichiometry. 4. Chemical Reactions in Aqueous Solutions. 4.1 Some Electrical Properties of Aqueous Solutions. 4.2 Reactions of Acids and Bases. 4.3 Reactions that Form Precipitates. 4.4 Reactions Involving Oxidation and Reduction. 4.5 Applications of Oxidation and Reduction. 4.6 Titrations. 5. Gases. 5.1 Gases: What Are They Like? 5.2 An Introduction to the Kinetic-Molecular Theory. 5.3 Gas Pressure. 5.4 Boyle's Law: The Pressure-Volume Relationship. 5.5 Charles's Law: The Temperature-Volume Relationship. 5.6 Avogadro's Law: The Mole-Volume Relationship. 5.7 The Combined Gas Law. 5.8 The Ideal Gas Law and Its Applications. 5.9 Gases in Reaction Stoichiometry. 5.10 Mixtures of Gases: Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures. 5.11 The Kinetic-Molecular Theory: Some Quantitative Aspects. 5.12 Real Gases. 6. Thermochemistry. 6.1 Energy. 6.2 Thermochemistry: Some Basic Terms. 6.3 Internal Energy (U), State Functions, and the First Law of Thermodynamics. 6.4 Heats of Reaction and Enthalpy Change, (_H). 6.5 Calorimetry: Measuring Quantities of Heat. 6.6 Hess's Law of Constant Heat Summation. 6.7 Standard Enthalpies of Formation. 6.8 Combustion and Respiration: Fuels and Foods. 7. Atomic Structure. 7.1 The Electron: Experiments by Thomson and Millikan. 7.2 Atomic Models: Thomson and Rutherford. 7.3 Protons and Neutrons. 7.4 Positive Ions and Mass Spectrometry. 7.5 The Wave Nature of Light. 7.6 Photons: Energy by the Quantum. 7.7 Bohr's Hydrogen Atom: A Planetary Model. 7.8 Wave Mechanics: Matter as Waves. 7.9 Quantum Numbers and Atomic Orbitals. 8. Electron Configurations, Atomic Properties, and the Periodic Table. 8.1 Multielectron Atoms. 8.2 An Introduction to Electron Configurations. 8.3 Rules for Electron Configurations. 8.4 Electron Configurations: The Aufbau Principle. 8.5 Electron Configurations: Periodic Relationships. 8.6 Magnetic Properties: Paired and Unpaired Electrons. 8.7 Periodic Atomic Properties of the Elements. 8.8 Metals, Nonmetals, Metalloids, and Noble Gases. 8.9 Using Atomic Properties and the Periodic Table the Explain the Behavior of the Elements. 9. Chemical Bonds. 9.1 Chemical Bonds: A Preview. 9.2 The Lewis Theory of Chemical Bonding: An Overview. 9.3 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Crystals. 9.4 Using Lewis Symbols to Represent Ionic Bonding. 9.5 Energy Changes in Ionic Compounds Formations. 9.6 Lewis Structures of Some Simple Molecules. 9.7 Polar Covalent Bonds and Electronegativity. 9.8 A Strategy for Writing Lewis Structures. 9.9 Molecules That Do Not Follow the Octet Rule. 9.10 Bond Lengths and Bond Energies. 9.11 Alkenes and Alkynes. 9.12 Polymers. 10. Bonding Theory and Molecular Structure. 10.1 The Valence-Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Method. 10.2 Polar Molecules and Dipole Moments. 10.3 Atomic Orbital Overlap. 10.4 Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals. 10.5 Hybrid Orbitals and Multiple Covalent Bonds. 10.6 Characteristics of Molecular Orbitals. 10.7 Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules of the Second-Period Elements. 10.8 Bonding in Benzene. 10.9 Aromatic Compounds. 11. States of Matter and Intermolecular Forces. 11.1 Intermolecular Forces and the States of Matter: A Chapter Preview. 11.2 Vaporization and Vapor Pressure. 11.3 Phase Changes Involving Solids. 11.4 Phase Diagrams. 11.5 Intermolecular Forces of the van der Waals Type. 11.6 Hydrogen Bonds. 11.7 Intermolecular Forces and Two Liquid Properties. 11.8 Network Covalent Solids. 11.9 Ionic Bonds as "Intermolecular" Forces. 11.10 The Structure of Crystals. 12. Physical Properties of Solutions. 12.1 Some Types of Solutions. 12.2 Solution Concentration. 12.3 Energetics of Solution Formation. 12.4 Equilibrium in Solution Formation. 12.5 The Solubilities of Gases. 12.6 Vapor Pressures of Solutions. 12.7 Freezing Point Depression and Boiling Point Elevation. 12.8 Osmotic Pressure. 12.9 Solutions of Electrolytes. 12.10 Colloids. 13. Chemical Kinetics: Rates and Mechanisms of Chemical Reactions. 13.1 Chemical Kinetics-A Preview. 13.2 The Meaning of Reaction Rate. 13.3 Measuring Reaction Rates. 13.4 The Rate Law of Chemical Reaction. 13.5 First-Order Reactions. 13.6 Reactions of Other Orders. 13.7 Theories of Chemical Kinetics. 13.8 Effects of Temperature on Reaction Rates. 13.9 Reaction Mechanisms. 13.10 Catalysis. 13.11 Enzyme Catalysis. 14. Chemical Equilibrium. 14.1 The Dynamic Nature of Equilibrium. 14.2 The Equilibrium Constant Expression. 14.3 Modifying Equilibrium Constant Expressions. 14.4 Qualitative Treatment of Equilibrium: Le Chtelier's Principle. 14.5 Some Illustrative Equilibrium Calculations. 15. Acids, Bases, and Acid-Base Equilibria. 15.1 The Br'nsted-Lowry Theory of Acids and Bases. 15.2 Molecular Structure and Strengths of Acids and Bases. 15.3 Self-Ionization of Water-the pH Scale. 15.4 Equilibrium in Solutions of Weak Acids and Weak Bases. 15.5 Polyprotic Acids. 15.6 Ions as Acids and Bases. 15.7 The Common Ion Effect. 15.8 Buffer Solutions. 15.9 Acid0Base Indicators. 15.10 Neutralization Reactions and Titration Curves. 15.11 Lewis Acids and Bases. 16. More Equilibria in Aqueous Solutions: Slightly Soluble Salts and Complex Ions. 16.1 The Solubility Product Constant, Ksp. 16.2 The Relationship Between Ksp and Molar Solubility. 16.3 The Common Ion Effect in Solubility Equilibria. 16.4 Will Precipitation Occur? Is It Complete? 16.5 Effect of pH on Solubility. 16.6 Equilibria Involving Complex Ions. 16.7 Qualitative Inorganic Analysis. 17. Thermodynamics: Spontaneity, Entropy, and Free Energy. 17.1 Why Study Thermodynamics? 17.2 Spontaneous Change. 17.3 The Concept of Entropy. 17.4 Free Energy and Free Energy Change (G). 17.5 Standard Free Energy Change, _Gu. 17.6 Free Energy Change and Equilibrium. 17.7 The Dependence of _Gu and Keq on Temperature. 18. Electrochemistry. 18.1 Half-Reactions. 18.2 The Half-Reaction Method of Balancing Redox Equations. 18.3 A Qualitative Description of Voltaic Cells. 18.4 Standard Electrode Potentials. 18.5 Electrode Potentials, Spontaneous Change, and Equilibrium. 18.6 Effect of Concentrations on Cell Voltage. 18.7 Batteries: Using Chemical Reactions to Make Electricity. 18.8 Corrosion: Metal Loss Through Voltaic Cells. 18.9 Predicting Electrolysis Reactions. 18.10 Quantitative Electrolysis. 18.11 Applications of Electrolysis. 19. Nuclear Chemistry. 19.1 Radioactivity and Nuclear Equations. 19.2 Naturally Occurring Radioactivity. 19.3 Radioactive Decay Rates. 19.4 Synthetic Nuclides. 19.5 Transuranium Elements. 19.6 Nuclear Stability. 19.7 Energetics of Nuclear Reactions. 19.8 Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion. 19.9 Effect of Radiation of Matter. 19.10 Applications of Radioactive Nuclides. 20. The s-Block Elements. 20.1 Occurrence and Preparation of Hydrogen. 20.2 Binary Compounds of Hydrogen. 20.3 Uses of Hydrogen. 20.4 Properties and Trends I Group 1A. 20.5 Occurrence, preparation, Uses, and Reactions of Group 1A Metals. 20.6 Important Compounds of Li, Na, and K. 20.7 The Alkali Metals and Living Matter. 20.8 Properties and Trends in Group 2A. 20.9 Occurrence, preparation, Uses, and Reactions of Group 2A Metals. 20.10 Important Compounds of Magnesium and Calcium. 20.11 The Group 2A Metals and Living Matter. 20.12 Hard Water and Water Softening. 20.13 Soaps and Detergents. 21. The p-Block Elements. 21.1 Properties and Trends in Group 3A. 21.2 Boron. 21.3 Aluminum. 21.4 Carbon. 21.5 Silicon. 21.6 Tina and Lead. 21.7 Nitrogen. 21.8 Phosphorus. 21.9 Oxygen. 21.10 Sulfur. 21.11 Selenium, Tellurium, and Polonium. 21.12 Sources and Uses of Halogens. 21.13 Hydrogen Halides. 21.14 Oxoacids and Oxoanions of the Halogens. 21.15 Occurrence of Noble Gases. 21.16 Properties and Uses. 22. The d-Block Elements and Coordination Chemistry. 22.1 General Properties of d-Block Elements and Their Trends. 22.2 The Elements Scandium Through Manganese. 22.3 The Iron Triad: Fe, Co, and Ni. 22.4 Group 1B: Cu, Ag, and Au. 22.5 Group 2B: Zn, Cd, and Hg. 22.6 The Lanthanide Elements (Rare Earths). 22.7 Werner's Theory of Coordination Chemistry. 22.8 Naming Complex Ions and Coordination Compounds. 22.9 Isomerism in Complex Ions and Coordination Compounds. 22.10 Bonding in Complexes: Crystal Field Theory. 22.11 Color in Complex Ions and Coordination Compounds. 22.12 Chelates: Complexes of Special Interest. 23. Chemistry and Life: More on Organic, Biological, and Medicinal Chemistry. 23.1 Alkanes. 23.2 Alkenes and Alkynes. 23.3 Conjugated and Aromatic Compounds. 23.4 Alcohols and Ethers. 23.5 Aldehydes and Ketones. 23.6 Carboxylic Acids, Esters, and Amides. 23.7 Lipids. 23.8 Carbohydrates. 23.9 Proteins. 23.10 Nucleic Acids: Molecules of Heredity. 23.11 The Interaction of Matter with Electromagnetic Radiation. 23.12 Infrared Spectroscopy. 23.13 Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy. 23.14 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. 23.15 Molecule Shapes and Drug Action. 23.16 Acid-Base Chemistry and Drug Action. 24. Chemistry of Materials: Bronze Age to Space Age. 24.1 Metallurgy: From Natural Sources to Pure Metals. 24.2 Iron and Steel. 24.3 Tin and Lead. 24.4 Copper, Zinc, Silver, and Gold. 24.5 The Free-Electron Model of Metallic Bonding. 24.6 Band Theory. 24.7 Semiconductors. 24.8 Natural Polymers. 24.9 Polymerization Processes. 24.10 Physical Properties of Polymers. 24.11 Modern Synthetic Polymers. 24.12 High Performance Alloys. 24.13 Ceramics and Composites. 24.14 Nanomaterials. 25. Environmental Chemistry. 25.1 Composition, Structure, and Natural Cycles. 25.2 Air Pollution. 25.3 The Ozone Layer. 25.4 Global Warming: Carbon Dioxide and the Greenhouse Effect. 25.5 Earth's Natural Waters. 25.6 Water Pollution. 25.7 Acid Rain and Acid Waters. 25.8 Poisons. 25.9 Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens. 25.10 Hazardous more
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