General Chemistry

General Chemistry : Principles and Modern Applications: United States Edition

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For 2-semester or 3-quarter general chemistry courses.

General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications is recognized for its superior problems, lucid writing, precision of argument, and precise and detailed treatment of the subject. Popular and innovative features include Feature Problems, follow-up A and B Practice Exercises to accompany every in-chapter Example, Focus On application boxes, and new Keep in Mind marginal notes.
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Product details

  • Hardback | 1249 pages
  • 205.7 x 256.5 x 45.7mm | 2,336.03g
  • Pearson
  • United States
  • English
  • 8th edition
  • With numerous col. figs.
  • 0130143294
  • 9780130143297

Table of contents

Most chapters end with a Summary, Integrative Example, Key Terms, Review Questions, Exercises, Integrative and Advanced Exercises, Feature Problems, and eMedia Exercises.

About the Authors.


Student's Guide to Using this Text.

1. Matter-Its Properties and Measurement.

The Scope of Chemistry. The Scientific Method. Properties of Matter. Classification of Matter. Measurement of Matter: SI (Metric) Units. Density and Percent Composition: Their Use in Problem Solving. Uncertainties in Scientific Measurements. Significant Figures. Focus on The Scientific Method at Work: Polywater.

2. Atoms and the Atomic Theory.

Early Chemical Discoveries and the Atomic Theory. Electrons and Other Discoveries in Atomic Physics. The Nuclear Atom. Chemical Elements. Atomic Masses. Introduction to the Periodic Table. The Concept of the Mole and the Avogadro Constant. Using the Mole Concept in Calculations. Focus on Occurrence and Abundances of the Elements.

3. Chemical Compounds.

Types of Chemical Compounds and Their Formulas. The Mole Concept and Chemical Compounds. Composition of Chemical Compounds. Oxidation States: A Useful Tool in Describing Chemical Compounds. Naming Compounds: Organic and Inorganic Compounds. Names and Formulas of Inorganic Compounds. Names and Formulas of Organic Compounds. Focus on Mass Spectrometry-Determining Molecular Formulas.

4. Chemical Reactions.

Chemical Reactions and Chemical Equations. Chemical Equations and Stoichiometry. Chemical Reactions in Solution. Determining the Limiting Reactant. Other Practical Matters in Reaction Stoichiometry. Focus on Industrial Chemistry.

5. Introduction to Reactions in Aqueous Solutions.

The Nature of Aqueous Solutions. Precipitation Reactions. Acid-Base Reactions. Oxidation-Reduction: Some General Principles. Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations. Oxidizing and Reducing Agents. Stoichiometry of Reactions in Aqueous Solutions: Titrations. Focus on Water Treatment.

6. Gases.

Properties of Gases: Gas Pressure. The Simple Gas Laws. Combining the Gas Laws: The Ideal Gas Equation and the General Gas Equation. Applications of the Ideal Gas Equation. Gases in Chemical Reactions. Mixtures of Gases. Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases. Gas Properties Relating to the Kinetic-Molecular Theory. Nonideal (Real) Gases. Focus on The Chemistry of Air-Bag Systems.

7. Thermochemistry.

Getting Started: Some Terminology. Heat. Heats of Reaction and Calorimetry. Work. The First Law of Thermodynamics. Heats of Reaction. Hess's Law. Standard Enthalpies of Formation. Fuels as Sources of Energy. Focus on Fats, Carbohydrates, and Energy Storage.

8. The Atmospheric Gases and Hydrogen.

The Atmosphere. Nitrogen. Oxygen. The Noble Gases. Oxides of Carbon. Hydrogen. Focus on The Carbon Cycle.

9. Electrons in Atoms.

Electromagnetic Radiation. Atomic Spectra. Quantum Theory. The Bohr Atom. Two Ideas Leading to a New Quantum Mechanics. Wave Mechanics. Quantum Numbers and Electron Orbitals. Interpreting and Representing the Orbitals of the Hydrogen Atom. Electron Spin: A Fourth Quantum Number. Multielectron Atoms. Electron Configurations. Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table. Focus on Helium-Neon Lasers.

10. The Periodic Table and Some Atomic Properties.

Classifying the Elements: The Periodic Law and the Periodic Table. Metals and Nonmetals and Their Ions. The Sizes of Atoms and Ions. Ionization Energy. Electron Affinity. Magnetic Properties. Periodic Properties of the Elements. Focus on The Periodic Law and Mercury.

11. Chemical Bonding I: Basic Concepts.

Lewis Theory: An Overview. Covalent Bonding: An Introduction. Polar Covalent Bonds. Writing Lewis Structures. Resonance. Exceptions to the Octet Rule. The Shapes of Molecules. Bond Order and Bond Lengths. Bond Energies. Focus on Polymers-Macromolecular Substances.

12. Chemical Bonding II: Additional Aspects.

What a Bonding Theory Should Do. Introduction to the Valence-Bond Method. Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals. Multiple Covalent Bonds. Molecular Orbital Theory. Delocalized Electrons: Bonding in the Benzene Molecule. Bonding in Metals. Focus on Photoelectron Spectroscopy.

13. Liquids, Solids, and Intermolecular Forces.

Intermolecular Forces and Some Properties of Liquids. Vaporization of Liquids: Vapor Pressure. Some Properties of Solids. Phase Diagrams. Van der Waals Forces. Hydrogen Bonding. Chemical Bonds as Intermolecular Forces. Crystal Structures. Energy Changes in the Formation of Ionic Crystals. Focus on Liquid Crystals.

14. Solutions and Their Physical Properties.

Types of Solutions: Some Terminology. Solution Concentration. Intermolecular Forces and the Solution Process. Solution Formation and Equilibrium. Solubilities of Gases. Vapor Pressures of Solutions. Osmotic Pressure. Freezing-Point Depression and Boiling-Point Elevation of Nonelectrolyte Solutions. Solutions of Electrolytes. Colloidal Mixtures. Focus on Chromatography.

15. Chemical Kinetics.

The Rate of a Chemical Reaction. Measuring Reaction Rates. Effect of Concentration on Reaction Rates: The Rate Law. Zero-Order Reactions. First-Order Reactions. Second-Order Reactions. Reaction Kinetics: A Summary. Theoretical Models for Chemical Kinetics. The Effect of Temperature on Reaction Rates. Reaction Mechanisms. Catalysis. Focus on Combustion and Explosions.

16. Principles of Chemical Equilibrium.

Dynamic Equilibrium. The Equilibrium Constant Expression. Relationships Involving Equilibrium Constants. The Significance of the Magnitude of an Equilibrium Constant. The Reaction Quotient, Q: Predicting the Direction of Net Change. Altering Equilibrium Conditions: Le Chatelier's Principle. Equilibrium Calculations: Some Illustrative Examples. Focus on The Nitrogen Cycle and the Synthesis of Nitrogen Compounds.

17. Acids and Bases.

The Arrhenius Theory: A Brief Review. Bronsted-Lowry Theory of Acids and Bases. The Self-Ionization of Water and the pH Scale. Strong Acids and Strong Bases. Weak Acids and Weak Bases. Polyprotic Acids. Ions as Acids and Bases. Molecular Structure and Acid-Base Behavior. Lewis Acids and Bases. Focus on Acid Rain.

18. Additional Aspects of Acid-Base Equilibria.

The Common-Ion Effect in Acid-Base Equilibria. Buffer Solutions. Acid-Base Indicators. Neutralization Reactions and Titration Curves. Solutions of Salts of Polyprotic Acids. Acid-Base Equilibrium Calculations: A Summary. Focus on Buffers in Blood.

19. Solubility and Complex-Ion Equilibria.

The Solubility Product Constant, Ksp. The Relationship between Solubility and Ksp. The Common-Ion Effect in Solubility Equilibria. Limitations of the Ksp Concept. Criteria for Precipitation and Its Completeness. Fractional Precipitation. Solubility and pH. Equilibria Involving Complex Ions. Qualitative Cation Analysis. Focus on Shells, Teeth, and Fossils.

20. Spontaneous Change: Entropy and Free Energy.

Spontaneity: The Meaning of Spontaneous Change. The Concept of Entropy. Evaluating Entropy and Entropy Changes. Criteria for Spontaneous Change: The Second Law of Thermodynamics. Standard Free Energy Change. Free Energy Change and Equilibrium. Functions of Temperature. Coupled Reactions. Focus on Coupled Reactions in Biological Systems.

21. Electrochemistry.

Electrode Potentials and Their Measurement. Standard Electrode Potentials. Ecell, G,D>, and Keq. Ecell as a Function of Concentrations. Batteries: Producing Electricity Through Chemical Reactions. Corrosion: Unwanted Voltaic Cells. Electrolysis: Causing Nonspontaneous Reactions to Occur. Industrial Electrolysis Processes. Focus on Membrane Potentials.

22. Main-Group Elements I: Metals.

Group 1: The Alkali Metals. Group 2: The Alkaline Earth Metals. Ions in Natural Waters: Hard Water. Group 13 Metals: Aluminum, Gallium, Indium, and Thallium. Group 14 Metals: Tin and Lead. Focus on Gallium Arsenide.

23. Main-Group Elements II: Nonmetals.

Group 18: The Noble Gases. Group 17: The Halogens. Group 16: The Oxygen Family. Group 15: The Nitrogen Family. Group 14 Nonmetals: Carbon and Silicon. The Group 13 Nonmetal: Boron. Focus on Glassmaking.

24. The Transition Elements.

General Properties. Principles of Extractive Metallurgy. Metallurgy of Iron and Steel. First-Row Transition Metal Elements: Scandium to Manganese. The Iron Triad: Iron, Cobalt, and Nickel. Group 11: Copper, Silver, and Gold. Group 12: Zinc, Cadmium, and Mercury. Lanthanides. Focus on High-Temperature Superconductors.

25. Complex Ions and Coordination Compounds.

Werner's Theory of Coordination Compounds: An Overview. Ligands. Nomenclature. Isomerism. Bonding in Complex Ions: Crystal Field Theory. Magnetic Properties of Coordination Compounds and Crystal Field Theory. Color and the Colors of Complexes. Aspects of Complex-Ion Equilibria. Acid-Base Reactions of Complex Ions. Some Kinetic Considerations. Applications of Coordination Chemistry. Focus on Colors in Gemstones.

26. Nuclear Chemistry.

The Phenomenon of Radioactivity. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Isotopes. Nuclear Reactions and Artificially Induced Radioactivity. Transuranium Elements. Rate of Radioactive Decay. Energetics of Nuclear Reactions. Nuclear Stability. Nuclear Fission. Nuclear Fusion. Effect of Radiation on Matter. Applications of Radioisotopes. Focus on Radioactive Waste Disposal.

27. Organic Chemistry.

Organic Compounds and Structures: An Overview. Alkanes. Alkenesand Alkynes. Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers. Aldehydes and Ketones. Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives. Amines. Heterocyclic Compounds. Nomenclature of Stereoisomers in Organic Compounds. An Introduction to Substitution Reactions at spa Hybridized Carbon Atoms. Synthesis of Organic Compounds. Polymerization Reactions. Focus on Natural and Synthetic Dyes.

28. Chemistry of the Living State.

Chemical Structure of Living Matter: An Overview. Lipids. Carbohydrates. Proteins. Aspects of Metabolism. Nucleic Acids. Focus on Protein Synthesis and the Genetic Code.

Appendix A. Mathematical Operations.

Exponential Arithmetic. Logarithms. Algebraic Operations. Graphs. Using Conversion Factors (Dimensional Analysis).

Appendix B. Some Basic Physical Concepts.

Velocity and Acceleration. Force and Work. Energy. Magnetism. Static Electricity. Current Electricity. Electromagnetism.

Appendix C. SI Units.

SI Base Units. SI Prefixes. Derived SI Units. Units to Be Discouraged or Abandoned. Data Tables.

Appendix D. Data Tables.

Ground-State Electron Configurations. Thermodynamic Properties of Substances at 298.15 K. Equilibrium Constants. Standard Electrode (Reduction) Potentials at 25 DegreesC.

Appendix E. Glossary.

Appendix F. Answers to Practice Examples and Selected Exercises.

Photo Credits.

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About Ralph H. Petrucci

Ralph H. Petrucci received his B.S. in Chemistry from Union College and his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Following several years of teaching, research, consulting, and directing the NSF Institutes for Secondary School Science Teachers at Case Western Reserve University, Dr. Petrucci joined the planning staff of the new California State University campus at San Bernardino in 1964. There, in addition to his faculty appointment, he served as Chairman of the Natural Sciences Division and Dean of Academic Planning. Professor Petrucci, now retired from teaching, is the author of several books, including General Chemistry with John W. Hill.

William S. Harwood received his B.Sc. from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst and his Ph.D. in Inorganic Chemistry from Purdue University in 1986. He is currently a Professor of Science Education at Indiana University, Bloomington. Previously, Dr. Harwood was at the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at the University of Maryland, College Park. In his current role, Dr. Harwood continues to teach chemistry and conduct research in chemical education. He has received several awards for teaching excellence. Dr. Harwood is also active in the American Chemical Society and the Division of Chemical Education and was a consultant to AAAS project 2061. He is involved in the science reform efforts at both the pre-college and college levels. His research focuses on how best to use technology to improve learning in chemistry.

F. Geoffrey Herring received his B.Sc. and his Ph.D. in Physical Chemistry, both from the University of London. He is currently a Professor in the Department of Chemistry of the University of British Columbia, Vancouver. Dr. Herring has research interests in the area of biophysical chemistry and has published over 100 papers in the area of physical chemistry and chemical physics. Recently, Dr. Herring has undertaken studies in the use of information technology and interactive engagement methods in teaching general chemistry with a view to improving student comprehension and learning. Dr. Herring has taught chemistry from undergraduate to graduate levels for 30 years and has been the recipient of the Killam Prize for Excellence in Teaching.
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