General Chemistry : An Integrated Approach
This text retains the relaxed, easy-to-read style of the previous edition to provide integrated coverage of organic and biochemistry, applications, and tools that foster problem-solving skills. More than any other, this text offers balance-- in the topics presented, and in its presentation of the subject of chemistry. Using a wide variety of exercises, examples, and learning aids, this book provides a number of problem-solving techniques and explains how and when they should be used. For anyone who wants a relaxed, easy-to-read book that emphasizes major topics in chemistry as well as problem-solving techniques.
- Hardback | 1199 pages
- 206.8 x 259.1 x 42.9mm | 2,299.74g
- 01 Jan 2002
- Pearson Education (US)
- Upper Saddle River, United States
- 3rd edition
Table of contents
Chapters end with a Summary, Key Terms, Review Questions, Problems and Additional Problems. 1. Chemistry: Matter and Measurement. Chemistry: Principles and Applications. Getting Started: Some Key Terms. Scientific Measurements. Precision and Accuracy in Measurements. A Problem-Solving Method. Essay Fat: Floats: Body Density and Fitness. Further Remarks on Problem Solving. 2. Atoms, Molecules, and Ions. Laws of Chemical Combination. John Dalton and the Atomic Theory of Matter. The Divisible Atom. Atomic Masses. The Periodic Table: Elements Organized. Molecules and Molecular Compounds. Ions and Ionic Compounds. Essay: What Is a LowSodium Diet? Acids, Bases, and Salts. Alkanes: Saturated Hydrocarbons. Types of Organic Compounds. 3. Stoichiometry: Chemical Calculations. Molecular Masses and Formula Masses. The Mole and Avogadro's Number. More on the Mole. Mass Percent Composition from Chemical Formulas. Essay: "5-10-5" Fertilizer: What Is It? Chemical Formulas from Mass Percent Composition. Elemental Analysis: Experimental Determination of Mass Percent Composition. Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations. Stoichiometric Equivalence and Reaction Stoichiometry. Essay Stoichiometry in Biochemistry. Limiting Reactants. Yields of Chemical Reactions. Essay fields in an Organic Reaction. Solutions and Solution Stoichiometry. Essay: Green Chemistry: Atom Economy. 4. Chemical Reactions in Aqueous Solutions. Some Electrical Properties of Aqueous Solutions. Reactions of Acids and Bases. Essay: Titrations: Variations on a Theme. Reactions that Form Precipitates. Oxidation-Reduction. Oxidizing and Reducing Agents. Some Practical Applications of Oxidation and Reduction. Essay: Oxidation-Reduction in Bleaching and in Stain Removal. 5. Gases. Gases: What Are They Like? An Introduction to the Kinetic-Molecular Theory. Gas Pressure. Boyle's Law: The Pressure-Volume Relationship. Essay: Boyle's Law and Breathing. Charles's Law: The Temperature-Volume Relationship. Essay Boyle's Law and Pressure-Sensitive Adhesives. Avogadro's Law: The Mole-Volume Relationship. The Combined Gas Law. The Ideal Gas Law. Gases in Reaction Stoichiometry. Essay: Connections: Balloons, The Gas Laws, and Chemistry. Mixtures of Gases: Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures. The Kinetic-Molecular Theory: Some Quantitative Aspects. Essay: Separation of Uranium Isotopes. Real Gases. 6. Thermochemistry. Energy. Thermochemistry: Some Basic Terms. Internal Energy (U,D>), State Functions, and the First Law of Thermodynamics. Heats of Reaction and Enthalpy Change. Calorimetry: Measuring Quantities of Heat. Hess's Law of Constant Heat Summation. Standard Enthalpies of Formation. Combustion and Respiration: Fuels and Foods. Essay: Alkanes: Our Principal Fuels. Essay: The Food Calorie. 7. Atomic Structure. The Electron: Experiments of Thomson and Millikan. Essay: Two Accidental Discoveries With Far-Reaching Consequences. Atomic Models: J. J. Thomson and Ernest Rutherford. Protons and Neutrons. Positive Ions and Mass Spectrometry. The Wave Nature of Light. Essay: Fireworks and Spectra. Photons: Energy by the Quantum. Bohr's Hydrogen Atom: A Planetary Model. Wave Mechanics: Matter as Waves. Essay Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Quantum Numbers and Atomic Orbitals. Essay: Electron Probabilities and a Close-Up Look at Atoms. Essay: The Stillness at 0 K: Temperature, Uncertainty, and Superconductivity. 8. Electron Configurations, Atomic Properties, and the Periodic Table. Multielectron Atoms. An Introduction to Electron Configurations. Rules for Electron Configurations. Electron Configurations: The Aufbau Principle. Electron Configurations: Periodic Relationships. Essay: Atomic Number: The Work of Henry G. J. Mosley. Essay: Disputed Issues Concerning the Periodic Table. Magnetic Properties: Paired and Unpaired Electrons. Periodic Atomic Properties of the Elements. Metals, Nonmetals, Metalloids, and Noble Gases. Using Atomic Properties To Explain the Behavior of the Elements and the Periodic Table. 9. Chemical Bonds. Chemical Bonds: A Preview. The Lewis Theory of Chemical Bonding: An Overview. Ionic Bonds and the Ionic Crystals. Using Lewis Symbols To Represent Ionic Bonding. Energy Changes in Ionic Compound Formation. Lewis Structures of Some Simple Molecules. Polar Covalent Bonds and Electronegativity. Strategies for Writing Lewis Structures. Molecules That Don't Follow the Octet Rule. Bond Lengths and Bond Energies. Alkenes and Alkynes. Essay: Fats and Oils: Hydrogenation. Polymers. Essay: Bonding in Biological Molecules. 10. Bonding Theory and Molecular Structure. The Valence-Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Method. Polar Molecules and Dipole Moments. Essay: Molecular Shape and Drug Action. Atomic Orbital Overlap. Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals. Hybrid Orbitals and Multiple Covalent Bonds. Essay: Geometric Isomerism and Vision. Characteristics of Molecular Orbitals. Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules of the Second-Period Elements. Bonding in Benzene. Aromatic Compounds. 11. States of Matter and Intermolecular Forces. Intermolecular Forces and the States of Matter: A Chapter Preview. Vaporization and Vapor Pressure. Essay: Green Chemistry: Supercritical Fluids in the Food-Processing Industry. Phase Changes Involving Solids. Phase Diagrams. Essay Liquid Crystals. Intermolecular Forces of the van der Waals Type. Essay: The Gecko's Toe. Hydrogen Bonds. Essay: Hydrogen Bonding in Proteins. Intermolecular Forces and Two Liquid Properties. Network Covalent Solids. Ionic Bonds as "Intermolecular" Forces. The Structure of Crystals. 12. Physical Properties of Solutions. Some Types of Solutions. Solution Concentration. Essay: Setting Environmental Standards. Energetics of Solution Formation. Equilibrium in Solution Formation. The Solubilities of Gases. Essay: Some Supersaturated Solutions in Nature. Vapor Pressures of Solutions. Essay: Deep-Sea Diving: An Application of Henry's Law. Freezing Point Depression and Boiling Point Elevation. Osmotic Pressure. Essay: Medical Applications of Osmosis. Solutions of Electrolytes. Essay: Activity and Concentration. Colloids. 13. Chemical Kinetics: Rates and Mechanisms of Chemical Reactions. Chemical Kinetics-A Preview. The Meaning of the Rate of a Reaction. Measuring Reaction Rates. The Rate Law of a Chemical Reaction. First-Order Reactions. Reactions of Other Orders. Theories of Chemical Kinetics. Effect of Temperature on the Rates of Reactions. Reaction Mechanisms. Catalysis. Enzyme Catalysis. Essay Fire and Fire Suppression. 14. Chemical Equilibrium. The Dynamic Nature of Equilibrium. The Equilibrium Constant Expression. Modifying Equilibrium Constant Expressions. Qualitative Treatment of Equilibrium: Le Chatelier's Principle. Essay: The Significance of Chemical Equilibrium, in the Words of Henri Le Chatelier. Essay: Chemical Equilibrium and the Synthesis of Ammonia. Some Illustrative Equilibrium Calculations. 15. Acids, Bases, and Acid-Base Equilibria. The Bronsted-Lowry Theory of Acids and Bases. Molecular Structure and Strengths of Acids and Bases. Self-Ionization of Water-The pH Scale. Equilibrium in Solutions of Weak Acids and Weak Bases. Essay Organic Bases. Polyprotic Acids. Ions as Acids and Bases. The Common Ion Effect. Buffer Solutions. Acid-Base Indicators. Essay: Buffers in Blood. Neutralization Reactions and Titration Curves. Lewis Acids and Bases. 16. More Equilibria in Aqueous Solutions: Slightly Soluble Salts and Complex Ions. The Solubility Product Constant, KSp. The Relationship Between KSp and Molar Solubility. The Common-Ion Effect in Solubility Equilibria. Essay: Less Soluble? No, More Soluble! Will Precipitation Occur? Is It Complete? Effect of pH on Solubility. Essay pH, Solubility, and Tooth Decay. Equilibria Involving Complex Ions. Qualitative Inorganic Analysis. 17. Thermodynamics: Spontaneity, Entropy, and Free Energy. Why Study Thermodynamics? Spontaneous Change. The Concept of Entropy. Essay The Origins of Thermodynamics. Essay Analogies to Entropy and Entropy Change. Free Energy and Free Energy Change. Essay Entropy and Probability. Standard Free Energy Change. Free Energy Change and Equilibrium. Essay: Thermodynamics and Living Organisms. 18. Electrochemistry. Half-Reactions. The Half-Reaction Method of Balancing Redox Equations. A Qualitative Description of Voltaic Cells. Standard Electrode Potentials. Electrode Potentials, Spontaneous Change, and Equilibrium. Effect of Concentrations on Cell Voltage. Essay The Electrochemistry of a Heartbeat. Batteries: Using Chemical Reactions To Make Electricity. Essay: Air Batteries. Corrosion: Metal Loss Through Voltaic Cells. Predicting Electrolysis Reactions. Quantitative Electrolysis. Applications of Electrolysis. 19. Nuclear Chemistry. Radioactivity and Nuclear Equations. Naturally Occurring Radioactivity. Radioactive Decay Rates. Synthetic Nuclides. Transuranium Elements. Nuclear Stability. Energetics of Nuclear Reactions. Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion. Essay Uranium for Peace and War. Effect of Radiation on Matter. Applications of Radioactive Nuclides. 20. The s-Block Elements. Occurrence and Preparation of Hydrogen. Binary Compounds of Hydrogen. Uses of Hydrogen. Essay: A Possible Future: The Hydrogen Economy. Properties and Trends in Group IA. Occurrence, Preparation, Uses, and Reactions of Group IA Metals. Important Compounds of Li, Na, and K. The Alkali Metals and Living Matter. Properties and Trends in Group 2A. Occurrence, Preparations, Uses, and Reactions of Group 2A Metals. Important Compounds of Magnesium and Calcium. The Group 2A Metals and Living Matter. Hard Water and Water Softening. Soaps and Detergents. 21. The p-Block Elements. Properties and Trends in Group. Boron. Aluminum. Carbon. Essay Gemstones: Natural and Artificial. Silicon. Tin and Lead. Essay: Lead Poisoning. Nitrogen. Essay: NO-A Messenger Molecule. Phosphorus. Oxygen. Sulfur. Selenium, Tellurium, and Polonium. Sources and Uses of the Halogens. Hydrogen Halides. Oxoacids and Oxoanions of the Halogens. Occurrence of the Noble Gases. Properties and Uses. 22. The d-Block Elements and Coordination Chemistry. General Properties and Their Trends. The Elements Scandium Through Manganese. The Iron Triad: Fe, Co, and Ni. Group 1B: Cu, Ag, and Au. Essay: d-Block Elements in Living Matter. Group 2B: Zn, Cd, and Hg. The Lanthanide Elements (Rare Earths). Werner's Theory of Coordination Chemistry. Naming Complex Ions and Coordination Compounds. Isomerism in Complex Ions and Coordination Compounds. Bonding in Complexes: Crystal Field Theory. Color in Complex Ions and Coordination Compounds. Chelates: Complexes of Special Interest. 23. Chemistry and Life: More on Organic, Biological, and Medicinal Chemistry. Alkanes. Alkenes and Alkynes. Conjugated and Aromatic Compounds. Alcohols and Ethers. Essay: SN2 Displacement Reactions in Organic and Biochemistry. Aldehydes and Ketones. Carboxylic Acids, Esters, and Amides. Lipids. Carbohydrates. Proteins. Nucleic Acids: Molecules of Heredity. The Interaction of Matter With Electromagnetic Radiation. Infrared Spectroscopy. Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Essay The Chemist's Toolbox. Molecular Shapes and Drug Action. Essay: Love: A Chemical Connection. Acid-Base Chemistry and Drug Action. 24. Chemistry of Materials: Bronze Age to Space Age. Some General Considerations. Iron and Steel. Tin and Lead. Copper and Zinc. Hydrometallurgy. The Free-Electron Model of Metallic Bonding. Band Theory. Semiconductors. Essay: Superconductors. Essay: Zone Refining: Obtaining Pure Semiconductor Materials. Natural Polymers. Polymerization Processes. Physical Properties of Polymers. Elastomers. Essay Conducting Polymers. Fibers and Fabrics. Essay Epoxies. Biomedical Polymers. 25. Environmental Chemistry. Composition, Structure, and Natural Cycles. Air Pollution. The Ozone Layer. Global Warming: Carbon Dioxide and the Greenhouse Effect. Essay Natural Pollutants. Earth's Natural Waters. Water Pollution. Essay Ironing Out Pollutants. Acid Rain and Acid Waters. Poisons. Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens. Hazardous Materials. Essay: How Cigarette Smoking Causes Cancer. Essay: Phytoremediation. Appendices. Some Mathematical Operations. Some Basic Physical Concepts. Data Tables. Organic Nomenclature. Glossary. Answers to Selected Problems. Index.
About Ralph H. Petrucci
John W. Hill received his B.S. in Chemistry and Mathematics from Middle Tennessee State University in 1957 and a Ph.D. in Organic Chemistry from the University of Arkansas in 1961. Following three years at Northeast Louisiana State College, he joined the faculty of the University of Wisconsin-River Falls in 1963. He served 13 years as Chair of the Department of Chemistry. In 1985 Pe was chosen Outstanding Faculty Member, Sciences and Mathematics. In 1989 he received the Robert C. Brasted Award for Outstanding College Teaching. A long-time member of the College Chemistry Consultants Service, he has served as a consultant at more than 40 colleges and universities. He is the author of several books, including Chemistry for Changing Times (with Doris K. Kolb) and Chemistry and Life: An Introduction to General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry (with Stuart Baum and Rhonda Scott-Ennis). He has also written a children's mystery book, The Crimecracker Kids and the Bake Shop Break-in (with Marilyn D. Duerst). Ralph Petrucci received his B.S. in Chemistry from Union College and his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Following several years of teaching, research, consulting, and directing NSF Institutes for Secondary School Science Teachers at Case Western Reserve University, Professor Petrucci joined the planning staff of the new California State University campus at San Bernardino in 1964. There, in addition to his faculty appointment, he has served as Chairman of the Natural Sciences Division and Dean of Academic Planning. Professor Petrucci, now retired from teaching, is the author of several books, including General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, 8th edition, with William S. Harwood and F. Geoffrey Herring.