The Gamification of Learning and Instruction : Game-based Methods and Strategies for Training and Education
Learning professionals are finding success applying game-based sensibilities to the development of instruction. This is the first book to show how to design online instruction that leverages the best elements of online games to increase learning, retention, and application. It explains how to match different game strategies to types of learning content for the right learning outcome and discusses how gamification techniques can be used in a variety of settings to improve learning, retention and application of knowledge. Supported by peer-reviewed studies and examples from corporations who have adopted game-based learning successfully, the book illustrates how combining instructional design thinking with game concepts can create engaged and interactive learning experiences across a variety of media, from online to face-to-face.
- Hardback | 336 pages
- 185.42 x 236.22 x 20.32mm | 703.06g
- 01 May 2012
- John Wiley & Sons Inc
- New York, United States
- 1. Auflage
Back cover copy
Praise for The Gamification of Learning and Instruction"Kapp argues convincingly that gamification is not just about adding points, levels and badges to an eLearning program, but about fundamentally rethinking learning design. He has put together a brilliant primer for learning professionals on how to gamify learning, packed with useful advice and examples." --Anders Gronstedt, president, Gronstedt Group"After reading this book, you'll never be able to design boring learning again." --Connie Malamed, author, Visual Language For Designers; author/creator of The eLearning Coach Blog "Engaging, informative and complete; if you need to understand anything about instructional game design, this is the book you need. It provides the right amount of academic evidence, practical advice and insightful design tips to have you creating impactful learning in no time." --Sherry Engel, associate director learning technology, Penn Medicine Center for Innovation and Learning"What Karl Kapp has done with this book is looked at games and learning from every possible angle....he provocatively asks questions that the learning community needs to answer, like 'Do our design processes still work?' and 'Are we really meeting the needs of today's learners?' This book may make you anxious, make you laugh, or make you angry. But one thing it will definitely do is make you think." --Rich Mesch, experiential learning guru, Performance Development Group
About Karl M. Kapp
Karl M. Kapp is a professor of Instructional Technology in Bloomsburg University's Department of Instructional Technology in Bloomsburg, Pennsylvania and the assistant director of Bloomsburg University's acclaimed Institute for Interactive Technologies. He has authored or co-authored four books on the convergence of learning and technology, Integrated Learning for ERP Success, Winning e-Learning Proposals, Gadgets, Games and Gizmos for Learning and Learning in 3D.
"Karl has written the definitive guide to gamification, which itself is accessible and engaging. He brings trends to life and illustrates the principles of gamification through numerous examples from real-world games. . . . There is no doubt that "gamification" is an important and powerful weapon in the arsenal for learning, marketing, and behavior change of any kind. This book is a valuable guide for all who are trying to understand or adopt these important design principles." --FROM THE FOREWORD BY KEVIN KRUSE Games create engagement--the cornerstone of any positive learning experience. With the growing popularity of digital games and game-based interfaces, it is essential that gamification be part of every learning professional's tool box. In this comprehensive resource, international learning expert Karl M. Kapp reveals the value of game-based mechanics to create meaningful learning experiences. Drawing together the most current information and relevant research in one resource, The Gamification of Learning and Instruction shows how to create and design games that are effective and meaningful for learners. Kapp introduces, defines, and describes the concept of gamification and then dissects several examples of games to determine the elements that provide the most positive results for the players. He explains why these elements are critical to the success of learning. The Gamification of Learning and Instruction is based on solid research and the author includes peer-reviewed results from dozens of studies that offer insights into why game-based thinking and mechanics makes for vigorous learning tools. Not all games or gamification efforts are the same, the gamification of learning and instruction requires matching instructional content with the right game mechanics and game thinking. Moving beyond the theoretical considerations, the author explores how to design and develop gamification efforts. Kapp discusses how to create a successful game design document and includes a model for managing the entire game and gamification design process. The Gamification of Learning and Instruction provides learning professional with the help they need to put the power of game design to work.
Table of contents
List of Figures and Tables xii Contents on the Web xv Foreword by Kevin Kruse xvii Preface xxi Acknowledgments xxvii About the Author xxix Contributors xxxi Chapter 1 What Is Gamification? 1 Chapter Questions 1 Introduction 2 Gamification in Action 2 What Is a Game? 6 What Is Gamification? 9 What Gamification Is Not 12 Gamification Versus Serious Games 15 Growth of Gamification 18 Who Is Using Gamification 19 Implications and Importance to the Future of Learning 22 Key Takeaways 23 Chapter 2 It s in the Game: Understanding Game Elements 25 Chapter Questions 25 Introduction 26 Abstractions of Concepts and Reality 26 Goals 28 Rules 29 Conflict, Competition, or Cooperation 31 Time 32 Reward Structures 33 Feedback 35 Levels 37 Storytelling 41 Curve of Interest 45 Aesthetics 46 Replay or Do Over 48 Implications and Importance to the Future of Learning 49 Key Takeaways 50 Chapter 3 Theories Behind Gamification of Learning and Instruction 51 Chapter Questions 51 Introduction 51 Motivation 52 The Taxonomy of Intrinsic Motivation 58 Self-Determination Theory 63 Distributed Practice 65 Scaffolding 66 Episodic Memory 67 Cognitive Apprenticeship 69 Social Learning Theory 70 Flow 71 Key Takeaways 74 Chapter 4 Research Says ... Games Are Effective for Learning 75 Chapter Questions 75 Introduction 76 Game Research 76 Randel s Meta-Analysis 77 Wolfe s Meta-Analysis 80 Hays Meta-Analysis 80 Vogel s Meta-Analysis 82 Ke s Qualitative Meta-Analysis 83 Sitzmann s Meta-Analysis 85 Elements of Games 88 Key Takeaways 101 Chapter 5 Leveling Up: What Gamification Can Do 105 Chapter Questions 105 Introduction 106 Improving Surgeon Hand-Eye Coordination 106 Solving Problems 108 Teaching Higher Order Skills 110 Thinking the Unthinkable 112 Thinking Like Your Opponent 113 Engaging Learners in a Live Classroom 115 Helping People Lose Weight 116 Making Physical Therapy More Enjoyable 119 Influencing Pro-Social Behavior 119 Testing Knowledge and Performance 123 Good for Young and Old 125 Key Takeaways 126 Chapter 6 Achiever or Killer? Player Types and Game Patterns 127 Chapter Questions 127 Introduction 128 Types of Play 128 Player Skill Levels 131 Bartle s Player Types 132 Caillois Patterns of Play 137 Game Interactions 141 Key Takeaways 142 Chapter 7 Applying Gamification to Problem Solving 143 Chapter Questions 143 Introduction 144 Differences Between Novices and Experts 145 Turning Novices into Experts 147 Preparing Firefighters 158 Gamification of Problem Solving 161 Key Takeaways 164 Chapter 8 Applying Gamification to Learning Domains 165 Chapter Questions 165 Introduction 166 Declarative Knowledge 167 Conceptual Knowledge 171 Rules-Based Knowledge 177 Procedural Knowledge 181 Soft Skills 185 Affective Domain 185 Psychomotor Domain 187 Key Takeaways 190 Chapter 9 Managing the Gamification Design Process 193 Chapter Questions 193 Introduction 194 Development Process: ADDIE vs. Scrum 195 Team 202 Design Document 205 Paper Prototyping 216 Key Takeaways 217 Chapter 10 Congratulations! Selecting the Right In-Game Achievements, by Lucas Blair 219 Chapter Questions 219 Introduction 220 Measurement vs. Completion Achievements 220 Boring vs. Interesting Tasks 222 Achievement Difficulty 223 Goal Orientation 224 Expected vs. Unexpected Achievements 225 When Achievement Notification Occurs 227 Achievement Permanence 228 Who Can See Earned Achievements? 229 Negative Achievements 230 Achievements as Currency 231 Incremental and Meta Achievements 232 Competitive Achievements 233 Non-Competitive Cooperative Achievements 235 Key Takeaways 236 Chapter 11 Perspective of a Gamer, by Nathan Kapp 239 Chapter Questions 239 Introduction 240 Gamer Generation 240 Mario Kart: Thinking Outside the Box 240 Madden Football: Analyzing Problems 241 RuneScape: The Art of the Deal 243 Civilization Revolution: Balancing Resources 244 Games vs. School 245 Key Takeaways 246 Chapter 12 Casual Game Site: DAU Case Study, by Alicia Sanchez 247 Chapter Questions 247 Introduction 248 Games and Simulations in the Curriculum 248 DAU Casual Games Initiative 249 Games Portal 254 Key Takeaways 255 Chapter 13 Alternate Reality Games for Corporate Learning, by Koreen Olbrish 257 Chapter Questions 257 Introduction 258 Zombie Apocalypse 258 What Is an ARG? 259 ARG Terminology 260 Design Principles for ARGs 261 Potential of ARGs 263 Key Takeaways 264 Chapter 14 If You Want to Learn More, Play Games 265 Chapter Questions 265 Introduction 266 Pick a Card, Any Card A Game of Phones 266 Survival Master 271 The Virtue of Gamification 274 Next Steps 275 Key Takeaways 276 Glossary 277 Notes 285 Index 297