Fundamentals of Semiconductor Processing Technology
The drive toward new semiconductor technologies is intricately related to market demands for cheaper, smaller, faster, and more reliable circuits with lower power consumption. The development of new processing tools and technologies is aimed at optimizing one or more of these requirements. This goal can, however, only be achieved by a concerted effort between scientists, engineers, technicians, and operators in research, development, and manufac- turing. It is therefore important that experts in specific disciplines, such as device and circuit design, understand the principle, capabil- ities, and limitations of tools and processing technologies. It is also important that those working on specific unit processes, such as lithography or hot processes, be familiar with other unit processes used to manufacture the product. Several excellent books have been published on the subject of process technologies. These texts, however, cover subjects in too much detail, or do not cover topics important to modem tech- nologies. This book is written with the need for a "bridge" between different disciplines in mind. It is intended to present to engineers and scientists those parts of modem processing technologies that are of greatest importance to the design and manufacture of semi- conductor circuits. The material is presented with sufficient detail to understand and analyze interactions between processing and other semiconductor disciplines, such as design of devices and cir- cuits, their electrical parameters, reliability, and yield.
- Hardback | 602 pages
- 147.32 x 238.76 x 40.64mm | 975.22g
- 01 Jan 1995
- Dordrecht, Netherlands
- 1995 ed.
- XIII, 602 p.
Table of contents
1: Semiconductor Crystals. 1.1. Crystals and Crystallographic Orientations. 1.2. The Silicon Crystal. 1.3. Wafer Preparation. 1.4. Compound Semiconductors. 2: Thermal Oxidation and Nitridation. 2.1. SiO2 and SiO2-Si Interface. 2.2. Thermal Oxidation. 3: Thin Film Deposition. 3.1. Chemical Vapor Deposition. 3.2. Chemical-Physical Deposition Processes. 3.3. Physical-Vapor Deposition. 4: Lithography. 4.1. Optical Lithography. 4.2. Resolution Enhancement Techniques. 4.3. Electron-Beam Lithography. 4.4. X-Ray Lithography. 4.5. Ion-Beam Lithography. 5: Contamination Control and Etch. 5.1. Clean Processes. 5.2. Etching. 6: Ion Implantation. 6.1. Principle of Operation. 6.2. Energy Loss and Range Distribution. 6.3. Crystal Damage and Dopant Activity. 7: Diffusion. 7.1. Point Defects. 7.2. Fick's Laws. 7.3. Non-Constant Diffusivity. 7.4. Diffusion in Polysilicon. 7.5. Diffusion in Insulators. 7.6. Diffusion Sources. 7.7. Gettering in Silicon. 8: Contact and Interconnect Technology. 8.1. Contact Metallurgy. 8.2. Poly-Metal Dielectrics. 8.3. Metal Interconnects. 8.4. Inter-Level Dielectrics. 8.5. Multi-Level Metals. 8.6. Reliability Considerations. Subject Index.